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Critical Realism And Composition Theory - Isbn:9781134463930

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  • Book Title: Critical Realism and Composition Theory
  • ISBN 13: 9781134463930
  • ISBN 10: 1134463936
  • Author: Donald Judd
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Category (general): Other
  • Publisher: Routledge
  • Format & Number of pages: 176 pages, book
  • Synopsis: Lacey, Hugh (1998) “Neutrality in the Social Sciences: On Bhaskar's Argument for an Essential Emancipatory Impulse in Social Science.” Critical Realism: Essential Readings. Margaret Archer, et al. (eds). London: Routledge, 473–502. Larson ...

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Critical realism

Critical realism

In the philosophy of perception. critical realism is the theory that some of our sense-data (for example, those of primary qualities) can and do accurately represent external objects, properties, and events, while other of our sense-data (for example, those of secondary qualities and perceptual illusions) do not accurately represent any external objects, properties, and events. In short, critical realism refers to any position that maintains that there exists an objectively knowable, mind-independent reality, whilst acknowledging the roles of perception and cognition.

Critical realism refers to a number of communities. These include the American critical realists (Roy Wood Sellars. George Santayana. and Arthur Lovejoy ) and a broader movement including Bertrand Russell and C.D. Broad. More recently it refers to the community associated primarily with the work of Roy Bhaskar. It is also the name used by a number in the science-religion interface community.

Contents Locke and Descartes Edit

According to Locke and Descartes. some sense-data, namely the sense-data of secondary qualities, do not represent anything in the external world, even if they are caused by external qualities (primary qualities). Thus it is natural to adopt a theory of critical realism.

By its talk of sense-data and representation, this theory depends on or presupposes the truth of representationalism. If critical realism is correct, then representationalism would have to be a correct theory of perception.

American critical realism Edit

The American critical realist movement was a response both to direct realism (especially in its recent incarnation as new realism ), as well as to idealism and pragmatism. In very broad terms, American critical realism was a form of representational realism or representationalism. in which there are objects that stand as mediators between independent real objects and perceivers.

One innovation was that these mediators aren't ideas (British empiricism ), but properties, essences, or "character complexes."

British realism Edit Contemporary critical realism Edit General philosophy Edit

Critical realism is presently most commonly associated with the work of Roy Bhaskar. Bhaskar developed a general philosophy of science that he described as Transcendental Realism, and a special philosophy of the human sciences that he called Critical Naturalism. The two terms were elided by other authors to form the umbrella term Critical Realism.

Transcendental Realism refers to the fact that in order for scientific investigation to take place, the object of that investigation must have real, manipulable, internal mechanisms that can be triggered to produce particular outcomes. This is what we do when we conduct experiments. This stands in contrast to empiricist scientists' claim that all scientists can do is observe the relationship between cause and effect. The implication of this is that science should be understood as an ongoing process in which scientists improve the concepts they use to understand the mechanisms that they study. It should not, in contrast to the claim of empiricists, be about the identification of a coincidence between a postulated 'independent variable' and 'dependent variable'. Positivism/falsification are also rejected due to the observation that it is highly-plausible that a mechanism will exist but either a) go un-activated, b) be activated, but imperceived, c) be activated, but counteracted by other mechanisms, which result in it having unpredictable effects. Thus, non-realisation of a posited mechanism can not (in contrast to the claim of positivists) be taken to signify its non-existence.

Critical Naturalism argues that the Transcendental Realist model of science is equally applicable to both the physical and the human worlds. However, when we study the human world we are studying something fundamentally different from the physical world and must therefore adapt our strategy to studying it. Critical Naturalism therefore prescribes social scientific method which seeks to identify the mechanisms producing social events, but with a recognition that these are in a much greater state of flux than they are in the physical world (as human structures change much more readily than those of, say, a leaf). In particular, we must understand that human agency is made possible by social structures that themselves require the reproduction of certain actions/pre-conditions. Further, the individuals that inhabit these social structures are capable of consciously reflecting upon, and changing, the actions that produce them - a practice that is in part facilitated by social scientific research.

Developments Edit

Since Bhaskar made the first big steps in popularising the theory of critical realism in the 1970s, it has become one of the major strands of social scientific method - rivalling positivism/empiricism, and post-structuralism/relativism/interpretivism.

An edited volume, - Critical Realism: Essential Readings - is the best available reader in critical realism.

There is also a Journal of Critical Realism. which publishes articles on the theory and results of the practice of critical realist social science.

A lively email discussion on critical realism can be joined on the Critical Realism e-mail list.

Since his development of Critical Realism, Bhaskar has gone on to develop a philosophical system he calls Dialectical Critical Realism, which is most clearly outlined in his weighty book - Dialectic: the pulse of freedom.

Bhaskar is frequently criticised for the density and obscurity of his writing. An accessible introduction was written by Andrew Collier. Andrew Sayer has written accessible texts on critical realism in social science.

