Ebooks for you

Discourses (Books 1 And 2) - Isbn:9780486149547

Category: Philosophy

  • Book Title: Discourses (Books 1 and 2)
  • ISBN 13: 9780486149547
  • ISBN 10: 0486149544
  • Author: Epictetus
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Category (general): Philosophy
  • Publisher: Courier Corporation
  • Format & Number of pages: 160 pages, book
  • Synopsis: INTRODUCTION Emcmrus t his Ace The new life given to the study of Rome and her institutions under the early ... of the GraecoRoman world which preserved it against barbarian forces, until the inheritance of Rome could be passed on to the  ...

Another description

The Internet Classics Archive

Buy Loeb Classical Library Books: E

Use this page to find books from the Loeb Classical Library with titles beginning with E, or return to the main page for buying books.
Epictetus Discourse Books 1 and 2 (Loeb Classical Library, N.
ISBN: 0674991451

Epictetus: Discourses, Books 3 and 4 (Loeb Classical Library.
ISBN: 0674992407

Epigrams (Loeb Classical Library, No 480) Vol 3
ISBN: 0674995295
($18.95, Hardcover, 1993)

Epistulae Morales, Letters I-Lxv (Seneca) Vol 4
ISBN: 0674990846
($18.95, Hardcover, 1917)

Euripides (Loeb Classical Library, No 10) Vol 2
ISBN: 0674990110

Euripides (Loeb Classical Library, No 9) Vol 1
ISBN: 0674990102
(Hardcover, 1978)

Euripides: Bacchanals-Madness of Hercules-Children of Hercul.
ISBN: 0674990129

Euripides: Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hec.
ISBN: 0674995333
($18.95, Paperback, 1996)

Euripides: Cyclops, Alcestis, Medea (Loeb Classical Library.
ISBN: 0674995600

Eusebius Ecclesiastical History: Books I-V Vol 1
ISBN: 0674991699

Eusebius: Ecclesiastical History (Loeb Classical Library, No.
ISBN: 0674992938




Great Traditions in Ethics, 12th Edition - Theodore C

Great Traditions in Ethics, 12th Edition
  • Theodore C. Denise Syracuse University
  • Nicholas White University of California, Irvine
  • Sheldon P. Peterfreund Late of Syracuse University
  • ISBN-10: 0495094986 | ISBN-13: 9780495094982
  • 384 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2005, 2002, 1999
  • © 2008 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $148.50
  • 20595171561368865498731091044299912615
Product Information Toggle Product Information Content
  • About
    • Overview
    • Features/Benefits
    • Table of Contents
    • What's New
  • Supplements
  • Meet the Author
About Overview

Long-hailed for skilled editing that enables students to explore many seminal and complex primary sources that contribute to the canon of ethical theory, GREAT TRADITIONS IN ETHICS has become the standard historical anthology for introducing ethical theory. Combining informative chapter introductions that provide biographical, historical, and theoretical contexts; well-placed comments inserted within the readings; and ample, but not overwhelming, reading selections, GREAT TRADITIONS IN ETHICS constructively challenges students to critically engage the most crucial ideas, thinkers, and readings in the history of ethical theory. With the Twelfth Edition, the authors focus on supplementing the readings with discussions of applying ethical theories-within the chapters and in the text's expanded Appendix.

