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Kama Bhog: Foods Of Love - Isbn:9788177644678

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  • Book Title: Kama Bhog: Foods of Love
  • ISBN 13: 9788177644678
  • ISBN 10: 817764467X
  • Author: Jiggs Kalra, Pushpesh Pant, Marut Sikka, Ian Pereira
  • Category: Cookery, Indic
  • Category (general): Other
  • Publisher: Allied Publishers
  • Format & Number of pages: 150 pages, book
  • Synopsis: Foods of Love Jiggs Kalra, Pushpesh Pant, Marut Sikka, Ian Pereira. Also by figgs Kulm : PRASHAD : Cooking with Indian Masters DAAWAT : An Invitation to Indian Cooking Forthcoming : PUNJAB di SHAAN 100 GREAT КЕВАВ SONAR ...

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10 Good sex foods: Wonder Woman

10 Good sex foods

In his book Sex, Drugs and Chocolate: The Science of Pleasure. biologist Paul Martin says that the feeling of pleasure can be self limiting and transient. If one were to be stuck in the stupor of pleasure always, we would never get through life! Which is just as well - with a mile-long to-do list: office meetings, deadlines, child's PTM, the missing home help and laundry to deal with, we women don't have a problem of plenty when it comes to sex!

With the season of love upon us, Prevention decided to campaign for more love and sex - they're super-healthy for you - rather than less. We picked the culinary route and discovered there are many reasons why foods can put you in the mood. It is not just their shape, colour, energising properties, but the erotic sagas around them that make them sexy. Scroll through our list; try them out and tell us if they made you happy!

Strawberries

The saga
'Fruit nipples' or strawberries are favourites in erotic literature. In ancient Rome, these little red hearts were considered symbols of Venus. Newly-wed couples in the French countryside were served cold strawberry soup to get them romancing through their honeymoon.

The Science
Strawberries are a rich source of Vitamin C and make you stronger. Do they have aphrodisiac qualities? "They have long been associated with love, sex and Valentine's because of their sexual signature or appearance," says well-known sexologist Dr Prakash Kothari. "Strawberries resemble a man's testicles," he adds. The thought of sharing a bowlful of little red hearts dipped in cream (or yogurt), with the love of your life - Hollywood style - could be a turn-on!

Cardamoms
The saga
Cardamom has been touted as an aphrodisiac by Arabs for centuries, when they traded with Europe in spices from India, perhaps as a good marketing gimmick, says Amitabh Singh, food and beverage consultant and co-owner of Safari Grills.

The Science
This carminative herb is actually very aromatic; just what you need to pop before or after your tumble in the hay. India's oldest sexologist Vatsyayan advised that 'eating betel leaf with cardamom, as you get ready to kiss, makes the mouth fragrant and appeals to the spatial senses'. All spatial senses contribute to heightening your desire, adds Kothari.

Garlic
The saga
Unlikely candidate, given the halitosis you end up with after eating it raw, but garlic has long been considered an aphrodisiac, notes Frederick J Simoons in his book Plants of Life, Plants of Death. He quotes Pliny as saying that garlic gives the body a ruddier colour and when 'pounded with fresh coriander and taken in neat wine, is considered to be an aphrodisiac'. Greek philospoher Aristophanes too, has referred to garlic's aphrodisiacal qualities in his account of the Peloponnesian War, describing the Megarans as being 'in agonies of excitement, as though stuffed with garlic'.

The Science
Ayurveda says that garlic reduces the 'vaata' element in the body, the excess of which is blamed for most cases of erectile dysfunctions, according to Kothari. Garlic helps de-clog blood vessels, encouraging the flow of blood in the genitalia, thus improving the quality of erections. However, Kothari suggests avoiding raw garlic. Fry 3-4 pods in sesame oil or cow's ghee and consume, he advises. Perhaps garlic's odour may not offend you, if both you and your partner consume it.

Chocolate
The saga
From Aztec ruler Montezuma to Casanova, many playboys in history have touted chocolate's ability to provide energy for their nightly escapades, but science begs to differ.

The Science
Eminent psychiatrist Dr Michael Liebowitz, discovered that chocolate contained phenylethylamine (PEA ), an amino acid that is also secreted by the body when we are in love; but said that the PEA did not go up if you ate plenty of chocolate! Adam Drewnowski, nutritional science expert, added that chocolates also contain brain chemicals like serotonin and dopamine, major mood boosters. However, chocolate's 'feel good' chemicals are not enough to cause sexual excitement, states Dr T K Kamaraj, a sexologist. Chocolate can do more harm than good. It can increase the 'pitta' component in the body, says Kothari.