Theological critical realism Edit

Critical realism is a name that a community of scientists turn theologians apply to themselves. They are influenced by the Scientist turned philosopher Michael Polanyi. Polanyi's ideas where taken up enthusiastically by T. F. Torrance whose work in this area has influenced many theologians wishing to call themselves Critical Realists. This community also includes John Polkinghorne. Ian Barbour. and Arthur Peacocke. The aim of the group is to show that the language of science and Christian theology are similar, forming a starting point for a dialogue between the two. Alister McGrath and Wentzel van Huyssteen (the latter of Princeton Theological Seminary) are recent contributors to this strand. Tom Wright. New Testament scholar and Anglican Bishop of Durham also writes on this topic as evidenced by:

I propose a form of critical realism. This is a way of describing the process of "knowing" that acknowledges the reality of the thing known, as something other than the knower (hence "realism"), while fully acknowledging that the only access we have to this reality lies along the spiralling path of appropriate dialogue or conversation between the knower and the thing known (hence "critical"). (The New Testament and the People of God. pp. 35)

Critical realism in economics Edit

Heterodox economists like Tony Lawson, Fredericke Lee or Geoffrey Hodgson are trying to work the ideas of critical realism into economics, especially the dynamic idea of macro-micro interaction.

External links Edit References Edit

Archer, M. Bhaskar, R. Collier, A. Lawson, T. and Norrie, A. 1998, Critical Realism: Essential Readings, (London, Routledge).

Bhaskar, R. 1975 [1997], A Realist Theory of Science: 2nd edition, (London, Verso).

Bhaskar, R. 1998, The Possibility of Naturalism: A Philosophical Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences: Third Edition, (London, Routledge)

Bhaskar, R. 1993, Dialectic: The Pulse of Freedom, (London, Verso).

Collier, A, 1994, Critical Realism: An Introduction to Roy Bhaskar's Philosophy, (London, Verso).

Lopez, J. and Potter, G. 2001, After Postmodernism: An Introduction to Critical Realism, (London, The Athlone Press).

McGrath, A. E. 2001, A Scientific Theology, (London, T&T Clark)

Polkinghorne, J, 1991, Reason and Reality: The Relationship between science and theology, (London, SPCK)

Sayer, A. (1992) Method in Social Science: A Realist Approach, (London, Routledge)

Source:

psychology.wikia.com

Articles

Critical Realism

Critical Realism Critical Realism

a trend, or method, in realistic literature and art in the 19th and 20th centuries. The concept of critical realism was adopted by Soviet literary and art criticism from M. Gorky, who used the expression “critical realism” in 1934 to describe the stress on expose in realistic literature of the 19th century. However, the revelatory themes by no means exclude an element of reaffirmation in the realistic art of the 19th and 20th centuries.

REFERENCES

Lavretskii, A. “O sud’be odnogo literaturovedcheskogo termina.” Izv. AN SSSR: Otdelenie literatury i iazyka. 1957, vol. 16, no 1.
Nikolaev, P. “Realizm kak teoretiko-literaturnaia problema.” In Sovetskoe literaturovedenie za 50 let. Moscow, 1967.

Critical Realism

a trend in modern idealist philosophy that traces its origins back to the critical philosophy of Kant.

The principles that served as a point of departure for critical realism were formulated in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th century by A. Riehl, O. Kulpe, and A. Messer, among others. Critical realism was established as an independent school in the USA in 1920, when D. Drake, A. Lovejoy, D. Pratt, A. Rogers, G. Santayana, R. W. Sellars, and C. Strong published their Essays in Critical Realism. a detailed exposition of the doctrine of critical realism. The most essential part of the doctrine is its theory of cognition, in which critical realism opposes itself to new realism: whereas the latter considers the process of knowing the external world to be directly included in consciousness of the subject, to be “seized” by it as it is, critical realism assumes that the process of knowing is mediated by datum, or the content of consciousness.

The problem of the nature of the datum is resolved by critical realists variously. Pratt and Lovejoy identify it with perception. They believe that the datum to a certain extent presents the features of external reality, the knowledge of which allows the subject to orient himself in the world around him. Their views thus come close to the subjective idealist “theory of hieroglyphs.” Santayana, Drake, Strong, and Rogers look upon the datum as an abstract concept, the logical “essence” of a thing, which in the case of correct cognition can coincide with the real essence of the thing. Here ideal essences acquire an ontological character that leads to a new variant of Platonism. Sellars occupies a separate place: he identifies the datum with an adequate reflection in consciousness of the external world and is thus led to a materialist treatment of the process of cognition.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Anglo-amerikanskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia epokhi imperializma. Moscow, 1964. Chapter 8.
Lukanov, D. M. Gnoseologiia amerikanskogo “realizma .” Moscow, 1968.
Iulina, N. S. “Kontseptsiia real’nosti v amerikanskom ’kriticheskom realizme’.” Filosofskie nauki. 1958, no. 2.
Hicks, G. D. Critical Realism. London, 1938.

References in periodicals archive ?

