Ebooks for you

The Developing Child - Isbn:9780205685936

Category: Psychology

  • Book Title: The Developing Child
  • ISBN 13: 9780205685936
  • ISBN 10: 0205685935
  • Author: Helen L. Bee, Denise Boyd
  • Category: Psychology
  • Category (general): Psychology
  • Publisher:
  • Format & Number of pages: 544 pages, book
  • Synopsis: The Developing Child gives students the tools they require to organize, retain and apply information from the broad field of child psychology, while offering balanced coverage of theory and application, with a strong emphasis on culture.

Another description

The developing child (Book, 2010)

The developing child

xxviii, 544 pages. illustrations (chiefly color) ; 29 cm

Features --
To the student --
To the instructor --
Acknowledgments --
Part 1: Introduction --
1: Basic issues in the study of development --
Issues in the study of development --
Two key questions --
Influences on development --
Ecological perspective --
Vulnerability and resilience --
Three kinds of change --
Theories of development --
Psychoanalytic theories --
Cognitive theories --
Learning theories --
Developmental science in the real world: Helping children who are afraid to go to school --
Comparing theories --
Finding the answers: research designs and methods --
Goals of developmental science --
Studying age-related changes --
Descriptive methods --
Experimental methods --
Thinking about research: Responding to media reports of research --
Cross-cultural research --
Research ethics --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
Part 2: Beginnings Of Life --
2: Prenatal development --
Conception and genetics --
Process of conception --
Thinking about research: Assisted reproductive technology --
Genotypes, phenotypes, and patterns of genetic inheritance --
Development from conception to birth --
Stages of prenatal development --
Sex differences in prenatal development --
Prenatal behavior --
Problems in prenatal development --
Genetic disorders --
Developmental science in the real world: Fetal assessment and treatment --
Chromosomal errors --
Teratogens: maternal diseases --
Teratogens: drugs --
Other teratogens and maternal factors --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
3: Birth and early infancy --
Birth --
Birth choices --
Process of birth --
Low birth weight --
Behavior in early infancy --
Thinking about research: Variations in infants' cries --
Motor, sensory, and perpetual abilities --
Learning --
Temperament and social skills --
Health and wellness in early infancy --
Nutrition, health care, and immunizations --
Development science in the real world: Breast or bottle? --
Illnesses --
Infant mortality --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
Part 3: Physical Child --
4: Physical development --
Brain and nervous system --
Growth spurts --
Synaptic development --
Myelination --
Lateralization --
Size, shape, and skills --
Growth --
Bones, muscles, and fat --
Using the body --
Endocrine and reproductive systems --
Hormones --
Sequence of changes in girls and boys --
Timing of puberty --
Sexual behavior in adolescence --
Prevalence and predictors of sexual behavior --
Sexually transmitted diseases --
Teenage pregnancy --
Sexual minority youth --
Health and wellness --
Health in childhood --
Developmental science in the real world: Good night's sleep for kids (and parents, too!) --
Thinking about research: Causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect --
Excessive weight gain --
Poverty and children's health --
Risky behavior in adolescence --
Mortality --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms. 5: Perceptual development --
Thinking about perceptual development --
Ways of studying perceptual skills --
Explanations of perceptual development --
Sensory skills --
Seeing --
Hearing and other senses --
Perceptual skills --
Looking --
Thinking about research: Langlois's studies of babies' preferences for attractive faces --
Listening --
Combining information from several senses --
Ignoring perceptual information --
Object concept --
Object perception --
Object permanence --
Perception of social signals --
Early discrimination of emotional expressions --
Developmental science in the real world: Infant responses to maternal depression --
Cross-cultural commonalities and variations --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
Part 4: Thinking Child --
6: Cognitive development I: structure and process --
Piaget's basic ideas --
Schemes --
Adaptation --
Causes of cognitive development --
Infancy --
Piaget's view of the sensorimotor period --
Challenges to Piaget's view of infancy --
Preschool years --
Piaget's view of the preoperational stage --
Challenges to Piaget's view of early childhood --
Theories of mind --
False belief and theory of mind across cultures --
Alternative theories of early childhood thinking --
School-aged child --
Piaget's view of concrete operations --
Different approaches to concrete operational thought --
Adolescence --
Piaget's view of formal operations --
Post-Piagetian work on adolescent thought --
Thinking about research: Elkind's adolescent egocentrism --
Development of information-processing skills --
Development science in the real world: Leading questions and children's memory --
Changes in processing capacity and efficiency --
Memory strategies --
Metamemory and metacognition --
Expertise --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
7: Cognitive development II: individual differences in cognitive abilities --
Measuring intellectual power --
First IQ tests --
Modern IQ tests --
Thinking about research: Flynn effect --
Stability of test scores --
What IQ scores predict --
Explaining individual differences in IQ scores --
Twin and adoption studies --
Family characteristics and IQ scores --
Early interventions and IQ scores --
Interactions of heredity and environment --
Explaining group differences in IQ or achievement test scores --
Ethnic differences --
Development science in the real world: Stereotype threat --
Cross-cultural differences --
Sex differences --
Alternative views of intelligence --
Information-processing theory --
Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence --
Gardner's multiple intelligences --
Creativity --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
8: Development of language --
Before the first word: the prelinguistic phase --
Early sounds and gestures --
Thinking about research: Sign language and gestures in children who are deaf --
Receptive language --
Learning words and word meanings --
First words --
Later word learning --
Constraints on word learning --
Learning the rules: development of grammar and pragmatics --
Holophrases and first sentences --
Grammar explosion --