Clinical psychiatrist Dr Jitendra Nagpal warns, "Without any mass medical trials, it is wrong to encourage these claims as this can actually encourage young people to abuse substances, without realising their impact on the rest of the body." So do not overdose on chocolates, but no harm in sharing a bite of these anti-oxidant rich pleasure bars-especially the dark variety-with your partner, to bust stress and feel happy together.

Asparagus
The saga
Folklore says boiling and eating this light-green, slender stalk three days in a row will stir 'bodily lust' in both men and women. Asparagus has long been considered a desire enhancer, even though mainstream medicine does not agree.

The Science
Rich in potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and Vitamin E, it is the vegetable's phallic shape that has made it an erotic symbol. Ayurveda has it that asparagus has the ability to lower the 'pitta' (excess heat), in the body, thus calming the man and increasing his potency, says Kothari. This actually follows from the basic principle of Ayurveda that sexual potency is inseparable from the whole body. What is good for the whole body is good for sexual health too. So eat on!

Oysters
The saga
This shell fish has been on the list of libido lifters since times immemorial. Second century Roman satirist Juvenal has been documented as attributing women's 'wanton ways' to drinking wine and eating giant oysters. Casanova reportedly had dozens every morning before setting out on his amorous quests. "Every culture has attributed the power of sexual stimulants to foods that resemble male or female genitals, but it has been proved beyond doubt that there is no such food/drug available on earth today which is 'directly' sexually stimulating!" asserts Kothari. Oysters have made it to this list because of their sexual signature, he adds. They resemble female sex organs, and their appealing texture or 'mouth feel' does the trick.

The Science
Research unveiled at the American Chemical Society's meeting in 2005, pointed out that these bivalve molluscs are actually rich in zinc, essential for testosterone production, and hence can boost sexual performance in men and women. However, think twice before biting into raw oysters. Experts from the Universities of Georgia and California say that oysters are filterfeeders that can accumulate toxins and bacteria that are present in the water body. The aphrodisiacal quality of a food depends on how it is consumed, says food maestro Jiggs Kalra, co-author of the book Kama Bhog. His tip: shuck the oysters in champagne and enjoy them!

Bananas
The saga
Such is its resemblance to an erect male organ that many of us would hesitate eating this Vitamin B and potassium-rich fruit in public. Bananas have had a reputation of being an aphrodisiac historically. Said to be the real forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden, instead of the apple, in some religions, banana has long been used as an offering to fertility gods in India. In Central America, the sap of the red banana tree is sipped as an aphrodisiac elixir, apparently.

The Science
Bananas are very nutritious and overall rich in vitamins. They contain chemicals that reportedly have a 'mood-lifting effect on the brain and raise self-confidence'. Ayurveda too, speaks highly of the banana, says Kothari. Instead of apples, it should be 'a banana a day can keep the doctor away'. Though it does not have any direct sexually stimulating effect on the human body, it does promote good health. "And sexual potency is inseparable from the vitality of the whole body," Kothari adds. Think about it: feeding your partner, bananas dipped in hot fudge may just transform your sex life!

Saffron
The saga
Expensive and mysterious, saffron has long been used as an aphrodisiac by people of the Middle East and southern Europe. The author of Secrets of Saffron: The Vagabond Life of the World's Most Seductive Spice, Pat Willard, writes that saffron is known to have perfumed the halls of Crete's palaces and made Cleopatra more alluring.

The Science
Nothing more than the dried stamens of the autumn flowering purple crocus, saffron has been tested to be useful in treating depression and mood-related disorders. But there's no conclusive proof that it is an aphrodisiac, yet. "Saffron on its own lends nothing more than fragrance and colour to our foods," says Kothari.

Quoting Bapa Lal Vaid, an authority on Ayurveda, he adds: "Foods such as the testosterone-rich black gram or urad dal, and soya beans, a rich source of estrogen, may do more, especially for people above 35 or 40, and women nearing menopause." Good food, privacy, a gentle partner and a great setting is all that you need to get into the mood, says Kamaraj. So where's the harm in adding fragrant saffron to your dinner to create the right mood? It is bound to add spice to your night!