In a context where conservative intellectuals in the United States and Canada are aggressively challenging the legitimacy of radical scholars promoting their political agendas in higher education, we find the rallying cry for a sociology defined exclusively around critical realism problematic.

1) The issue of mandatory influenza immunisation for nurses has ignored the intersection of social constructionism and critical realism regarding the concrete, objective presentation of science and nurses' epistemological and ontological realities.

The contributors to this very well-integrated collection explore these urgent questions from a wide range of perspectives, including sociological analysis based in critical realism and personal reflexivity studies, the ethics of global warming, African traditions, feminist perspectives of care, patristic and Thomistic insights, and the ethics of individual responsibility.

There are two types of realism, First; Western realism that is also said as critical realism and it arose after the French Revolution.

Critical realism is a research approach that acknowledges the role of process in sociology and that evidence is essential but open to fluctuation and individual interpretation, this values the mechanics of systems and structures in conjunction with the potential for human intervention and change.

In this article, we describe a research platform for initial teacher education, developed by the Project RITE (Rethinking Initial Teacher Education) (1) research team, which combines key ideas from complexity theory and critical realism (CT-CR) and applies these to teacher education.

She outlines the international and historical higher education context and contemporary movements in student learning research; the theories of critical realism. the concepts of Archer, a realist perspective on knowledge and curriculum, and how these theories can be drawn together to focus on the development of student agency; her research and the data in terms of student choice to study engineering, the experience of being an engineering student, engagement with peers and educators, and engagement with studies; and the potential significance of this information for student learning and change in the engineering education and higher education systems.

In the chapter on postmodernity Hiebert articulates his concern for a critical realism in which "human knowledge is based on critical engagement with the world rather than a distant magisterial, management explanation of it (positivism) or personal knowledge limited to particular situations (instrumentalism)" (p.

The defense of a critical realism is thereby set in motion.

Significantly, the letter appeared in the same issue of Landfall as 'Fiction and the Social Pattern: Some Implications of Recent New Zealand Writing', Robert Chapman's analysis of the continuing tradition of critical realism in the fiction of 1946 through 1951.

With the publication, in 2000, of From East to West, however, Bhaskar has distanced himself from orthodox critical realism (which has affinities with a realist philosophy of science and materialist dialectics).

Chapter topics discuss information research management with regards to IT- reliant systems, a management control system, critical realism regarding the implementation of automated performance management systems, cost estimation of lead system integrator engineering activities, the mixing of soft systems methodology and Unified Modeling Language in business process modeling, the examination of online purchase intentions in B2C e-commerce, and a research agenda for investigating open source software user communities, among others.

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Best Friends Forever? Classical Realism and Critical Theory

Felix Rösch. Jun 20 2014. 1771 views

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In The Realist Case for Global Reform. William Scheuerman (2011) introduces his readers to Ernie, a fictitious student writing an exam on IR theories. Ernie is asked to provide a concise definition of realism and like many students before and after him, Ernie writes an essay in which the terms nation-state, war, and anarchy feature prominently. Although Ernie is a fictitious character, I am sure that many scholars teaching IR theory are regularly confronted with similar student essays conflating neo-realism with classical realism. This leaves the reader with a face that resembles Sesame Street ‘s Bert; once again losing the battle with textbooks which still perpetuate such a reading. Yet, both approaches stem from different intellectual contexts. Whereas neo-realism is an American positivistic science, classical realism largely originates out of discourses that dominated the Central European humanities during the interwar period. Consequently, we should not be deluded anymore by the mutual usage of the term “realism”. Rather, IR scholars should seek to rethink links between classical realism and other modes of thought that are suspicious about universalistic promises of positivistic science and that aim to transcend dichotomic, sectarian, and essentialist thinking that characterizes much of the discipline to date. The relation between classical realism and critical theory is one such link, and a Leverhulme Trust research network. headed by Hartmut Behr, is currently further investigating it with the intention to contribute to a rejuvenation of IR discourses on some of the most pressing world political problems of our time.

The intellectual connection between classical realism and critical theory should not be surprising if we consider their historical and geographical proximity. Hans Morgenthau, one of the leading classical realists, finished his doctoral thesis at the University of Frankfurt during the late 1920s, when the Institute for Social Research was equally rising under the leadership of Max Horkheimer, who, together with Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and Erich Fromm, turned the Institute into the center for critical theory. In Frankfurt, Morgenthau was working as a clerk for the prominent Weimar labor lawyer Hugo Sinzheimer; as did Ernst Fraenkel and Franz Neumann. As we know from Morgenthau’s biographer, Christoph Frei (2001), Sinzheimer introduced him to people at the Institute and he equally got to know scholars like Paul Tillich and Karl Mannheim. Morgenthau, however, was not the only classical realist who had personal connections with critical theorists and/or scholars who are frequently used by critical theorists in their work. John Herz, Hannah Arendt, Eric Voegelin, and Arnold Wolfers similarly engaged in their work with luminaries of Weimar humanities, such as Martin Heidegger, Carl Schmitt, and Hans Kelsen.

