Category: Science
Luis E. Ibáñez, Angel M. Uranga, "String Theory and Particle Physics: An Introduction to String Phenomenology"
2012 | ISBN-10: 0521517524 | 688 pages | PDF | 15,4 MB
String theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions. This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters. The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.
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Publisher: Cambridge University Press (March 19, 2012)
ISBN-10: 0521517524
ISBN-13: 978-0521517522
Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, this book is a systematic introduction to string phenomenology. Focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model.
invaluable as a textbook for curious students, and a reference volume of lasting value for experts working in the field. If, as many of us hope, the LHC era reveals new clues linking particle physics to string-scale physics, acquaintance with the material in this volume may well provide crucial tools for exploring and exploiting those links.
Shamit Kachru, Stanford University and SLAC
A clear exposition of the main ideas and ingredients necessary to connect string theory to the real world. An essential toolkit for the string theory model builder
Juan Maldacena, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton
The scope of this book is impressive, covering all the major developments in the construction of compactified string theories. As an introduction to string theory it is excellent and, as a tool for constructing realistic models, unmatched. Essential reading for all those wishing to study string theory in depth and an invaluable reference for those already expert in the field.
Graham Ross, University of Oxford
Nuclear and Particle Physics 2nd Ed An Introduction (Malestrom)
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Nuclear And Particle Physics An Introduction
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Luis E. Ibáñez, Angel M. Uranga, "String Theory and Particle Physics: An Introduction to String Phenomenology"
2012 | ISBN-10: 0521517524 | 688 pages | PDF | 15,4 MB
String theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions. This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters. The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.
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By Luis E. Ib��ez and Angel M. Uranga
Cambridge University Press; February 2012
String theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions.
This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics.
Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters.
The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.
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String theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions. This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters. The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.
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Author by : Luis E. Ibáñez
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2012-02-09
Publisher by : Cambridge University Press
Description. A systematic introduction to string phenomenology, outlining how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics.
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Author by : Bobby Acharya
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2014-12-23
Publisher by : World Scientific
Description. The remarkable recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the CERN Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model of particle physics and has paved the way for understanding the physics which may lie.
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Author by : Bret James Underwood
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2008
Publisher by : ProQuest
Description. Warped backgrounds in string theory are useful tools for building phenomenological models of early universe cosmology and particle physics. In particular, warped backgrounds play an important role in.
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Author by : Veronica Sanz
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2004-08-30
Publisher by : World Scientific
Description. This book contains a remarkable overview of the current trends in string phenomenology, through the contributions of an international team of researchers who present their latest results. Dedicated to.
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ISBN10: 0521517524 ISBN13: 9780521517522 DDC: 539.7258 Edition: Hardcover; 2012-03-31
SummaryString theory is one of the most active branches of theoretical physics and has the potential to provide a unified description of all known particles and interactions. This book is a systematic introduction to the subject, focused on the detailed description of how string theory is connected to the real world of particle physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers working in high energy physics, it provides explicit models of physics beyond the Standard Model. No prior knowledge of string theory is required as all necessary material is provided in the introductory chapters. The book provides particle phenomenologists with the information needed to understand string theory model building and describes in detail several alternative approaches to model building, such as heterotic string compactifications, intersecting D-brane models, D-branes at singularities and F-theory.
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Broadly speaking, string phenomenology refers to investigations of the connection of string theory to experimentally observed physics. More restrictively it refers to constructions of string theory vacua whose effective field theory reproduces the standard model of particle physics and/or the standard model of cosmology .
String theory models naturally match the general conceptual structure of the standard model of particle physics plus gravity (which is what drives the interest in string theory in the first place): for instance the standard model is a four dimensional QFT with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry. several families of chiral fermions and hierarchical Yukawa couplings – and the same is true for the generic compactification of the effective QFT that describes heterotic string theory on a 6-dimensional compact space (CHSW85 ) as well as for 11-dimensional supergravity /M-theory compactified on a G2-manifold (AW01 ).
This structure alone already implies a variety of 3-body decays of the heavier fermions into the lighter ones and the existence of massive vector bosons coupling to charged currents. which in the observed standard model of particle physics are the W-boson. etc. (See section III of AKK12 for an exposition.)
Therefore it is not hard to find string theory compactifications that resemble the observed particle physics in broad strokes. Under some simplifying assumptions many string models have been built that very closely resemble also the fine-structure of the standard model.
A central technical issue with string model building is that of the Kaluza-Klein mechanism involved: the moduli stabilization. Historically there had been the hope that the consistency condition of moduli stabilization on string models is so strong that it strongly reduces the number of models that look like the standard model. Arguments that the number is still “not small” even with various extra assumptions lead to the term of a landscape (moduli space ) of string theory models, which remains, however, poorly understood. Arguments for properties of low-energy effective QFTs that rule out a possible string-theoretic model have been brought forward for instance in (Vafa05 ). A review of what is known about the space of possibilities is in (Taylor11 ).