Later grammar learning --
Pragmatics --
Explaining language development --
Environmental theories --
Nativist theories --
Constructivist theories --
Individual and group differences in language development --
Differences in rate --
Cross-cultural differences in language development --
Learning to read and write --
Early foundation: phonological awareness --
Becoming literate in school --
Learning a second language --
Development science in the real world: One language or two? --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms. Part 5: Social Child --
9: Personality development: alternative views --
Defining personality --
Temperament --
Developmental science in the real world: Temperamental surgency in the toddler classroom --
Big five --
Genetic and biological explanations of personality --
Biological argument --
Critique of biological theories --
Learning explanations of personality --
Learning argument --
Critique of learning models --
Thinking about research: Locus of control and adolescent health --
Psychoanalytic explanations of personality --
Psychoanalytic argument --
Freud's psychosexual stages --
Erikson's psychosocial stages --
Evidence and applications --
Critique of psychoanalytic theories --
Possible synthesis --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
10: Concepts of self, gender, and sex roles --
Concept of self --
Subjective self --
Objective self --
Emotional self --
Self-concept at school age --
Self-concept and identity in adolescence --
Ethnic identity in adolescence --
Developmental science in the real world: Adolescent rites of passage --
Self-esteem --
Development of self-esteem --
Consistency of self-esteem over time --
Development of the concepts of gender and sex roles --
Developmental patterns --
Thinking about research: Gender differences in temperament: real or imagined? --
Sex-role concepts and stereotypes --
Explaining sex-role development --
Biological approaches --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
11: Development of social relationships --
Relationships with parents --
Attachment theory --
Parent's bond to the child --
Child's attachment to the parent --
Parent-child relationships in adolescence --
Variations in the quality of attachments --
Secure and insecure attachments --
Temperament and attachment --
Stability and long-term consequences of attachment quality --
Relationships with peers --
Peer relationships in infancy and the preschool years --
Peer relationships at school age --
Social status --
Peer relationships in adolescence --
Sibling relationships --
Behavior with peers --
Prosocial behavior --
Aggression --
Developmental science in the real world: Rearing helpful and altruistic children --
Thinking about research: Bullies and victims --
Trait aggression --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
12: Thinking about relationships: social-cognitive and moral development --
Development of social cognition --
Some general principles and issues --
Describing other people --
Developmental science in the real world: Learning and unlearning prejudice --
Reading others' feelings --
Thinking about research: Preventing violence by increasing children's emotional competence --
Describing friendships --
Understanding rules and intentions --
Moral development --
Dimensions of moral development --
Kohlberg's stages of moral development --
Causes and consequences of moral development --
Alternative views --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
Part 6: Whole Child --
13: Ecology of development: the child within the family system --
Understanding the family system --
Family systems theory --
Bronfenbrenner's bioecological approach --
Dimensions of family interaction --
Individuals in the family system --
Warmth and responsiveness --
Methods of control and communication patterns --
Thinking about research: To spank or not to spank? --
Parenting styles --
Types of parenting styles --
Parenting styles and development --
Ethnic and socioeconomic differences in parenting styles --
Family structure, divorce, and parental employment --
Family structure --
Divorce --
Developmental science in the real world: When divorce is unavoidable --
Parents' jobs --
Social support for parents --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms. 14: Beyond the family: the impact of the broader culture --
Nonparental care --
Difficulties in studying nonparental care --
Effects of early nonparental care on development --
Before-and after-school care --
Developmental science in the real world: Choosing a child-care center --
Impact of schools --
Early childhood education --
Elementary school --
Transition to secondary school --
Engagement in and disengagement from secondary school --
Thinking about research: Effects of teenaged employment --
Homeschooling --
Impact of entertainment media --
Television and video games --
Computers and electronic multitasking --
Macrosystem effects: impact of the larger culture --
Socioeconomic status and development --
Race and ethnicity --
Culture as a whole --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
15: Atypical development --
Understanding atypical development --
Types of problems --
Developmental science in the real world: Knowing when to seek professional help --
Theoretical perspectives on atypical development --
Development psychopathology --
Attention problems and externalizing problems --
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder --
Oppositional defiant disorder --
Conduct disorder --
Internalizing problems --
Eating disorders --
Depression --
Thinking about research: Pediatric bipolar disorder --
Adolescent suicide --
Atypical intellectual and social development --
Mental retardation --
Learning disabilities --
Giftedness --
Pervasive developmental disorders --
Schooling for atypical children --
Think critically --
Conduct your own research --
Summary --
Key terms --
Epilogue: Putting it all together: the developing child --
Transitions, consolidations, and systems --
From birth to 24 months --
Central processes --
Influences on the basic processes --
Preschool years --
Central processes --
Influences on the basic processes --
Elementary school years --
Transition between 5 and 7 --
Central processes --
Influences on the basic processes: role of culture --
Adolescence --
Early and late adolescence --
Central processes and their connections --
Influences on the basic processes --
Return to some basic questions --
What are the major influences on development? --
Does timing matter? --
What is the nature of developmental change? --
What is the significance of individual differences? --
Final point: joy of development --
Glossary --
References --
Photo credits --
Name index --
Subject index.