Experiencing the downfall of the Weimar Republic personally, classical realists, then at the beginning of their academic career, particularly aimed to contribute to the discourse on the political that dominated much of Weimar humanities (for a discussion, see Gangl 2009). Morgenthau, for example, wrote several published and unpublished studies on the political, as he had realized in his doctoral thesis that societies are riddled with problems for which there are no legal solutions, but which need to be publicly debated if one of the -isms is not to silence any critical voice (Morgenthau 1929, 1933, 1934-35). However, this does not mean that Morgenthau would have endorsed the most well-known conceptualization of the political of that era: Schmitt’s distinction between friend and enemy. For Morgenthau, agreement or disagreement about a subject matter was irrelevant. Rather, what mattered was that the political is conceptualized as a collective affair in which people have the possibility to temporarily come together to pursue their interests. Hence, people need to be able and to be encouraged by other society members to express their interests. The political was, therefore, for Morgenthau (2012, pp.126; for other realists, see Owens, 2005) like for other classical realists, a speech-act process: a discussion through which interests are gradually aligned in order to formulate a common good.

This personal and intellectual proximity encouraged Scheuerman (2009) to further investigate if Morgenthau and classical realists at large held concrete intellectual connections to critical theory. The tenability of such links, however, was recently contested by Daniel Levine’s (2012) reading of Morgenthau, which urged the epistemological dissonance between classical realism and critical theory. Levine argues that, even though Morgenthau spoke in favor of self-reflexivity, particularly, but not exclusively, his later works are characterized by a lack of it. However, Levine’s claim of lacking self-reflexivity can only be made if we agree with him that Morgenthau aimed to construct a grand IR theory. In fact, this is common among contemporary critical theorists and it constitutes an a priori element of their basic ontological assumptions. However, Morgenthau failed a task, writing such a grand theory, that he never wished to engage in. Classical realists do not intend to produce grand theories, but are cautious about their feasibility. While Levine is right to argue that Morgenthau – like any classical realist – was no critical theorist, we still can discern overlaps between them. In the remainder of this piece, I want to touch upon on three of what I believe to be the most promising connections between classical realism and critical theory.

Epistemologically, classical realism and critical theory operate with what Karl Mannheim (1985) called the spatio-temporal conditionality of knowledge. This means that knowledge depends upon and only has significance in the historical, cultural, and socio-political context in which it was created. Within this context, characteristic thought-styles evolve that determine the creation and direction of knowledge. For classical realists and critical theorists, any claim for universal knowledge and absolute objectivity is, therefore, ill-founded and a source of ‘epistemological imperialism’ (Behr & Rösch, pp. 73, 2010). Rather, they promote what we find in Morgenthau as perspectivist objectivity (Behr & Rösch, pp.44, 2012). This kind of objectivity is established in a hermeneutical process in which reality is analyzed through clearly defined concepts. They not only help to distinguish features of an object, but these features can only be recognized as such through concepts. For this reason, classical realists argue that concepts cannot have a fixed meaning, but are epistemological tools that help scholars to approach reality by categorizing and analyzing its elements. The meaning of these concepts depends upon the specific historical, cultural, and socio-political contexts and consequently changes.

Normatively, I see proximity between classical realism and critical theory in their critique of modernity, as both their scholars criticize modernity for establishing an imaginary, to use a term by Cornelius Castoriadis. The imaginary ‘gives a specific orientation to every institutional system, which overdetermines the choice and the connections of symbolic networks, which is the creation of each historical period, its singular manner of living, of seeing and of conducting its own existence, its world, and its relations with this world’. It is the ‘source of that which presents itself in every instance as indisputable and undisputed meaning, the basis for articulating what does matter and what does not’ (Castoriadis, pp.145, 1987).

This implies that the imaginary constitutes social life-worlds, as it prescribes the realm of meaning upon which socio-political orders are being shaped. This is not problematic, per se. because people cannot exist without some degree of security and any imaginary promises an element of carefreeness because it structures social life-worlds. However, classical realists and critical theorists problematize modernity, as it leads to moral decline. This is the case because modernity neither considers questions of morality nor emotions; consequently, both theoretical stances aim to focus on the human condition of politics again. This focus on the human helps to explain current readings of classical realism as political theology, although this reading is not without its problems because it excludes the human potential for meaning-autopoiesis, as evidenced in Morgenthau’s and Arendt’s notion of power. [1] Still, their concern of modernity depriving people of the ability to experience themselves in their subjectivity can be interpreted as a contribution to manifold attempts to re-instill spirituality in people and overcome the “transcendental homelessness” of modernity (Lukacs, pp.41, 1963).