While all this remains poorly understood, a noteworthy difference of string phenomenology to model building in bare QFT is that a) there is a larger framework at all in which to search for models and b) with every model automatically comes a UV-completion. which is the basic motivation for embedding the standard model of particle physics in a broader theory of quantum gravity in the first place.
A good account of what it means to have a realistic string theory model and what the subtleties are, and in which sense they have already been found abundantly or not at all, is in the introduction of (Dolan-Krippendorf-Quevedo ).
Top-down models and bottom-up modelsSince a realistic string theoretic model is, by design, a unification of the standard model of particle physics with quantum gravity aspects and hence at least with aspects of the standard model of cosmology. there are more constraints on such a model than are usually imposed on model building in particle physics alone: the model is not only supposed to reproduce the fundamental particle content but also address moduli stabilization. the cosmological constant and dark matter (see e.g. Dolan-Krippendorf-Quevedo 11, p. 3 ).
Accordingly one strategy to build models is to first aim for the correct fundamental particle content, and then incrementally adjust to account for the global gravitational constraints. For instance in type II intersecting brane models people often consider just an open neighbourhood of a singular point in a KK-compactification space. adjust the model there, and then later ask about embedding this local construction into an actually globally defined compactification space (typically a Calabi-Yau manifold for compactifications aiming for N = 1 N=1 low energy supersymmetry in the effective 4d model).
This approach is known as the bottom-up approach to string model building (AIQU 00 ).
Contrary to this is the historically older top-down approach (usually attributed to (Candelas-Horowitz-Strominger-Witten 85 )) in the heterotic string theory compactification models (see below ).
Semi-realistic models in string theoryExamples of models in string phenomenology include
Models in heterotic string theoryThe models in heterotic string theory follow the historically original and hence oldest strategy of finding semi-realistic GUT models in string theory (see (Witten 02 ) for a brief list of motivations for these models): one considers a Kaluza-Klein compactification of heterotic string theory /heterotic supergravity on a closed manifold of dimension 6 with a non-trivial gauge field configuration on it. By choosing different values of the holonomy of this gauge field around non-trivial singular 1-cycles in the compact space (usually referred to as “Wilson lines ” in this context) one obtains different effective physics in the remaining 4-dimensional space.
Since most of string model building was aimed for reproducing the minimally supersymmetric extension of the standard model of particle physics. these approaches usually take that compact 6-manifold to be a complex 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau manifold .
In more detail, the paradigm of this approach is compactification of the E8 × \times E8 heterotic string theory on a Calabi-Yau manifold of Euler characteristic χ = ± 6 \chi = \pm 6. leading to a three-generation E6 -model. Further gauge spontaneous symmetry breaking may be achieved e.g. by the addition of Wilson lines and a final breakdown of D = 4 D = 4. N = 1 N = 1 supersymmetry is assumed to take place due to some field-theoretical non-perturbative effects .
Models in type II string theory / F-theoryIn contrast to the construction of “heterotic standard models” above. which are basically plain variants of the old Kaluza-Klein compactification mechanism where the effective gauge fields in 4-dimensional spacetime arise as components of the field of gravity in higher dimensions, in type II string theory with D-branes there are open strings whose massless excitations yield gauge fields “directly”. The precise nature of these gauge fields and their couplings depends on the precise boundary conditions of these open strings, hence on the choice of D-branes that they end on.
Therefore in what are called “intersecting D-brane models” one considers Kaluza-Klein compactifications of type II string theory with D-branes that intersect in an intricate pattern in the compactification space. By choosing this intersection geometry suitably, one obtains various different realizations of gauge theory in the effective 4-dimensional physics.
One way to neatly reorganize the required data for such type II compactifications is to formulate them in terms of “F-theory ”, which is why some of this type II model building now goes by names like “F-theory phenomenology” or similar.
The moduli stabilization in these type of models can be achieved by choosing the various RR-field and B-field field strength (the “fluxes”) on the compactification space such that its curvature forms have certain specified periods on non-trivial singular cycles of the compactification space. See (Denef 08 ) for introduction and review of such type IIB flux compactification .
Since there are only finitely many – but many – such choices, it is in this context that people first tried to count the number of possibilities of building models (under all these assumptions, though) and found these large finite numbers such as the meanwhile proverbial number 10 500 10^<500> (coming from an estimate of the number of non-trivial cycles in a generic Calabi-Yau and the number of choices of periods of the “flux” fields) which then led them to speak of the “landscape of string theory vacua ”. (Which of course without making a bunch of assumptions is vastly bigger, even.)
Models in M-theoryAccordingly, models in this context go by the name G2-MSSM .
Non-supersymmetric modelsAll of the above models aim for N = 1 N = 1 supersymmetry in the low-energy effective field theory. because it was a wide-spread thought that this is what describes the observable world at electroweak symmetry breaking -scale. However, new experimental results at the LHC make this low energy supersymmetry scenario increasingly unlikely (even if not fully ruled out yet). Accordingly people start to look for string models now that do not display low energy supersymmetry (of course all of them have high energy local supersymmetry, in that they are theories of supergravity ).
See for instance (MRS 09 ) and citations given there.
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