Helen Bee, Denise Boyd.


Product Description: The Developing Child gives students the tools they require to organize, retain and apply information from the broad field of child psychology, while offering balanced coverage of theory and application, with a strong emphasis on culture. Key Topics: Prenatal Development; Birth and Early Infancy; Physical Development; Perceptual Development; Cognitive Development; Development of Language; Personality Development; Development of Social Relationships; Family System; Atypical Development. For individuals seeking to understand to better understand children. Want to learn more about MyVirtualChild? Visit www.mydevelopmentlab.com and click on the 'watch this video' link to learn about MyVirtualChild. MyDevelpmentLab with MyVirtualChild is available at www.mydevelopmentlab.com.




E-Study Guide for: The Developing Child by Helen - 9781619066595

All books - compare every offer
e-Study Guide for: The Developing Child by Helen… - 9781619066595 -…

9781619066595 (? ) or 1619066599 in english, Cram101, Cram101, Cram101, New, ebook
  • , digital download

    Facts101 is your complete guide to The Developing Child. In this book, you will learn topics such as Birth and Early infancy, Physical Development, Perceptual Development, and Cognitive Development I: Structure and Process plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.

    Category: Reference & Language
    Keywords: The Developing Child Reviews Education & Teaching Reference & Language 9781619066595
    Data from 08/10/2016 07:12h
    ISBN (alternative notations): 1-61906-659-9, 978-1-61906-659-5



  • Testbank for Child Development 8th Edition by Berk ISBN 8120340620 9788120340626 - Test Bank Manual Online

    Testbank for Child Development 8th Edition by Berk ISBN 8120340620 9788120340626


    – The test bank is what most professors use as a template when making exams for their students, which means there’s a very high chance that you will see the exact questions in the tests!
    – The file is either in .doc. pdf, excel, or zipped in the package and can easily be read on PCs and Macs.
    – Delivery is INSTANT. You can download the files IMMEDIATELY once payment is done.

    If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us. Our response is the fastest. All questions will always be answered in 6 hours, most of the time within 30mins.