Being concerned about the effects of modernity on human beings, educationally, classical realists as well as critical theorists support dissent by promoting what Karl-Heinz Breier (pp.7, 2011) calls, in reference to Arendt, a Bürgerwissenschaft. Classical realism and critical theory do not believe that knowledge can provide absolute answers to political questions and they do not support academic attempts to socially plan the world. Rather, they aim to support people in their ambition to live freely in the sense of being able to critically reflect on the current political status quo and have the opportunity to create their life-worlds (cf. Pin-Fat 2005; Cozette, 2008; Klusmeyer, 2011; Rösch, 2013). To establish this kind of scholarship and to help people engage critically in and with the public sphere, classical realists like critical theorists argue that scholarship has to be a corrective of the political status quo. This happens through discerning people’s interests through discussions and by establishing fora in which the political can evolve. Therefore, scholars have to act as facilitators in the public sphere through which people can transcend various constraints in modern societies in order to free them in their thought and action and to help them creating their life-worlds. However, convincing others of their capacities by challenging vested interests causes discomfort among the public because habitual ways of thinking are questioned. During the height of the Cold War, for example, when McCarthyism was striving in the USA, critical thinking was not well-received because questioning the foundations of common beliefs was considered a societal threat. Consequently, many early classical realists and critical theorists faced personal and professional consequences. [2] Forced to the fringes of academic, and sometimes even societal, life, however, helped them to rethink (world) politics whose potential the discipline is just beginning to explore.

[1] Felix Rösch (2014) Pouvoir, Puissance, and Politics: Hans Morgenthau’s Dualistic Concept of Power? Review ofInternational Studies 40 (2): 349-365. On Morgenthau’s concept of power, see as well: Seán Molloy (2004) Truth, Power,Theory: Hans Morgenthau’s Formulation of Realism. Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (1): 1-34; Robert Schuett (2007) Freudian roots of political realism: the importance of Sigmund Freud to Hans J. Morgenthau’s theory of international power politics’, in History of the Human Sciences 20 (4): 53-78; and Ty Solomon (2012) Human Nature and the Limits of the Self: Hans Morgenthau on Love and Power. International Studies Review 14 (2): 201-224. On religion and emotions, see amongst others: Toni Erskine and Richard Ned Lebow (eds.) (2012) Tragedy and International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Nicholas Rengger (2013) On Theology and International Relations. World Politics beyond the Empty Sky. International Relations 27 (2): 141-157; Andrew Ross (2013) Realism, Emotion, and Dynamic Allegiances in Global Politics. International Theory 5 (2): 273-299; Vassilios Paipais (2013) Necessary Fiction: Realism’s Tragic Theology. International Politics 50 (6): 846-862; Seán Molloy (2013) Spinoza, Carr, and the Ethics of The TwentyYears’ Crisis . Review of International Studies 39 (2): 251-271; and Jodok Troy (ed.) (2013) Religion and the Realist Tradition. From Political Theology to International Relations Theory and Back. London: Routledge.

[2] Morgenthau is here a case in point. Not only was his application for presidency of the American Political Science Association (APSA) hampered in the early 1970s, but there was also an “Operation Morgenthau” of the FBI to collect imputations against him. See, amongst others: Michael Cox (2007) Hans J. Morgenthau, Realism, and the Rise and Fall of the Cold War. In Realism Reconsidered. edited by Michael C. Williams. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 184.

Behr, Hartmut and Felix Rösch (2010). Comparing ‘Systems’ and ‘Cultures’: Between Universalities, Imperialism, and Indigenousity. In Vergleichende Regierungslehre. edited by Hans-Joachim Lauth. Wiesbaden: VS-Verlag.

Behr, Hartmut and Felix Rösch (2012). Introduction. In Hans J. Morgenthau, The Concept of thePolitical. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Castoriadis, Cornelius (1987). The Imaginary Institution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press. Cozette. Murielle (2008). Reclaiming the Critical Dimension of Realism: Hans J. Morgenthau and the Ethics of Scholarship. Review of International Studies 34 (1): 5-27.

Erskine, Toni and Richard Ned Lebow (eds.) (2012). Tragedy and International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Frei, Christoph (2001). Hans J. Morgenthau. An Intellectual Biography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Gangl, Manfred (ed.) (2009). Das Politische. Zur Entstehung der Politikwissenschaft während derWeimarer Republik. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Klusmeyer, Douglas (2011). The American Republic, Executive Power and The National Security State: Hannah Arendt’s and Hans Morgenthau’s Critiques of the Vietnam War. Journal ofInternational Political Theory 7 (1): 63-94.

Levine, Daniel J. (2013). Why Hans Morgenthau was not a Critical Theorist (and why Contemporary IR Realists should care). International Relations 27 (1): 95-118.

Lukács, Georg (1963). The Theory of the Novel. A Historic-Philosophical Essay on the Forms ofGreat Epic Literature. London: Merlin.

Morgenthau, Hans J. (1929). Die internationale Rechtspflege, ihr Wesen und ihre Grenzen. Leipzig: Robert Noske.

Mannheim, Karl (1985). Ideology and Utopia. An Introduction to the Sociology of Knowledge. San Diego: Harcourt.