Source:

wonderwoman.intoday.in

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Kama Bhog - Foods of Love

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Ian Pereira - Compare Discount Book Prices - Save up to 90%

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Turismo, desarrollo y recursos naturales en el Caribe
by Ian Boxill. Johannes Maerk. Alberto Pereira
264 Pages. Published 2002 by Plaza Y Valdes
ISBN-13: 978-970-722-068-3, ISBN: 970-722-068-6

"Alberto Pereira, Ian Boxill, Johannes Maerk. Preface. In recent times, academic research on tourism in the Caribbean, and by Caribbean academics, has been on the. This collection of articles in both English and Spanish is the fourth instalment in a series of publications on knowledge construction in the Caribbean and Latin America — a project initiated by an adventurous few (the Mexican co- editors of. "


The MPEG-21 Book
by Ian S. Burnett. Fernando Pereira . Rob Koenen
Ebook. 462 Pages. Published 2006 by John Wiley & Sons
ISBN-13: 978-0-470-01012-9, ISBN: 0-470-01012-6

"Semantics A DIM author calls this DIBO to request an attempt to check for the existence, at the time of calling the DIBO, of an authorization proof for an authorization request based on the DIBO arguments as described below. REL defines an. "

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Wiki: Kama

Kama ( Sanskrit. Pali ; Devanagari. काम) means desire, wish, longing in Nepali & Indian literature. Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column Kama often connotes sexual desire and longing in contemporary literature, but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses. the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations.

Kama is one of the four goals of human life in Hindu traditions. It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization). The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8 see:
  • A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, ISBN 9789993624318, pp 9-12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul. 1984), pp. 140-142;
  • A. Sharma (1999), The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism. The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223-256;
  • Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, ISBN 0-415-17281-0, Routledge, Article on Purushartha, pp 443 Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha. Kama in Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, 2009

Kama means “desire, wish or longing”. In contemporary literature, kama refers usually to sexual desire. James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pp 340 However, the term also refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, dance, music, painting, sculpture and nature.

The concept kama is found in some of the earliest known verses in . For example, Book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn 129, it states:

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism, uses the term kama, also in a broader sense, as any desire:

Ancient Indian literature such as the Epics, that followed the . develop and explain the concept of kama together with Artha and Dharma. The Mahabharata. for example, provides one of the expansive definitions of kama. The Epic claims kama to be any agreeable and desirable experience (pleasure) generated by the interaction of one of five senses with anything congenial to that sense and while the mind is concurrently in harmony with the other goals of human life (dharma, artha and moksha). R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, Chapter 10, particularly pp 252-255

Kama often implies the short form of the word kamana (desire, appetition). Kama, however, is more than kamana. Kama is an experience that includes the discovery of object, learning about the object, emotional connection, process of enjoyment and the resulting feeling of well being before, during and after the experience. R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, pp 249-270

Vatsyayana. the author of Kamasutra. describes kama as happiness that is a manasa vyapara (phenomenon of the mind). Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kama as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses - hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling and feeling - in harmony with one’s mind and soul. Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art and admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama sutra, in its discourse on kama, describes many arts, dance and music forms, along with sex as means to pleasure and enjoyment.

John Lochtefeld explains kama as desires, noting that it often refers to sexual desire in contemporary literature, but in ancient Indian literature kāma includes any kind of attraction and pleasure such as those from the arts.

Karl Potter describes Karl H. Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807792, pp. 1-29 kama as an attitude and capacity. A little girl who hugs her teddy bear with a smile is experiencing kama, as are two lovers in embrace. During these experiences, the person connects and identifies the loved as part of oneself, feels more complete, fulfilled and whole by experiencing that connection and nearness. This, in the Indian perspective, is kāma.

Hindery notes the inconsistent and diverse exposition of kama in various ancient texts of India. Some texts, such as the Epic Ramayana. paint kama through the desire of Rama for Sita, one that transcends the physical and marital into a love that is spiritual, and something that gives Rama his meaning of life, his reason to live. Roderick Hindery, Hindu Ethics in the Ramayana, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp. 299 Both Sita and Rama. frequently express their unwillingness and inability to live without the other. See verses at 2.30, 4.1, 6.1, 6.83 for example; Abridged Verse 4.1: “Sita invades my entire being and my love is entirely centered on her; Without that lady of lovely eyelashes, beautiful looks, and gentle speech, I cannot survive, O Saumitri.”; for peer reviewed source, see Hindery, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp 299-300 This romantic and spiritual view of kama in the Ramayana by Valmiki is quite different, claim Hindery and others, Benjamin Khan (1965), The concept of Dharma in Valmiki Ramayana, Delhi, ISBN 978-8121501347 than the normative and dry description of kama in the law codes of smriti by Manu for example.