    We also faced similar difficulties when we were students, and we understand how you feel.
    But now, with the Official Test Bank, you will be able to

    * Anticipate the type of the questions that will appear in your exam.
    * Know the correct answers to those questions.
    * Reduce the hassle and stress of your student life.
    * Improve your studying and get a better grade!
    * Get prepared for examination questions.
    * Save you time and help you understand the material.

    This is the authentic testbank that is designed for your specific textbook.

    Post navigation



    Bee, Helen - Author Info

    Bee, Helen A developmental psychologist looks at educational policy: or, The hurrier I go the behinder I get Developing Child Developing Child, Books a la Carte Plus MyDevelopmentLab, The (11th Edition) Developing Child, The (12th Edition) (MyDevelopmentLab Series) Developing Child, The (13th Edition) Developing Child, The, Books a la Carte Plus MyDevelopmentLab (12th Edition) Developing Child, The, Books a la Carte Plus MyDevelopmentLab CourseCompass (11th Edition) Developing Child, The, Books a la Carte Plus MyDevelopmentLab Pegasus (12th Edition) Developing Child, The, Unbound (for Books a la Carte Plus) (12th Edition) Development Through the Lifespan Second Custom Edition for Montana State University Foundations of Physiological Psychology: WITH Lifespan Development AND Cognition AND Psychology AND Social Psychology Grade Aid Workbook for The Developing Child, 10th edition Grade Aid with Practice Tests for Lifespan Development Growing Child 2e Studywizard C Instructor's Manual to accompany The Developing Child (eighth edition) Instructor's manual to accompany the developing child Instructor's resource manual to accompany: the developing child Invitation to psychology Journey Of Adulthood- (Value Pack w/MySearchLab) Lifespan development



    Fetoscopy definition

    Fetoscopy Definition of the noun fetoscopy

    What does fetoscopy mean as a name of something?

    noun - plural: fetoscopies

    1. prenatal diagnosis that allows direct observation of a fetus in the uterus and the withdrawal of fetal blood
      • lexical domain. Acts - nouns denoting acts or actions
      • synonym of fetoscopy. foetoscopy
      • more generic term. prenatal diagnosis = any of the diagnostic procedures used to determine whether a fetus has a genetic abnormality
    Printed books with definitions for Fetoscopy

    Click on a title to look inside that book (if available):

    Biology of Women (2012)

    by Theresa Hornstein, Jeri Schwerin

    Fetoscopy is the technique of directly viewing the fetus within the uterus using fiber-optics. This allows visualization of anatomical.

    Fetoscopy is a higher risk procedure than other techniques used to assess the fetus. There is a chance of.

    Maternal-Neonatal Nursing Made Incredibly Easy! (2014)

    by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

    Fetoscopy is a procedure in which a fetoscope—a telescope-like instrument with lights and lenses—is inserted into the.

    Fetoscopy is a relatively risky procedure and, because other safer techniques are becoming available to detect the same.

    Getting Pregnant & Staying Pregnant (1998)

    Overcoming Infertility and Managing Your High-risk Pregnancy by Diana Raab, Anita Levine-Goldberg

    Fetoscopy is a relatively new procedure, available only in a select number of specialized obstetrical-care centers. The instrument used to perform the test, called a fetoscope, is a telescope or narrow tube about the diameter of a.

    Scientific Foundations of Ophthalmology (2013)

    by Edward S. Perkins, David W. Hill

    Fetoscopy is a method of examining the fetus in the sixteen- to twenty-week stage by the transabdominal introduction of a fibre-optic telescope into the amniotic sac. Although still in the experimental stage, this technique has already proved to.

    Clinical Rotations (2013)

    by Lois Thomson, Cathy Trocquet

    The fetoscopy is an endoscopic examination that views the fetus, and the hysteroscopy looks at the uterine cavity.

    e-Study Guide for Biology of Women, textbook by Theresa Hornstein (2012)

    Medicine, Internal medicine by Cram101 Textbook Reviews

    Fetoscopy. Fetoscopy is an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow .

    Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (2008)

    by Bruce M. Carlson

    Fetoscopy is the direct visualization of the fetus through a tube inserted into the amniotic cavity. This Continued 1.

    e-Study Guide for: Sexuality Today by Kelly, ISBN 9780073382661 (2013)

    by Cram101 Textbook Reviews

    Fetoscopy. Fetoscopy is an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow access to the fetus, the amniotic cavity,the umbilical cord.

    e-Study Guide for: Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (2012)

    by Cram101 Textbook Reviews

    Fetoscopy. Fetoscopy is an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow access tothe fetus, the amniotic cavity, the umbilical cord, andthe fetal side of theplacenta.

    e-Study Guide for: The Developing Child by Helen Bee, ISBN 9780205685936 (2012)

    by Cram101 Textbook Reviews



    Bee - Boyd, Developing Child, The

    Developing Child, The, 12th Edition

    For an undergraduate introductory level course in child development (prenatal through adolescence) that is organized topically .

    The Developing Child,Twelfth Edition provides students the most support for learning and success.

    The Developing Child gives students the tools they require to organize, retain and apply information from the broad field of child psychology, while offering balanced coverage of theory and application. Helen Bee is a prominent author and researcher whose successful books on development, and whose devotion to this field has earned her a national reputation. Denise Boyd of Houston Community College System adds a refreshing voice to this popular, longstanding text, while adding outstanding pedagogy and activities that help students replicate classic research.

    Previous Edition(s) Features

    Create a Custom Text: For enrollments of at least 25, create your own textbook by combining chapters from best-selling Pearson textbooks and/or reading selections in the sequence you want. To begin building your custom text, visit www.pearsoncustomlibrary.com. You may also work with a dedicated Pearson Custom editor to create your ideal text–publishing your own original content or mixing and matching Pearson content. Contact your Pearson Publisher’s Representative to get started.

  • Topical organization.
  • A conversational style of writing engages students in child development on a personal level.
  • An integrated emphasis on cultural variation frequently contrasts collectivist and individualistic cultural systems.
  • Learning Objectives Learning Objectives, paired with one of the subsections of the chapter, are introduced on the first page of the chapter. The Learning Objectives reappear in the margin next to their corresponding chapter sub-section, and in the end-of-chapter summary. The Learning Objectives (described above) help students organize and retain the material as they read the textbook by informing them of the key information they are expected to take away from that section of the chapter. The Learning Objectives help you, instructor assess student learning outcomes because they are tied to each of the test items in the accompany test bank.

    Vignettes Each chapter begins with a compelling vignette, which engages readers’ interest in the chapter’s topic.

    Margin Glossary All boldfaced terms in the text are defined in the margins as well as in a glossary at the end of the book.

  • Developmental Science in the Real World Every chapter includes a boxed discussion of the application of scientific knowledge to a practical question. The intent of these discussions is to show students not only that it is possible to study applied questions with scientific methods, but also that all the theory and research they are reading about may have some relevance to their own lives. To facilitate this goal, each Developmental Science in the Real World box begins with a brief vignette about a parenting issue and ends with questions for reflection, which encourage readers to apply the ideas in the box to that issue.
  • Thinking About Research Every chapter includes a boxed discussion of a particularly important study or series of studies. Each Research Report ends with two questions for critical analysis, which encourage readers to critically evaluate the findings presented in the box.

    Think Critically Questions The critical thinking questions at the end of the chapter encourage students to relate information in the text to their own personal experiences

  • Conduct Your Own Research Each chapter ends with a feature that gives readers instructions for either replicating the findings of a developmental study in an informal way or finding out more about a specific topic.
  • Summary Summaries are organized by major chapter heading and include bulleted entries summarizing the information that follows each subheading.