Features and Benefits
  • Each chapter includes study questions to prompt thought about the selections and the concepts covered. "Guide to Additional Reading" sections direct students toward further study and assist students in focusing research for essays.
  • Chapter introductions prepare students for the subsequent readings and the issues they raise. Introductions to each philosopher are also included, as are introductions to specific reading selections. These help the student to engage with and understand the views of the ideas presented.
  • An appendix on applied ethics introduces students to the rise of this contemporary focal point in ethical debates.
Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
2. Plato: Knowledge and Virtue.
From "The Gorgias and the Repulbic,"Books I-II, IV, VI-VII, and IX.
3. Aristotle: Moral Character.
From "Nichomachean Ethics," Books I-II, VI, and X.
4. Epicurus: The Pleasant Life.
From the letters "To Herodotus" and "To Menoceus," the "Principal Doctrines," and the "Fragments."
5. Epictetus: Self-Discipline.
From the "Discourses," Books I-IV, the "Enchiridion," and the "Fragments."
6. Saint Augustine: The Love of God.
From the "Enchiridion," Chapters XI-XII, XCVI, and C-CI, and the "City of God," Books V, XII, XIV, and XIX-XXII.
7. Saint Thomas Aquinas: Morality and Natural Law.
From the "Summa Contra Gentiles," Book III, and the "Summa Theologica," Articles I-III, and V-VIII.
8. Thomas Hobbes: Social Contract Ethics.
From the "Leviathan," Chapters VI, XIII-XV, and XXIX-XXX, and "Philosophical Rudiments," Chapter I.
9. Benedict de Spinoza: Nature and Reason.
Selections from "On the Improvement of the Understanding," and "The Ethics," Parts I-V.
10. Joseph Butler: Conscience in Morality.
From "Sermons," I-III and XI, and the "Preface."
11. David Hume: Morality and Sentiment.
From "An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals."
12. Immanuel Kant: Duty and Reason.
From "Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals," First and Second Sections.
13. John Stuart Mill: The Greatest Happiness Principle.
From "Utilitarianism," Chapters II-III.
14. Søren Kierkegaard: The Leap of Faith.
From "Either/or, Fear and Trembling," and "Concluding Unscientific Postscript."
15. Karl Marx: Morality as Ideology.
From "Karl Marx: Selected Writings."
16. Henry Sidgwick: Utilitarianism Revised.
From "The Methods of Ethics."
17. Friedrich Nietzsche: The Transvaluation of Values.
From "The Will to Power, the Genealogy of Morals (First Essay)," and "Beyond Good and Evil."
18. John Dewey: Scientific Method in Ethics.
From "The Quest for Certainty," Chapter X.
19. G. E. Moore: The Indefinability of Good.
From "Principia Ethica."
20. W. D. Ross: Prima Facie Duty.
From "The Right and the Good."
21. A. J. Ayer and C. L. Stevenson: Ethics as Emotive Expression.
From "Ayer's Language, Truth and Logic," Chapter VI, and Stevenson's "The Nature of Ethical Disagreement."
22. Jean-Paul Sartre: Radical Freedom.
From "Existentialism and Human Emotions."
23. Kurt Baier: Good Reason in Ethics.
From "The Moral Point of View."
24. John Rawls: Ethics and Social Justice.
From "Justice as Reciprocity."
25. Philippa Foot: Moral Virtue and Human Interest.
From "Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy."
26. Annette Baier: Ethics as Trusting in Trust.
From "Trust and Antitrust."
27. J.L. Mackie: Inventing Right and Wrong.
From "Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong."
28. Bernard Williams: Ethical Skepticism.
From "Morality: An Introduction to Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy."
Appendix: Traditions and Applications.

What's New
  • This edition features a substantially expanded Appendix on applied ethics. This enhanced section surveys major areas in applied ethics and explains how the views of philosophers presented in the text might be applied to various ethical problems.
  • Revised introductions throughout the text for this edition focus on real world applications of the ethical theories presented.
  • Now you can customize your text and your course with ease. Proteus offers a collection of readings that give you unprecedented flexibility, range, quality, and value via a vast array of seminal works history of philosophy as well as exceptional secondary overviews philosophers and topics in philosophy. Using the intuitive TextChoice engine, you can sample and create custom anthologies online in an easy, automated fashion. Visit http://proteus.thomsonlearning.com to learn more.

All supplements have been updated in coordination with the main title. Select the main title's "About" tab, then select "What's New" for updates specific to title's edition.

For more information about these supplements, or to obtain them, contact your Learning Consultant .

Theodore C. Denise received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and taught at Syracuse University

Nicholas White

Nicholas White obtained his Ph.D. from Harvard University and currently serves as chair of the philosophy department at the University of California, Irvine. He specializes in Greek philosophy, epistemology, and ethics, having written several books and articles on each of these topics.

Nicholas White obtained his Ph.D. from Harvard University and currently serves as chair of the philosophy department at the University of California, Irvine. He specializes in Greek philosophy, epistemology, and ethics, having written several books and articles on each of these topics.

Sheldon P. Peterfreund

Sheldon P. Peterfreund taught at Syracuse University for over 40 years, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.

Sheldon P. Peterfreund taught at Syracuse University for over 40 years, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania.