Gavin Flood explains Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 11-13 kama as “love” without violating dharma (moral responsibility), artha (material prosperity) and one’s journey towards moksha (spiritual liberation).

In Hinduism. kama is regarded as one of the four proper and necessary goals of human life ( purusharthas ), the others being Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization).

Jefferey Brodd (2016 ). 9780884897255. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884897255

Ancient Indian literature emphasizes that dharma precedes and is essential. If dharma is ignored, artha and kama lead to social chaos. Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302, pp 16-21

Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra recognizes relative value of three goals as follows: artha precedes kama, while dharma precedes both kama and artha. Vatsyayana, in Chapter 2 of Kama sutra, presents a series of philosophical objections argued against kama and then offers his answers to refute those objections. For example, one objection to kama (pleasure, enjoyment), acknowledges Vatsyayana, is this concern that kāma is an obstacle to moral and ethical life, to religious pursuits, to hard work, and to productive pursuit of prosperity and wealth. The pursuit of pleasure, claim objectors, encourages individuals to commit unrighteous deeds, bring distress, carelessness, levity and suffering later in life. The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, pp. 9-10 These objections were then answered by Vatsyayana, with the declaration that kama is as necessary to human beings as food, and kama is holistic with dharma and artha.

Just like good food is necessary for the well being of the body, good pleasure is necessary for healthy existence of a human being, suggests Vatsyayana. The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, Chapter 2, pp 8-11; pp 172 A life without pleasure and enjoyment - sexual, artistic, of nature - is hollow and empty. Just like no one should stop farming crops even though everyone knows herds of deer exist and will try to eat the crop as it grows up, in the same way claims Vatsyayana, one should not stop one's pursuit of kama because dangers exist. Kama should be followed with thought, care, caution and enthusiasm, just like farming or any other life pursuit.

Vatsyayana's book the Kama Sutra. in parts of the world, is presumed or depicted as a synonym for creative sexual positions; in reality, only 20% of Kama Sutra is about sexual positions. The majority of the book, notes Jacob Levy, Jacob Levy (2010), Kama sense marketing, iUniverse, ISBN 978-1440195563, see Introduction is about the philosophy and theory of love, what triggers desire, what sustains it, how and when it is good or bad. Kama Sutra presents kama as an essential and joyful aspect of human existence. Alain Daniélou, The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text, ISBN 978-0892815258

Vatsyayana claims kama is never in conflict with dharma or artha, rather all three coexist and kama results from the other two.

Pleasure in general, sexual pleasure in particular, is neither shameful nor dirty, in Hindu philosophy. It is necessary for human life, essential for well being of every individual, and wholesome when pursued with due consideration of dharma and artha. Unlike the precepts of some religions, kama is celebrated in Hinduism, as a value in its own right. Bullough and Bullough (1994), Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824079727, pp 516 Together with artha and dharma, it is an aspect of a holistic life. Gary Kraftsow, Yoga for Transformation - ancient teachings and practices for healing body, mind and heart, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-019629-0, pp 11-15 All three purusharthas - Dharma, Artha and Kama - are equally and simultaneously important. C. Ramanathan, Ethics in the Ramayana, in History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization (Editor: R. Prasad), Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445, pp 84-85

Some P.V. Kane (1941), History of Dharmashastra, Volume 2, Part 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pp. 8-9 ancient Indian literature observe that the relative precedence of artha, kama and dharma are naturally different for different people and different age groups. In a baby or child, education and kāma (artistic desires) take precedence; in youth kāma and artha take precedence; while in old age dharma takes precedence.