Molloy, Seán (2004) Truth, Power, Theory: Hans Morgenthau’s Formulation of Realism. Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (1): 1-34.

Molloy, Seán (2013). Spinoza, Carr, and the Ethics of The Twenty Years’ Crisis. Review ofInternational Studies 39 (2): 251-271.

Morgenthau, Hans J. (1933). La notion du “politique” et la théorie des différends internationaux. Paris: Recueil Sirey.

Morgenthau, Hans J. (1934-1935). Einige logische Bemerkungen zu Carl Schmitt’s Begriff desPolitischen (Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, Container 110).

Morgenthau, Hans J. (2012). The Concept of the Political. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Owens, Patricia (2005). Hannah Arendt, Violence, and the Inescapable Fact of Humanity. In Hannah Arendt and International Relations. edited by Anthony Lang and John Williams.Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Paipais, Vassilios (2013) Necessary Fiction: Realism’s Tragic Theology. International Politics 50 (6): 846-862.

Pin-Fat, Véronique (2005). The Metaphysics of the National Interest and the ‘Mysticism’ of the Nation-State: Reading Hans J. Morgenthau. Review of International Studies 31: 217-236.

Rengger, Nicholas (2013). On Theology and International Relations. World Politics beyond the Empty Sky. International Relations 27 (2): 141-157.

Rösch, Felix (2013). Realism as Social Criticism. The Thinking Partnership of Hannah Arendt and Hans Morgenthau. International Politics 50 (6): 815-829.

Rösch, Felix (2014) Pouvoir, Puissance, and Politics: Hans Morgenthau’s Dualistic Concept of Power? Review of International Studies 40 (2): 349-365.

Ross, Andrew (2013). Realism, Emotion, and Dynamic Allegiances in Global Politics. InternationalTheory 5 (2): 273-299.

Scheuerman, William E. (2009) A Theoretical Missed Opportunity? Hans J. Morgenthau as a Critical Realist. In Political Thought and International Relations. Variations on a Realist Theme, edited by Duncan Bell. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Scheuerman, William E. (2011). The Realist Case for Global Reform. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Schuett, Robert (2007). Freudian Roots of Political Realism: the Importance of Sigmund Freud to Hans J. Morgenthau’s Theory of International Power Politics. History of the Human Sciences 20 (4): 53-78.

Solomon, Ty (2012). Human Nature and the Limits of the Self: Hans Morgenthau on Love and Power. International Studies Review 14 (2): 201-224.

Troy, Jodok (ed.) (2013). Religion and the Realist Tradition. From Political Theology toInternational Relations Theory and Back. London: Routledge.

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Critical Realism and Composition Theory (Routledge Studies in Critical Realism, 7) Donald Judd ebook pdf
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Language: English
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ISBN: 0415280494, 9780203986707

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Donald Judd is an Assistant Professor of English at Pittsburg State University, where he teaches courses on writing, literature, and composition theory. He has published articles on assignment design and Marxism and sustainable development and is a member of the National Council of Teachers of English.

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Critical realism

Critical realism

In the philosophy of perception. critical realism is the theory that some of our sense-data (for example, those of primary qualities) can and do accurately represent external objects, properties, and events, while other of our sense-data (for example, those of secondary qualities and perceptual illusions) do not accurately represent any external objects, properties, and events. Put simply, Critical Realism highlights a mind dependent aspect of the world, which reaches to understand (and comes to understanding of) the mind independent world.

Contemporary critical realism most commonly refers to a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar. Bhaskar's thought combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds. Critical realism can, however, refer to several other schools of thought, such as the work of the American critical realists (Roy Wood Sellars. George Santayana. and Arthur Lovejoy). The term has also been appropriated by theorists in the science-religion interface community. The Canadian Jesuit Bernard Lonergan developed a comprehensive critical realist philosophy and this understanding of critical realism dominates North America's Catholic Universities.

Contents Locke and Descartes

According to Locke and Descartes. some sense-data, namely the sense-data of secondary qualities, do not represent anything in the external world, even if they are caused by external qualities (primary qualities). Thus it is natural to adopt a theory of critical realism.

By its talk of sense-data and representation, this theory depends on or presupposes the truth of representationalism. If critical realism is correct, then representationalism would have to be a correct theory of perception [ citation needed ] .

American critical realism

The American critical realist movement was a response both to direct realism (especially in its recent incarnation as new realism ), as well as to idealism and pragmatism. In very broad terms, American critical realism was a form of representative realism. in which there are objects that stand as mediators between independent real objects and perceivers.

One innovation was that these mediators aren't ideas (British empiricism), but properties, essences, or "character complexes."

British realism Contemporary critical realism General philosophy

Critical realism is presently most commonly associated with the work of Roy Bhaskar. Bhaskar developed a general philosophy of science that he described as transcendental realism, and a special philosophy of the human sciences that he called critical naturalism. The two terms were combined by other authors to form the umbrella term critical realism.