Discourses, Books 1-2 - Epictetus

Discourses, Books 1-2

Now Available: The digital Loeb Classical Library (loebclassics.com ) extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature.

Booksellers and Librarians: Our recent titles are available via Edelweiss .

Off the Page: Visit our multimedia page for video about recent projects and interviews with HUP authors.

Join Our Mailing List: Subscribe to receive information about forthcoming books, seasonal catalogs, and more, in newsletters tailored to your interests.


October 31: A History of Political Space Territory—an idea that seemed to have fallen into genteel disuse—has intruded into our lives with a renewed and menacing urgency. It refers to a geographic space, set apart from others by law and boundary. Until recently we could take territory for granted; it was protective and offered security and belonging, with less and less self-conscious effort. After the end of the Cold War, Europeans and Americans tended to believe that territorial priorities had become anachronistic, subsisting mostly among stubborn peoples in the Balkans or the Middle East or as a stake in East Asia. Now the security that territory once offered seems precarious everywhere and to be maintained only with constant…

Harvard University Press offices are located at 79 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA & Vernon House, 23 Sicilian Avenue, London WC1A 2QS UK



Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2

Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2

William Lilly, "Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2"
Astrology Classics | 2005 | ISBN: 1933303026 | 550 pages | PDF | 4 MB

This is the most famous, the most celebrated astrology book in the English language. It has been prized by students ever since its first publication in 1647. The Horary Astrology in these pages, in the hands of a master, is no mere parlour game. It is demanding and precise, combining science and art. Properly used, it will give answer to any well-defined question.

Book 1, An Introduction to Astrology, containing the use of an ephemeris; the erecting of a scheme of heaven; nature of the twelve signs of the Zodiac, of the planets; with a most easy introduction to the whole art of astrology.

Book 2, The Resolution of All Manner of Questions, by a most methodical way, instructs the student how to judge or resolve all manner of questions contingent unto man, viz, of health, sickness, riches, marriage, preferment, journeys, etc. Some 35 questions inserted and judged.

Includes: Original woodcut charts, as well as charts in modern round format; glossary of archaic terms; original marginalia; Lilly's original bibliography & index. Spellings & verb tenses modernized, the entire book (including tables) reset in modern typeface. The contents of this book match the 1985 Regulus facsimile (of the 1647 original) page-for-page, often line-for-line. This is Lilly's great book as he himself knew it, brought into the 21st century.

Not all books on AvaxHome appear on the homepage.
In order not to miss many of them follow ebooks section (see top of each page on AH)
and visit my blog too :)



William Lilly Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 download - Website of isbn13info2ih!

William Lilly Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 download - Website of isbn13info2ih! William Lilly Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 download
  • Download Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2

Author - William Lilly
Type of this book - eBook
Date Released (if available) - 2005
Format of the book - pdf
Language of the book (if available) is English
Codes [if available]
Isbn10 - 1933303026
Isbn13 - 9781933303024

Download book Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 pdf, epub or djvu, mp3 audio formats. Book reviews of Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2, literature review of Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2, essay on Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2, course work, research paper about Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2. Download free app to read Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2. Download almost free pdf Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 in the online library. Find text ebook Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 in pdf by William Lilly download, download online book Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 pdf or audio ebooks, Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 literature review. Formats for IPAD, MAC, PC, PDA, and all mobile devices. download ebook Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 djvu or audio mp3 format, download book Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 chm by isbn number. Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 download ebook. Ebook Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 djvu by William Lilly download, fast download almost free Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2, try to find cheap ebook Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 chm or pdf by William Lilly download. Books on German (de), Spanish (sp), Italian (it), Freanch, English languages. Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 torrent by William Lilly download ebook, Christian Astrology, Books 1 and 2 audio mp3 by William Lilly download.
Voltage-Sourced Converters in Power Systems



James paul gee _an_introduction_to_discourse_anal(book_)

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Explore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare app Get the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline

Continue to the mobile site »

  • Upload
  • Login
  • Signup

Double tap to zoom out

[James paul gee]_an_introduction_to_discourse_anal(book_fi.org)

Share this SlideShare

LinkedIn Corporation © 2016



Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 download ebook - Website of booksoffersm7!

Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 download ebook - Website of booksoffersm7! Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 download ebook

Hello boys and girls! As usual, best website where you can download the ebook that you need. [If you have any questions about books feel free to ask].