Kama is personified as deity Kamadeva and his consort Rati. Deity Kama is comparable to the Greek deity Eros - they both trigger human sexual attraction and sensual desire. Kama rides a parrot, and the deity is armed with bow and arrows to pierce hearts. The bow is made of sugarcane stalk, the bowstring is a line of bees, and the arrows are tipped with five flowers representing five emotions-driven love states. Coulter and Turner, Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Francis & Taylor, ISBN 978-1135963903, pp 258-259 The five flowers on Kama arrows are lotus flower (infatuation), ashoka flower (intoxication with thoughts about the other person), mango flower (exhaustion and emptiness in absence of the other), jasmine flower (pining for the other) and blue lotus flower (paralysis with confusion and feelings). Kama is also known as Ananga (literally "one without body") because desire strikes formlessly, through feelings in unseen ways. The other names for deity Kama include Madan (he who intoxicates with love), Manmatha (he who agitates the mind), Pradyumna (he who conquers all) and Kushumesu (he whose arrows are flowers). William Joseph Wilkins (193), Hindu mythology, Vedic and Puranic. Thacker & Spink, Indiana University Archives, pp 268

In Buddhism 's Pali Canon. the Gautama Buddha renounced ( Pali. nekkhamma ) sensuality ( kama ) in route to his bodhi. See, for instance, Dvedhavitakka Sutta ( Majjhima Nikaya 19) (Thanissaro, 1997a). Some Buddhist lay practitioners recite daily the Five Precepts. a commitment to abstain from "sexual misconduct" ( kamesu micchacara ). See, for instance, Khantipalo (1995). Typical of Pali Canon discourses, the Dhammika Sutta ( Sutta Nipata 2.14) includes a more explicit correlate to this precept when the Gautama Buddha enjoins a follower to "observe celibacy or at least do not have sex with another's wife." [10]

In the Theosophy of Blavatsky. Kama is the fourth principle of the septenary, associated with emotions and desires, attachment to existence, volition, and lust. Farthing 1978 p.210.

Kamaloka is a semi -material plane, subjective and invisible to humans, where disembodied "personalities", the astral forms, called Kama-rupa remain until they fade out from it by the complete exhaustion of the effects of the mental impulses that created these eidolons of human and animal passions and desires. It is associated with Hades of ancient Greeks and the Amenti of the Egyptians, the land of Silent Shadows; a division of the first group of the Trailokya.

  • Ireland, John D. (trans.) (1983). Dhammika Sutta: Dhammika (excerpt) ( Sutta Nipata 2.14). Retrieved 5 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.2.14.irel.html.
  • Khantipalo, Bhikkhu (1982, 1995). Lay Buddhist Practice: The Shrine Room, Uposatha Day, Rains Residence (The Wheel No. 206/207). Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 5 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khantipalo/wheel206.html.
  • Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series (n.d.) (SLTP). ( Anguttara Nikaya 5.1.3.8, in Pali). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "MettaNet-Lanka" at http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/4Anguttara-Nikaya/Anguttara3/5-pancakanipata/003-pancangikavaggo-p.html.
  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Dvedhavitakka Sutta: Two Sorts of Thinking ( Majjhima Nikaya 19). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.019.than.html.
  • Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). Samadhanga Sutta: The Factors of Concentration ( Anguttara Nikaya 5.28). Retrieved 3 Jul 2007 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an05/an05.028.than.html.
  • H. P. Blavatsky, 1892. The Theosophical Glossary. London: The Theosophical Publishing Society

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Kama Bhog: Foods of Love - ISBN:9788177644678

Kāma, in Hinduism, is one of the four goals of human life. [ 2 ] Above illustrate examples of kāma.

Kāma (Sanskrit. Pali ; Devanagari. काम) means desire, wish, longing in Indian literature. [ 3 ] Kāma often connotes sexual desire and longing in contemporary literature, but the concept more broadly refers to any desire, wish, passion, longing, pleasure of the senses. the aesthetic enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. [ 4 ] [ 5 ]

Kāma is one of the four goals of human life in Hindu traditions. [ 2 ] It is considered an essential and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing the other three goals: Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization). [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha. [ 8 ]

Definition and meaning

Kāma means “desire, wish or longing”. [ 3 ] In contemporary literature, kāma refers usually to sexual desire. [ 2 ] However, the term also refers to any sensory enjoyment, emotional attraction and aesthetic pleasure such as from arts, dance, music, painting, sculptor and nature. [ 1 ] [ 9 ]

The concept kāma is found in some of the earliest known verses in Vedas. For example, Book 10 of Rig Veda describes the creation of the universe from nothing by the great heat. There in hymn 129, it states:

काम स्तदग्रे समवर्तताधि मनसो रेतः परथमं यदासीत |
सतो बन्धुमसति निरविन्दन हर्दि परतीष्याकवयो मनीषा || [ 10 ]

Thereafter rose Desire in the beginning, Desire the primal seed and germ of Spirit,
Sages who searched with their heart's thought discovered the existent's kinship in the non-existent.

Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, one of the oldest Upanishads of Hinduism, uses the term kāma, also in a broader sense, as any desire:

Man consists of desire (kāma),
As his desire is, so is his determination,
As his determination is, so is his deed,
Whatever his deed is, that he attains.

Ancient Indian literature such as the Epics, that followed the Upanishads. develop and explain the concept of kāma together with Artha and Dharma. The Mahabharata. for example, provides one of the expansive definitions of kāma. The Epic claims kāma to be any agreeable and desirable experience (pleasure) generated by the interaction of one of five senses with anything congenial to that sense and while the mind is concurrently in harmony with the other goals of human life (dharma, artha and moksha). [ 13 ]

Kāma often implies the short form of the word kāmanā (desire, appetition). Kāma, however, is more than kāmanā. Kāma is an experience that includes the discovery of object, learning about the object, emotional connection, process of enjoyment and the resulting feeling of well being before, during and after the experience. [ 9 ]

Vatsyayana. the author of Kamasutra. describes kāma as happiness that is a manasa vyapara (phenomenon of the mind). Just like the Mahabharata, Vatsyayana's Kamasutra defines kāma as pleasure an individual experiences from the world, with one or more senses - hearing, seeing, tasting, smelling and feeling - in harmony with one’s mind and soul. [ 6 ] Experiencing harmonious music is kama, as is being inspired by natural beauty, the aesthetic appreciation of a work of art and admiring with joy something created by another human being. Kama sutra, in its discourse on kāma, describes many arts, dance and music forms, along with sex as means to pleasure and enjoyment. [ 13 ]

John Lochtefeld explains [ 2 ] kāma as desires, noting that it often refers to sexual desire in contemporary literature, but in ancient Indian literature kāma includes any kind of attraction and pleasure such as those from the arts.

Karl Potter describes [ 14 ] kama as an attitude and capacity. A little girl who hugs her teddy bear with a smile is experiencing kama, as are two lovers in embrace. During these experiences, the person connects and identifies the loved as part of oneself, feels more complete, fulfilled and whole by experiencing that connection and nearness. This, in the Indian perspective, is kāma. [ 14 ]

Hindery notes the inconsistent and diverse exposition of kāma in various ancient texts of India. Some texts, such as the Epic Ramayana. paint kāma through the desire of Rama for Sita, one that transcends the physical and marital into a love that is spiritual, and something that gives Rama his meaning of life, his reason to live. [ 15 ] Both Sita and Rama. frequently express their unwillingness and inability to live without the other. [ 16 ] This romantic and spiritual view of kāma in the Ramayana by Valmiki is quite different, claim Hindery [ 15 ] and others, [ 17 ] than the normative and dry description of kāma in the law codes of smriti by Manu for example.

Gavin Flood explains [ 18 ] kāma as “love” without violating dharma (moral responsibility), artha (material prosperity) and one’s journey towards moksha (spiritual liberation).

Kāma in Hinduism

Kāma is celebrated in many Hindu temples, such as Khajuraho and the Konark Temple (above). [ 19 ]

In Hinduism. kāma is regarded as one of the four proper and necessary goals of human life (purusharthas ), the others being Dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), Artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life) and Moksha (liberation, release, self-actualization). [ 7 ] [ 20 ]

Relative precedence between Kama, Artha, and Dharma

Ancient Indian literature emphasizes that dharma precedes and is essential. If dharma is ignored, artha and kama lead to social chaos. [ 21 ]

Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra recognizes relative value of three goals as follows: artha precedes kama, while dharma precedes both kama and artha. [ 6 ] Vatsyayana, in Chapter 2 of Kama sutra, presents a series of philosophical objections argued against kama and then offers his answers to refute those objections. For example, one objection to kāma (pleasure, enjoyment), acknowledges Vatsyayana, is this concern that kāma is an obstacle to moral and ethical life, to religious pursuits, to hard work, and to productive pursuit of prosperity and wealth. The pursuit of pleasure, claim objectors, encourages individuals to commit unrighteous deeds, bring distress, carelessness, levity and suffering later in life. [ 22 ] These objections were then answered by Vatsyayana, with the declaration that kāma is as necessary to human beings as food, and kāma is holistic with dharma and artha .