    New to This Edition

    New vignette discusses John Watson's controversial views on child-rearing

  • New section discusses normative age-graded, normative history-graded, and nonnormative changes.
  • New table summarizes the various research methods covered in the chapter.
  • Thinking about Research. Responding to Media Reports of Research
  • Developmental Science in the Real World :Helping Children Who Are Afraid to Go to School.
    • New vignette examines what happens when two sperm fertilize a single ovum
    • Updated discussions include genomic imprinting, fetal brain development, HIV/AIDS, prescription/over-the-counter drugs, maternal weight-consciousness during pregnancy, and impact of maternal age on fetal development.
    • New images highlight insights into prenatal development that have been gained through the use of new technologies, including a 3-dimensional sonogram of fetal yawning, a graph showing correlations between fetal brain development and fetal behavior, and an MRI of a fetal brain.
    • New text discusses viability, neuronal proliferation, neuronal migration
    • Thinking about Research. Assisted Reproductive Technology
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Fetal Assessment and Treatment
    • New coverage of Esther Thelen's dynamic systems theory of infant reflex and motor development and ethnic differences in early prenatal care.
    • New text discusses antibiotic resistance and otitis media
    • Thinking about Research. Variations in Infants' Cries
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Breast or Bottle?
    • New vignette on a waterskiing toddler examines how maturational and experiential elements work together to influence development.
    • New coverage includes the prefrontal cortex, stabilization of the growth curve, transgendered teens, and the impact of handedness on development.
    • Expanded and updated coverage includes STDs, the influence of diet on secular trends in age at menarche and secondary sex characteristic development, and excessive weight gain in childhood.
    • New tables show drugs abused by adolescents and the environmental factors associated with poverty and health
    • Thinking about Research. Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. A Good Night's Sleep for Kids (and Parents, Too!)
    • New chapter-opening vignette discussing a young child’s version of the Pledge of Allegiance helps readers grasp the distinction between sensation and perception
    • New coverage of stereopsis, binocular fusion, and amblyopia
    • Thinking about Research. Langlois's Studies of Babies' Preferences for Attractive Faces
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Infant Responses to Maternal Depression
    • New chapter-opening vignette examines what happens when children at different ages — and different Piagetian stages — play a board game together.
    • New coverage includes figurative and operative schemes, centration and decentration, relational complexity, seriation, and transitivity, response inhibition, and memory strategies.
    • Thinking about Research: Elkind's Adolescent Egocentrism
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Leading Questions and Children's Memory

    New sections include one on creativity and another on the relationship between family characteristics and IQ scores.

  • New information on IQ scores of "virtual" twins and new information on group IQ tests.
  • New figures compare correlations of IQ scores of people of different degrees of biological relations and show correlations of identical and fraternal twins from birth to adulthood
  • New terms include reliability, validity, shared environment, nonshared environment, creativity, and divergent thinking
  • Thinking about Research. The Flynn Effect
  • Developmental Science in the Real World. Stereotype Threat
  • Expanded coverage includes the different types of reading instruction (i.e. systematic and explicit phonics, whole language, and the balanced approach).

  • Thinking about Research. Sign Language and Gestures in Children Who Are Deaf
  • Developmental Science in the Real World: One Language or Two?
  • Reorganized discussion of the Big Five and temperament

    New discussion of reciprocal determinism

    Thinking about Research. Locus of Control and Adolescent Health

    Developmental Science in the Real World. Temperament Surgency in the Toddler Classroom

    • New figure illustrates changes in sex-role rigidity/flexibility across age
    • Thinking about Research. Gender Differences in Temperament: Real or Imagined?
    • Developmental Science in the Real World: Adolescent Rites of Passage Programs
    • New vignette about the "Lost Boys of Sudan"
    • Added internal working models to discussion of attachment theory
    • New discussion of romantic relationships among homosexual teens
    • Thinking about Research: Bullies and Victims
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Raising Helpful and Altruistic Children
    • Thinking about Research: Preventing Violence by Increasing Children's Emotional Competence
    • Developmental Science in the Real World: Learning and Unlearning Prejudice
    • Expanded discussion of systems theory includes Belsky's model of the family
    • New discussion the role played by mirror neurons in family influences on individual development
    • Cohabiting heterosexual parents, blended families, extended families, and gay and lesbian families included in discussion of family structure
    • Thinking about Research: To Spank or Not to Spank
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. When Divorce is Unavoidable
    • Revamped discussion of nonparental care
    • New section on models of early childhood education and association between early schooling and socioeconomic status
    • New section on elementary education
    • New text and figures illustrating the impact of schooling on cognitive development
    • Added discussion entertainment media, computers, and electronic multitasking
    • Expanded and reorganized discussion of poverty
    • Thinking about Research: The Effects of Teenaged Employment
    • Developmental Science in the Real World. Choosing a Child Care Center
    • New vignette addresses ability of teens with anorexia to hide the disorder from parents
    • New discussion and summary table of theoretical perspectives on atypical development
    • Added coverage of oppositional defiant disorder
    • New text and table address ethnic group differences in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD
    • New table illustrates categories of mental retardation
    • Expanded discussion of research on vaccines and autism
    • Developmental Science in the Real World: Knowing When to Seek Professional Health
    • Thinking about Research: Pediatric Bipolar Disorder
    • Neurological development added to milestone tables for all age periods