TODAY'S BOOK IS "Immortal Series Books 1 and 2" by Gillian Shields.
TODAY'S best place where you can download it is here .

Some details:
Author: Gillian Shields
Date Released: 0000
Format of the book: mp3
Type: aBook
Language: English

ISBN codes:
Isbn10: -
Isbn13: -

TODAY'S BOOK description is available here .

3 Previous posts:

Download book Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 chm format; Download ebook Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 djvu file. Download Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 pdf by Gillian Shields; Download online book Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 epub. Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 download cheap; Immortal Series Books 1 and 2 audio mp3 by Gillian Shields download.



Discourses (Books 1 and 2) - ISBN:9780486149547


Stoicism. a school of Hellenistic philosophy. was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BC. It concerns the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human freedom. and the belief that it is virtuous to maintain a will (called "prohairesis") that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how they behaved. [John Sellars. "Stoicism", p. 32. ]

Stoic doctrine proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed in 529 AD by the Emperor Justinian I. who perceived their pagan character to be at odds with his Christian faith. [ Agathias. "Histories", 2.31. ]

Philosophy does not promise to secure anything external for man, otherwise it would be admitting something that lies beyond its proper subject-matter. For as the material of the carpenter is wood, and that of statuary bronze, so the subject-matter of the art of living is each person's own life. - Epictetus [Epictetus, "Discourses" 1.15.2, Robin Hard revised translation. ]

The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic. non-dualistic physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the main focus of human knowledge, though their logical theories were to be of more interest for many later philosophers.

Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotion s; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (" logos "). A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual’s ethical and moral well-being: "Virtue" consists in a "will" which is in agreement with Nature." Russell, Bertrand. "A History of Western Philosophy". p. 254 ] This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy", Russell, Bertrand. "A History of Western Philosophy". p. 264 ] and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all alike are sons of God." Russell, Bertrand. "A History of Western Philosophy", p. 253. ]

The Stoic ethic espouses a deterministic perspective; in regards to those who lack Stoic virtue, Cleanthes once opined that the wicked man is "like a dog tied to a cart, and compelled to go wherever it goes." A Stoic of virtue, by contrast, would amend his will to suit the world and remain, in the words of Epictetus, "sick and yet happy, in peril and yet happy, dying and yet happy, in exile and happy, in disgrace and happy," thus positing a "completely autonomous" individual will, and at the same time a universe that is "a rigidly deterministic single whole".

Stoicism became the foremost popular philosophy among the educated elite in the Greco-Roman Empire, [ H.D. Amos and A.G.P. Lang, "These Were the Greeks" ] to the point where, in the words of Gilbert Murray. "nearly all the successors of Alexander [. ] professed themselves Stoics." [Gilbert Murray, "The Stoic Philosophy" (1915), p.25. In Bertrand Russell. "History of Western Philosophy" (1946). ]

Beginning at around 301 BC, Zeno taught philosophy at the Stoa Poikile (i.e. "the painted porch"), from which his philosophy got its name [ [http://depthome.brooklyn.cuny.edu/classics/dunkle/athnlife/poikile.htm The Painted Stoa ] ] [ [http://www.wku.edu/

jan.garrett/stoa/stoapoik.htm Where the Early Stoics Taught ] ]. Unlike the other schools of philosophy, such as the Epicureans, Zeno chose to teach his philosophy in a public space, which was a colonnade overlooking the central gathering place of Athens, the Agora.

Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynic s, whose founding father, Antisthenes. had been a disciple of Socrates. Zeno's most influential follower was Chrysippus. who was responsible for the molding of what we now call Stoicism. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control.

Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases:

* Early Stoa, from the founding of the school by Zeno to Antipater .

* Middle Stoa, including Panaetius and Posidonius .

* Late Stoa, including Musonius Rufus. Seneca. Epictetus. and Marcus Aurelius .

Unfortunately, as A. A. Long states, no complete work by any Stoic philosopher survives from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive. [A.A.Long, "Hellenistic Philosophy", p.115. ]

The Stoics believed in the certainty of knowledge. which can be attained through the use of reason. Truth can be distinguished from fallacy, even if in practice only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the senses are constantly receiving sensations: pulsations which pass from objects through the senses to the mind. where they leave behind an impression ("phantasia"). The mind has the ability ("synkatathesis") to approve or reject an impression, to enable it to distinguish a representation of reality which is true from one which is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can only achieve varying degrees of hesitant approval which can be labelled belief or opinion (" doxa "). It is only through the use of reason that we can achieve clear comprehension and conviction (" katalepsis "). Certain and true knowledge (" episteme "), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of one's peers and the collective judgement of humankind .