Kama is necessary for existence

Just like good food is necessary for the well being of the body, good pleasure is necessary for healthy existence of a human being, suggests Vatsyayana. [ 23 ] A life without pleasure and enjoyment - sexual, artistic, of nature - is hollow and empty. Just like no one should stop farming crops even though everyone knows herds of deer exist and will try to eat the crop as it grows up, in the same way claims Vatsyayana, one should not stop one's pursuit of kāma because dangers exist. Kama should be followed with thought, care, caution and enthusiasm, just like farming or any other life pursuit. [ 23 ]

Vatsyayana's book the Kama Sutra. in parts of the world, is presumed or depicted as a synonym for creative sexual positions; in reality, only 20% of Kama Sutra is about sexual positions. The majority of the book, notes Jacob Levy, [ 24 ] is about the philosophy and theory of love, what triggers desire, what sustains it, how and when it is good or bad. Kama Sutra presents kama as an essential and joyful aspect of human existence. [ 25 ]

Kama is holistic

Vatsyayana claims kama is never in conflict with dharma or artha, rather all three coexist and kama results from the other two. [ 6 ]

A man practicing Dharma, Artha and Kama enjoys happiness now and in future. Any action which conduces to the practice of Dharma, Artha and Kama together, or of any two, or even one of them should be performed. But an action which conduces to the practice of one of them at the expense of the remaining two should not be performed.

—Vatsyayana, The Kama sutra, Chapter 2 [ 26 ]

Pleasure in general, sexual pleasure in particular, is neither shameful nor dirty, in Hindu philosophy. It is necessary for human life, essential for well being of every individual, and wholesome when pursued with due consideration of dharma and artha. Unlike the precepts of some religions, kāma is celebrated in Hinduism, as a value in its own right. [ 27 ] Together with artha and dharma, it is an aspect of a holistic life. [ 9 ] [ 28 ] All three purusharthas - Dharma, Artha and Kama - are equally and simultaneously important. [ 29 ]

Kama and stage of life

Some [ 6 ] [ 30 ] ancient Indian literature observe that the relative precedence of artha, kama and dharma are naturally different for different people and different age groups. In a baby or child, education and kāma (artistic desires) take precedence; in youth kāma and artha take precedence; while in old age dharma takes precedence.

Kama as deity

Kāma is personified as deity Kamadeva and his consort Rati. Deity Kama is comparable to the Greek deity Eros - they both trigger human sexual attraction and sensual desire. [ 2 ] [ 8 ] Kama rides a parrot, and the deity is armed with bow and arrows to pierce hearts. The bow is made of sugarcane stalk, the bowstring is a line of bees, and the arrows are tipped with five flowers representing five emotions-driven love states. [ 31 ] The five flowers on Kama arrows are lotus flower (infatuation), ashoka flower (intoxication with thoughts about the other person), mango flower (exhaustion and emptiness in absence of the other), jasmine flower (pining for the other) and blue lotus flower (paralysis with confusion and feelings). Kama is also known as Ananga (literally "one without body") because desire strikes formlessly, through feelings in unseen ways. [ 2 ] The other names for deity Kama include Madan (he who intoxicates with love), Manmatha (he who agitates the mind), Pradyumna (he who conquers all) and Kushumesu (he whose arrows are flowers). [ 32 ]

Kama in Buddhism

In Buddhism 's Pali Canon. the Gautama Buddha renounced (Pali. nekkhamma ) sensuality (kāma ) in route to his Awakening. [ 33 ] Some Buddhist lay practitioners recite daily the Five Precepts. a commitment to abstain from "sexual misconduct" (kāmesu micchācāra ). [ 34 ] Typical of Pali Canon discourses, the Dhammika Sutta (Sn 2.14) includes a more explicit correlate to this precept when the Buddha enjoins a follower to "observe celibacy or at least do not have sex with another's wife." [ 35 ]

Theosophy: kama, kamarupa and kamaloka

In the Theosophy of Blavatsky. Kama is the fourth principle of the septenary. associated with emotions and desires, attachment to existence, volition, and lust. [ 36 ]

Kamaloka is a semi -material plane, subjective and invisible to humans, where disembodied "personalities", the astral forms, called Kama-rupa remain until they fade out from it by the complete exhaustion of the effects of the mental impulses that created these eidolons of human and animal passions and desires. It is associated with Hades of ancient Greeks and the Amenti of the Egyptians, the land of Silent Shadows; a division of the first group of the Trailõkya .