    Approximate Timetable of Prenatal Development

    Approximate Timetable of Prenatal Development

    This page presents a detailed overview of human development from the time the sperm is united with the ovum until birth. Prenatal development is divided into three trimesters. During the first two months the developing human is referred to as an embryo. The embryo has three layers from which all body organs develop. During the second trimester the developing human is referred to as a fetus. During the third trimester, the individual is a baby which if born prematurely could survive with extra support. Premature births prior to the third trimester are less likely to survive, even with extraordinary medical care in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    First Trimester

    First Month
    Fertilization, descent of ovum from tube to uterus. Early cell division and formation of embryonic disc from which new organism will develop. Early formation of three layers of cells: (1) the ectoderm, from which sense organs and nervous system will develop (2) the mesoderm, from which circulatory, skeletal and muscular systems will develop (3) the endoderm, from which digestive and some glandular systems will develop. Special layer of cells formed in the uterus which will become the placenta and through which nutritive substances will be carried to the new organism and waste products carried away. Special layer of cells forms the amnion or water-sac, which will surround the developing embryo except at umbilical cord. Heart tube forms and begins to pulsate and force blood to circulate through blood vessels in embryonic disc. Nervous system begins to arise, first in form of neural groove. Development of intestinal tract, lungs, liver and kidneys begins. By end of one month, the embryo is about one-fourth inch long, curled into a crescent, with small nubbins on sides of body indicating incipient arms and legs.

    Second Month
    Embryo increases in size to about 1½ inches. Bones and muscle begin to round out contours of body. Face and neck develop and begin to give features a human appearance. Forehead very prominent, reflecting precocious development of brain in comparison to rest of body. Limb buds elongate. Muscles and cartilage develop. Sex organs begin to form.

    Third Month
    Beginning of fetal period. Sexual differentiation continues, with male sexual organs showing more rapid development and the female remaining more neutral. buds for all 20 temporary teeth laid down. Vocal cords appear; digestive system shows activity. Stomach cells begin to secrete fluid; liver pours bile into intestine. Kidneys begin functioning, with urine gradually seeping into amniotic fluid. Other waste products passed through placenta into mother’s blood. Bones and muscles continue development, and by end of third month spontaneous movements of arms, legs, shoulders and fingers are possible.

    Second Trimester

    Fourth Month
    Lower parts of body show relatively accelerated rate, so that head size decreases from one-half to one-fourth of body size. Back straightens, hands and feet are well-formed. Skin appears dark red, owing to coursing of blood showing through thin skin and wrinkles, owing to absence of underlying fat. Finger closure is possible. Reflexes become more active as muscular maturation continues. Fetus begins to stir and so thrust out arms and legs in movements readily perceived by the mother.

    Fifth Month
    Skin structures begin to attain final form. Sweat and sebaceous glands are formed and function. Skin derivatives also appear — hair, nails on fingers and toes. Bony axis becomes quite straight and much spontaneous activity occurs. Fetus is lean and wrinkled, about one foot long and weighs about one pound.

    Sixth Month
    Eyelids which have been fused shut since third month, reopen; eyes are completely formed. Taste buds appear on tongue and in mouth and are, in fact, more abundant than in the infant or adult.

    Third Trimester

    Seventh Month
    Organism capable of independent life from this time on. Cerebral hemispheres cover almost the entire brain. Seven-month fetus can emit a variety of specialized responses. Generally is about 15 inches long and weighs about three pounds.

    Eighth and Ninth Month
    During this time, finishing touches are being put on the various organs and functional capacities. Fat is formed rapidly over the entire body, smoothing out the wrinkled skin and rounding out body contours. Dull red color of skin fades so that a firth pigmentation of skin is usually very slight in all races. Activity is usually great and he can change his position within the somewhat crowded uterus. Periods of activity will alternate with periods of quiescence. Fetal organs step up their activity. Fetal heart rate becomes quite rapid. Digestive organs continue to expel more waste products, leading to the formation of a fetal stool, called the meconium, which is expelled shortly after birth. Violent uterine contractions begin, though milder ones have been tolerated earlier, and the fetus is eventually expelled from the womb into an independent physiological existence.

    More On This Topic:



    Tags: the developing child 12th edition ebook