Make for yourself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to you, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell yourself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to you in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole. [Marcus Aurelius, "Meditations", iii. 11. ]

toic physics and cosmology

According to the Stoics, the universe is a material, reasoning, substance, known as God or Nature. which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter. which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion." [Seneca, "Epistles", lxv. 2. ] The active substance, which can be called Fate. or Universal Reason (" Logos "), is an intelligent aether or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter: The universe itself is god and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same world's guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality which embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained. [Chrysippus, in Cicero, "de Natura Deorum", i. ]

Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter which it governs. The souls of people and animals are emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate:

Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things which exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web. [Marcus Aurelius, "Meditations", iv. 40. ]

Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be "transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason ("logos spermatikos") of the Universe." [Marcus Aurelius, "Meditations", iv. 21. ] Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to Reason. that is, to live a life according to Nature .

toic ethics and virtues

The ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts in the past than they do today. The word "stoic" has come to mean "unemotional" or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from "passion" by following "reason." The Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions, rather they sought to transform them by a resolute "askēsis " which enables a person to develop clear judgment and inner calm. Logic. reflection, and concentration were the methods of such self-discipline.

Borrowing from the Cynics. the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: "Follow where reason leads." One must therefore strive to be free of the passions. bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of "passion" was "anguish" or "suffering", [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/87/P0098700.html American Heritage Dictionary - passion ] ] that is, "passively" reacting to external events — somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between "pathos" (plural "pathe") which is normally translated as "passion", "propathos" or instinctive reaction (e.g. turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and "eupathos", which is the mark of the Stoic sage ("sophos"). The "eupatheia" are feelings resulting from correct judgment in the same way as the passions result from incorrect judgment.

The idea was to be free of suffering through " apatheia " (απαθεια) (Greek) or "apathy ", where apathy was understood in the ancient sense — being objective or having "clear judgment" — rather than simple indifference, as apathy implies today. Stoic "apatheia" is rather the maintenance of equanimity in the face of life's highs and lows - getting carried away by neither.

For the Stoics, " reason " meant not only using logic, but also understanding the processes of nature — the logos. or universal reason, inherent in all things. Living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are " wisdom " (Sophia), " courage " (Andreia), " justice " (Dikaiosyne), and "temperance " (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of Plato .

Following Socrates. the Stoics held that unhappiness and evil are the results of ignorance. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason. Likewise, if they are unhappy, it is because they have forgotten how nature actually functions. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy — to examine one's own judgments and behaviour and determine where they have diverged from the universal reason of nature.

The doctrine of "things indifferent"

In philosophical terms, things which are indifferent are outside the application of moral law. that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or which do not affect morality. are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent ( _el. ἀδιάφορα. " adiaphora ") arose in the Stoic school as a corollary of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice ( καθήκοντα " kathekon " and ἁμαρτήματα "hamartemata", respectively "convenient actions," or actions in accordance with nature, and mistakes). As a result of this dichotomy. a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent.

Eventually three sub-classes of "things indifferent" developed: things to be preferred because they assisted life according to nature; things to be avoided because they hindered it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense.

The principle of _el. ἀδιάφορα was also common to the Cynics and Sceptics. The conception of things indifferent is, according to Kant. extra-moral. The doctrine of things indifferent was revived during the Renaissance by Philip Melanchthon .

Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or "askesis", "see ascetic "). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of Eastern meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions, " hypomnemata ", and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.

In " Meditations ", Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II, part 1:

Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill. I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together.

A distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism. All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In the "Discourses ", Epictetus comments on man's relationship with the world: "Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, where of the city political is only a copy." [Epictetus, "Discourses", ii. 5. 26 ] This sentiment echoes that of Socrates. who said "I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world." [Epictetus, "Discourses", i. 9. 1 ]

They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Thus, before the rise of Christianity. Stoics advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco–Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus.