Transcendental realism attempts to establish that in order for scientific investigation to take place, the object of that investigation must have real, manipulable, internal mechanisms that can be actualised to produce particular outcomes. This is what we do when we conduct experiments. This stands in contrast to empiricist scientists' claim that all scientists can do is observe the relationship between cause and effect and impose meaning. Whilst empiricism, and positivism more generally, locate causal relationships at the level of events, Critical Realism locates them at the level of the generative mechanism, arguing that causal relationships are irreducible to empirical constant conjunctions of David Hume 's doctrine; in other words, a constant conjunctive relationship between events is neither sufficient nor even necessary to establish a causal relationship.

The implication of this is that science should be understood as an ongoing process in which scientists improve the concepts they use to understand the mechanisms that they study. It should not, in contrast to the claim of empiricists, be about the identification of a coincidence between a postulated independent variable and dependent variable. Positivism /falsification [ clarification needed ] are also rejected due to the observation that it is highly plausible that a mechanism will exist but either a) go unactivated, b) be activated, but not perceived, or c) be activated, but counteracted by other mechanisms, which results in it having unpredictable effects. Thus, non-realisation of a posited mechanism cannot (in contrast to the claim of positivists) be taken to signify its non-existence.

Critical naturalism argues that the transcendental realist model of science is equally applicable to both the physical and the human worlds. However, when we study the human world we are studying something fundamentally different from the physical world and must therefore adapt our strategy to studying it. Critical naturalism therefore prescribes social scientific method which seeks to identify the mechanisms producing social events, but with a recognition that these are in a much greater state of flux than those of the the physical world (as human structures change much more readily than those of, say, a leaf). In particular, we must understand that human agency is made possible by social structures that themselves require the reproduction of certain actions/pre-conditions. Further, the individuals that inhabit these social structures are capable of consciously reflecting upon, and changing, the actions that produce them—a practice that is in part facilitated by social scientific research.

Critical realism has become an influential movement in British sociology and social science in general as a reaction to, and reconciliation of, so-called "postmodern" critiques.

Developments

Since Bhaskar made the first big steps in popularising the theory of critical realism in the 1970s, it has become one of the major strands of social scientific method - rivalling positivism/empiricism, and post-structuralism /relativism /interpretivism .

An edited volume, Critical Realism: Essential Readings. is currently the most appreciated and available reader in critical realism. [ peacock term ]

There is also a Journal of Critical Realism. which publishes articles on the theory and results of the practice of critical realist social science. See also, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, published by Blackwell, which also publishes theoretical and empirical realist social science.

A lively email discussion on critical realism can be joined on the critical realism e-mail list .

Since his development of critical realism, Bhaskar has gone on to develop a philosophical system he calls dialectical critical realism, which is most clearly outlined in his weighty book, Dialectic: the pulse of freedom .

Bhaskar is frequently criticized for the density and obscurity of his writing. That said, some readers may [ who? ] actually appreciate his meticulous linguistic precision, which can be time consuming to read, but read properly, it is possible to understand the precise and unambiguous meaning behind his writing [ citation needed ]. An accessible introduction was written by Andrew Collier. Andrew Sayer has written accessible texts on critical realism in social science. Danermark et al. have also produced an accessible account. Margaret Archer is associated with this school, as is the ecosocialist writer Peter Dickens.

David Graeber relies on critical realism, which he understands as a form of 'heraclitean' philosophy, emphasizing flux and change over stable essences, in his anthropological book on the concept of value, Toward an anthropological theory of value: the false coin of our own dreams.

Robert Willmott has developed the realist ("morphogenetic") social theory of Margaret Archer in his Education Policy and Realist Social Theory: primary teachers, child-centred philosophy and the new managerialism, published by Routledge.

Theological critical realism

Critical realism is employed by a community of scientists turned theologians. They are influenced by the scientist turned philosopher Michael Polanyi. Polanyi's ideas were taken up enthusiastically by T. F. Torrance whose work in this area has influenced many theologians calling themselves critical realists. This community includes John Polkinghorne. Ian Barbour. and Arthur Peacocke. The aim of the group is to show that the language of science and Christian theology are similar, forming a starting point for a dialogue between the two. Alister McGrath and Wentzel van Huyssteen (the latter of Princeton Theological Seminary) are recent contributors to this strand. N.T. Wright. New Testament scholar and retired Bishop of Durham (Anglican) also writes on this topic:

… I propose a form of critical realism. This is a way of describing the process of "knowing" that acknowledges the reality of the thing known, as something other than the knower (hence "realism"), while fully acknowledging that the only access we have to this reality lies along the spiralling path of appropriate dialogue or conversation between the knower and the thing known (hence "critical"). (The New Testament and the People of God. p. 35)

N.T. Wright's fellow biblical scholar—James Dunn —encountered the thought of Bernard Lonergan as mediated through Ben Meyer. Much of North American critical realism—later used in the service of theology—has its source in the thought of Lonergan rather than Polanyi.