See also References
  1. ^ ab See:
    • Kate Morris (2011), The Illustrated Dictionary of History, ISBN 978-8189093372. pp 124;
    • Robert E. Van Voorst, RELG: World, Wadsworth, ISBN 978-1-111-72620-1. pp 78
  2. ^ abcdef James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1, Rosen Publishing, New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1. pp 340
  3. ^ ab Monier Williams, काम, kāma Monier-Williams Sanskrit English Dictionary, pp 271, see 3rd column
  4. ^ Macy, Joanna (1975). "The Dialectics of Desire". Numen (BRILL) 22 (2): 145–60. JSTOR  3269765.  
  5. ^ Lorin Roche. "Love-Kama". Retrieved 15 July 2011.  
  6. ^ abcde The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, pp. 8
  7. ^ ab see:
    • A. Sharma (1982), The Puruṣārthas: a study in Hindu axiology, Michigan State University, ISBN 9789993624318. pp 9-12; See review by Frank Whaling in Numen, Vol. 31, 1 (Jul. 1984), pp. 140-142;
    • A. Sharma (1999), The Puruṣārthas: An Axiological Exploration of Hinduism. The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer, 1999), pp. 223-256;
    • Chris Bartley (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy, Editor: Oliver Learman, ISBN 0-415-17281-0. Routledge, Article on Purushartha, pp 443
  8. ^ ab Kama in Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago, 2009
  9. ^ abc R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445. pp 249-270
  10. ^ Rig Veda Book 10 Hymn 129 Verse 4
  11. ^ Ralph Griffith (Translator, 1895), The Hymns of the Rig veda. Book X, Hymn CXXIX, Verse 4, pp 575
  12. ^ Klaus Klostermaier. A Survey of Hinduism, 3rd Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4. pp. 173-174
  13. ^ ab R. Prasad (2008), History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445. Chapter 10, particularly pp 252-255
  14. ^ ab Karl H. Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807792. pp. 1-29
  15. ^ ab Roderick Hindery, Hindu Ethics in the Ramayana, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp. 299
  16. ^ See verses at 2.30, 4.1, 6.1, 6.83 for example; Abridged Verse 4.1: “Sita invades my entire being and my love is entirely centered on her; Without that lady of lovely eyelashes, beautiful looks, and gentle speech, I cannot survive, O Saumitri.”; for peer reviewed source, see Hindery, The Journal of Religious Ethics, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall, 1976), pp 299-300
  17. ^ Benjamin Khan (1965), The concept of Dharma in Valmiki Ramayana, Delhi, ISBN 978-8121501347
  18. ^ Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302. pp 11-13
  19. ^ Thomas Donaldson (2005), Konark, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195675917
  20. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN  978-0-88489-725-5.  
  21. ^ Gavin Flood (1996), The meaning and context of the Purusarthas, in Julius Lipner (Editor) - The Fruits of Our Desiring, ISBN 978-1896209302. pp 16-21
  22. ^ The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, pp. 9-10
  23. ^ ab The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, Chapter 2, pp 8-11; pp 172
  24. ^ Jacob Levy (2010), Kama sense marketing, iUniverse, ISBN 978-1440195563. see Introduction
  25. ^ Alain Daniélou, The Complete Kama Sutra: The First Unabridged Modern Translation of the Classic Indian Text, ISBN 978-0892815258
  26. ^ The Hindu Kama Shastra Society (1925), Answer 4, The Kama Sutra of Vatsyayana. University of Toronto Archives, pp. 11
  27. ^ Bullough and Bullough (1994), Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0824079727. pp 516
  28. ^ Gary Kraftsow, Yoga for Transformation - ancient teachings and practices for healing body, mind and heart, Penguin, ISBN 978-0-14-019629-0. pp 11-15
  29. ^ C. Ramanathan, Ethics in the Ramayana, in History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization (Editor: R. Prasad), Volume 12, Part 1, ISBN 978-8180695445. pp 84-85
  30. ^ P.V. Kane (1941), History of Dharmashastra, Volume 2, Part 1, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, pp. 8-9
  31. ^ Coulter and Turner, Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Francis & Taylor, ISBN 978-1135963903. pp 258-259
  32. ^ William Joseph Wilkins (193), Hindu mythology, Vedic and Puranic. Thacker & Spink, Indiana University Archives, pp 268
  33. ^ See, for instance, Dvedhavitakka Sutta (MN 19) (Thanissaro, 1997a).
  34. ^ See, for instance, Khantipalo (1995).
  35. ^ [1]
  36. ^ Farthing 1978 p.210.
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