In particular, they were noted for their urging of clemency toward slave s. Seneca exhorted, "Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies." [Seneca, "Epistles", xlvii. 10 ]

Stoicism and Christianity

Due to Stoicism being founded in the culture of ancient Greece, and in the context of ancient Greek religion. and historically prior to Christianity. Stoicism was naturally regarded by the Fathers of the Church as a 'pagan philosophy'.Fact|date=July 2008 Nonetheless, some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism were employed by the early Christian writers. Examples include the terms " logos ", "virtue", "Spirit", and "conscience". Ferguson, Everett. "Backgrounds of Early Christianity". 2003, page 368. ] But the parallels go well beyond the sharing (or borrowing) of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature (or God), and a sense of the innate depravity—or "persistent evil"—of humankind. Both encourage "askesis" with respect to the passions and inferior emotions (viz. lust, envy and anger) so that the higher possibilities of one's humanity can be awakened and developed. The major difference between the two philosophies is Stoicism's pantheism where God is never fully transcendent but always immanent. God as the world-creating entity is personalised in Christian thought but Stoicism equates God with the totality of the universe. Also, Stoicism, unlike Christianity, posits no beginning or end to the universe, and no continued individual existence beyond death. Even so, Stoic writings such as the "Meditations" of Marcus Aurelius have been highly regarded and widely read by Christians throughout the centuries. St. Ambrose of Milan was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology.

The central Stoic idea of " logos " had an encounter with early Orthodox Christianity through Arius and his supporters. The ecumenical rejection of this belief was evidenced and deemed heretical at the Council at Nicea. [Jaroslav Pelikan, "The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)", pp 193-203 ] Stoicism influenced Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius 's " Consolation of Philosophy ", which was highly influential in the Middle Ages in its promotion of Christian morality via secular philosophy.Fact|date=September 2007

For example, the Serenity Prayer :

God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things that should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other.

The word "stoic" now commonly refers to someone indifferent to pain, pleasure, grief, or joy. The modern usage as "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" is first cited in 1579 as a noun. and 1596 as an adjective. [cite web|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=stoic |title=Online Etymology Dictionary - Stoic |accessdate=2006-09-02|last=Harper |first=Douglas |year=2001 |month=November ] In contrast to the term " epicurean ", the "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's" entry on Stoicism notes, "the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins." [cite web|url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/stoicism/ |title=Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Stoicism |accessdate=2006-09-02|last=Baltzly |first=Dirk |date=2004-12-13 ]

Below is a selection of quotations by major Stoic philosophers illustrating major Stoic beliefs:

Epictetus :
*"Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire." (iv.1.175)
*"Where is the good? In the will. Where is the evil? In the will. Where is neither of them? In those things which are independent of the will." (ii.16.1)
*"Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them." (Ench. 5)
*"If, therefore, any be unhappy, let him remember that he is unhappy by reason of himself alone." (iii.24.2)
*"I am formed by nature for my own good: I am not formed for my own evil." (iii.24.83)
*"Permit nothing to cleave to you that is not your own; nothing to grow to you that may give you agony when it is torn away." (iv.1.112)

Marcus Aurelius :
*"Get rid of the judgment, get rid of the 'I am hurt,' you are rid of the hurt itself." (viii.40)
*"Everything is right for me, which is right for you, O Universe. Nothing for me is too early or too late, which comes in due time for you. Everything is fruit to me which your seasons bring, O Nature. From you are all things, in you are all things, to you all things return." (iv.23)
*"If you work at that which is before you, following right reason seriously, vigorously, calmly, without allowing anything else to distract you, but keeping your divine part pure, as if you were bound to give it back immediately; if you hold to this, expecting nothing, but satisfied to live now according to nature, speaking heroic truth in every word which you utter, you will live happy. And there is no man able to prevent this." (iii.12)
*"How ridiculous and how strange to be surprised at anything which happens in life!" (xii.13)
*"Outward things cannot touch the soul, not in the least degree; nor have they admission to the soul, nor can they turn or move the soul; but the soul turns and moves itself alone." (iv.3)
*"Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also" (vi.19)
*"Or is it your reputation that's bothering you? But look at how soon we're all forgotten. The abyss of endless time that swallows it all. The emptiness of those applauding hands. The people who praise us; how capricious they are, how arbitrary. And the tiny region it takes place. The whole earth a point in space - and most of it uninhabited." (iv.3)