Critical realism in economics

Heterodox economists like Tony Lawson, Frederic Lee or Geoffrey Hodgson are trying to work the ideas of critical realism into economics, especially the dynamic idea of macro-micro interaction.

According to critical realist economists, the central aim of economic theory is to provide explanations in terms of hidden generative structures. This position combines transcendental realism with a critique of mainstream economics. It argues that mainstream economics (i) relies excessively on deductivist methodology, (ii) embraces an uncritical enthusiasm for formalism, and (iii) believes in strong conditional predictions in economics despite repeated failures.

The world that mainstream economists study is the empirical world. But this world is "out of phase" (Lawson) with the underlying ontology of economic regularities. The mainstream view is thus a limited reality because empirical realists presume that the objects of inquiry are solely "empirical regularities"—that is, objects and events at the level of the experienced.

The critical realist views the domain of real causal mechanisms as the appropriate object of economic science, whereas the positivist view is that the reality is exhausted in empirical, i.e. experienced reality. Tony Lawson argues that economics ought to embrace a "social ontology" to include the underlying causes of economic phenomena.

Critical realism and Marxism

A development of Bhaskar's critical realism lies at the ontological root of contemporary streams of Marxist political and economic theory. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The realist philosophy described by Bhaskar in A Realist Theory of Science is compatible with Marx's work in that it differentiates between an intransitive reality, which exists independently of human knowledge of it, and the socially produced world of science and empirical knowledge. This dualist logic is clearly present in the Marxian theory of ideology, according to which social reality may be very different from its empirically observable surface appearance. Notably, Alex Callinicos. whom Göran Therborn calls the 'most prolific of contemporary Marxist writers' in the UK, [ 3 ] has argued for a 'critical realist' ontology in the philosophy of social science and explicitly acknowledges Bhaskar's influence (while also rejecting the latter's 'spiritualist turn' in his later work). [ 4 ] The relationship between critical realist philosophy and Marxism has also been discussed in an article co-authored by Bhaskar and Callinicos and published in the Journal of Critical Realism [ 5 ]

See also References
  1. ^ Marsh, D. (2002), “Marxism”, in Marsh D. Stoker, G. (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
  2. ^ Marsh, D, & Furlong, P. (2002), “Ontology and Epistemology in Political Science”, in Marsh D. Stoker, G. (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science, Basingstoke. Palgrave Macmillan.
  3. ^ Therborn, G. (2008), From Marxism to Post-Marxism?. London, Verso, pp.176-177.
  4. ^ Callinicos, A. (2006), The Resources of Critique. Cambridge, Polity, pp.155-158
  5. ^ Bhaskar, R. Callinicos, A. (2003), 'Marxism and Critical Realism: A Debate', in Journal of Critical Realism. 1.2
Further reading
  • Archer, M. Bhaskar, R. Collier, A. Lawson, T. and Norrie, A. 1998, Critical Realism: Essential Readings. (London, Routledge).
  • Bhaskar, R. 1975 [1997], A Realist Theory of Science. 2nd edition, (London, Verso).
  • Bhaskar, R. 1998, The Possibility of Naturalism: A Philosophical Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences. Third Edition, (London, Routledge)
  • Bhaskar, R. 1993, Dialectic: The Pulse of Freedom. (London, Verso).
  • Coelho, Ivo, 2010. "Critical Realism." ACPI Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Ed. Johnson J. Puthenpurackal. (Bangalore, ATC).1:341-344.
  • Collier, A, 1994, Critical Realism: An Introduction to Roy Bhaskar's Philosophy. (London, Verso).
  • Lonergan, B. 1957. "Insight", (London, DTL).
  • Lopez, J. and Potter, G. 2001, After Postmodernism: An Introduction to Critical Realism. (London, The Athlone Press).
  • Losch, A. 2009. On the Origins of Critical Realism. Theology & Science vol. 7 no.1, 85-106
  • McGrath, A. E. 2001, A Scientific Theology. (London, T&T Clark)
  • Meyer, B. 1989 "Critical Realism and the New Testament", (San Jose, Pickwick Publications)
  • Page, J. 2003 'Critical Realism and the Theological Science of Wolfhart Pannenberg: Exploring the Commonalities'. Bridges: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy, Theology, History and Science 10(1/2):pp. 71–84 <http://eprints.qut.edu.au/archive/00003612/ >.
  • Polkinghorne, J, 1991, Reason and Reality: The Relationship between science and theology. (London, SPCK)
  • Polkinghorne, J. and Oord, T.J. 2010, * The Polkinghorne Reader]  : Science, Faith, and the Search for Meaning (SPCK and Templeton Foundation Press) ISBN 1-59947-315-1 and ISBN 978-0-281-06053-5
  • Sayer, A. (1992) Method in Social Science: A Realist Approach. (London, Routledge)
  • Sayer, A. (2000) Realism and Social Science. (London, Sage)
  • Willmott, R. (2002) Education Policy and Realist Social Theory. (London, Routledge)
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