Seneca the Younger :
*"The point is, not how long you live, but how nobly you live." (Ep. 101.15)
*"That which Fortune has not given, she cannot take away." (Ep. 59.18)
*"Let Nature deal with matter, which is her own, as she pleases; let us be cheerful and brave in the face of everything, reflecting that it is nothing of our own that perishes." (De Provid.)
*"Virtue is nothing else than right reason." (Ep. 66.32)

* Antipater of Tarsus (210 BCE - 129 BCE)
* Cato the Younger (Uticensis 94 BCE - 46 BCE)
* Chrysippus (280 BCE -204 BCE)
*Cleanthes (of Assos). (330 BCE - 232 BCE)
*Diodotus. (c. 120 BCE - 59 BCE), teacher of Cicero
* Diogenes of Babylon (230 BCE - 150 BCE)
* Epictetus (55 CE - 135 CE)
*Hierocles (2nd century AD)
* Marcus Aurelius (121 CE - 180 CE)
* Panaetius of Rhodes (185 BCE - 109 BCE)
* Posidonius of Apameia (ca. 135 BCE - 51 BCE)
*Seneca (4 BCE - 65 CE)
**Contemporaries: Musonius Rufus. Rubellius Plautus. Thrasea Paetus
* Zeno of Citium (332 BCE - 262 BCE), founder of Stoicism
**Contemporaries: Aristo of Chios. pupil of Zeno; Herillus of Carthage

* A. A. Long and D. N. Sedley. "The Hellenistic Philosophers" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987)
*Harvard University Press "Epictetus Discourses Books 1 and 2", Loeb Classical Library Nr. 131, June 1925.
*Harvard University Press "Epictetus Discourses Books 3 and 4", Loeb Classical Library Nr. 218, June 1928.
*Gill C. "Epictetus, The Discourses", Everyman 1995.
*Long, George "Enchiridion" by Epictetus, Prometheus Books, Reprint Edition, January 1955.
*Long George "Discourses of Epictetus", Kessinger Publishing, January 2004.
*Moses, Hadas (ed.), "Essential Works of Stoicism" (1961: Bantam)
*Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (transl. Robin Campbell), "Letters from a Stoic: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium" (1969, reprint 2004) ISBN 0-14-044210-3
* Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. "Meditations", translated by Maxwell Staniforth; ISBN 0-14-044140-9, or translated by Gregory Hays; ISBN 0-679-64260-9.
*Oates Whitney Jenning "The Stoic and Epicurean philosophers, The Complete Extant Writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius and Marcus Aurelius", Random House, 9th printing 1940.

*Bakalis Nikolaos, "Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments", Trafford Publishing, May 2005, ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
* Lawrence C. Becker. "A New Stoicism" (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998) ISBN 0-691-01660-7
*Tad Brennan, "The Stoic Life" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; paperback 2006)
* Pierre Hadot. "Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault," (Blackwell, 1995) ISBN 0-631-18033-8
*Brad Inwood, (ed.), "The Cambridge Companion to The Stoics" (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
* A. A. Long. "Stoic Studies" (Cambridge University Press, 1996; repr. University of California Press, 2001) ISBN 0-520-22974-6
*Vlassis G. Rassias, "Theois Syzen. Eisagoge ston Stoicismo", Athens, 2001, ISBN 960-7748-25-5
*John Sellars, "Stoicism" (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006) ISBN 1-84465-053-7
*William O. Stephens, "Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom" (London: Continuum, 2007) ISBN 0-8264-9608-3
*Steven Strange (ed.), "Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations" (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) ISBN 0-521-82709-4

* Glossary of Stoic terms
* Pneuma
* Cynic philosophy
* Ekpyrotic (cosmological theory)
* Kathekon
* Neostoicism
* Plank of Carneades
* Stoic Passions
* 4 Maccabees
* Categories (Stoic)

* [http://puffin.creighton.edu/phil/Stephens/rebirth_of_stoicism.htm The Rebirth of Stoicism ]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/inourtime/inourtime_20050303.shtml BBC Radio 4's In Our Time programme on Stoicism ] (requires RealAudio )

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010 .



Tags: the inheritance of rome ebook store