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Szatan Z Siódmej Klasy - Isbn:9788310113641

Category: Fiction

  • Book Title: Szatan z siódmej klasy
  • ISBN 13: 9788310113641
  • ISBN 10: 8310113641
  • Author: Kornel Makuszyński
  • Category: Fiction
  • Category (general): Fiction
  • Publisher:
  • Format & Number of pages: 275 pages, book
  • Synopsis:

Another description

Szatan z siódmej klasy by Kornel Makuszyński

Szatan z siódmej klasy

Śliczna dziewczyna o fiołkowych oczach, niezwykła zagadka tkwiąca w pamiętniku oficera napoleońskiego wracającego spod Moskwy, niebezpieczna szajka gotowa na wszystko, by zdobyć skarb, oraz sensacyjna akcja okraszona humorem słownym i sytuacyjnym. NoMore Śliczna dziewczyna o fiołkowych oczach, niezwykła zagadka tkwiąca w pamiętniku oficera napoleońskiego wracającego spod Moskwy, niebezpieczna szajka gotowa na wszystko, by zdobyć skarb, oraz sensacyjna akcja okraszona humorem słownym i sytuacyjnym. No i oczywiście. nie może zabraknąć głównego bohatera - tytułowego szatana z siódmej klasy, który logiką myślenia pokonuje najtęższe umysły. Powieść ta od wielu lat nieprzerwanie znajduje się na liście bestsellerów, doczekala się również ciekawej ekranizacji.
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Beata Bowen rated it it was amazing

about 3 years ago

Don't let the cover fool you. This is not a kids' book! And if it is, I'm a really dumb adult. Granted, I rarely read Polish these days, but still. not only is the writing not dumbed down in any way, the narration keeps referencing Greek tragedies and Roman politics. So. Read full review

Anna Kļaviņa marked it as wishlist

over 3 years ago

Step 1: Learn Polish
Step 2: Buy this book
Step 3: Read it

Anna rated it it was amazing

over 4 years ago

Beautiful girl with violet eyes, engaging secret hidden in a diary of Napoleon's officer retreating from Moscow, dangerous band ready for everything to get the treasure and great action with humour in words and situations. The title character is a "satan" from the 7th gra. Read full review

Agnes B added it

about 2 months ago

Ulubiona lektura z podstawówki.

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Articles

The Devil from Seventh Grade

The Devil from Seventh Grade / Szatan z siódmej klasy (1960) Maria Kaniewska, Józef Skwark, Stanislaw Milski, Pola Raksa, Adventure, Mystery


Adventures of Adam Cisowski – very smart boy- who is looking a big treasure hidden by Napoleon’s Soldier in XIX century. But he is not only person who is looking a treasure. His rivals are very dangerous.

Polish | DVDRip | MKV | AVC, 1956 Kbps | 720×576 | 25.000 fps | 1.83 GB
Audio: AC-3, 448 Kbps | 6 channels | 48.0 KHz | Runtime: 01:46:57 minutes | Subtitle: English, Polish (embedded)
Genre: Adventure | Mystery

Download The Devil from Seventh Grade / Szatan z siódmej klasy (1960)

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Kornel Makuszyński

Kornel Makuszyński Life Edit

Makuszyński was born in Stryj in the Austrian Partition of Poland (now in Ukraine ) to Edward and Julia née Ogonowska. He attended the Jan Długosz gymnasium in Lviv (Polish: Lwów ). While in school he wrote occasional poetry [1] (he started writing at the age of 14). [4] Makuszyński had his first poem published in 1902 in the newspaper Słowo Polskie (Polish Word ), for which he soon became a theatrical critic. [1] [2] He studied language and literature at both the University of Lviv (then Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów, Poland) and in Paris. He was evacuated to Kiev in 1915, where he ran the Polish Theatre and was the chairman of the Polish writers and journalist community. He moved to Warsaw in 1918, [2] and became a writer.

Koziolek Matolek. hero of famous children books created by Makuszyński along with Marian Walentynowicz

His children's books. particularly the series about the goat, Koziołek Matołek. have an enduring popularity in Poland, whatever the sharp changes in the country's fortunes and its political system. They have been translated into many other languages. Among others, they are very popular in Israel. where Polish Jewish immigrants since the 1920s and 1930s took care to have many of them translated into Hebrew and introduced them to their own children.

Makuszyński was temporarily blacklisted right after World War II by his chief rival at the Polish Academy of Literature and later, communist apparatchik Wincenty Rzymowski. a plagiarist. Makuszyński died in 1953 in Zakopane. where he lived from 1945. He was buried at the Peksowe Brzysko cemetery in Zakopane. There is a museum dedicated to him in the city, originally launched by his surviving wife Janina. [4]

Makuszyński's grave in Zakopane

Works Edit
  • Arabian Affairs (1913; Awantury Arabskie )
  • Innocent Years (1925; Bezgrzeszne lata )
  • The Two Who Stole the Moon (1928; O dwóch takich, co ukradli księżyc ; filmed in 1962 starring Lech Kaczyński. former President of Poland. and his identical twin brother Jarosław. former Prime Minister of Poland )
  • 120 adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat (1933; 120 Przygód Koziołka Matołka )
  • The Smile of Lwów, (1934; Usmiech Lwowa )
  • Argument about Basia (1936; Awantura o Basię ; filmed 1959)
  • Satan from the 7th grade (1937; Szatan z siódmej klasy )
  • Merry Devil's Friend (1937; Przyjaciel wesołego diabła ; filmed 1987)
  • About the Wawel Dragon (1937; O wawelskim smoku ; filmed 1987)
  • Eva's folly (1940; Szaleństwa panny Ewy ; filmed 1985)
See also Edit References Edit

Source:

en.rfwiki.org

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Kornel Makuszyński - Wikipedia, Photos and Videos

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE Life [ edit ]

Makuszyński was born in Stryj in the Austrian Partition of Poland (now in Ukraine ) to Edward and Julia née Ogonowska. He attended the Jan Długosz gymnasium in Lviv (Polish: Lwów ). While in school he wrote occasional poetry [1] (he started writing at the age of 14). [4] Makuszyński had his first poem published in 1902 in the newspaper Słowo Polskie (Polish Word ), for which he soon became a theatrical critic. [1] [2] He studied language and literature at both the University of Lviv (then Jan Kazimierz University in Lwów, Poland) and in Paris. He was evacuated to Kiev in 1915, where he ran the Polish Theatre and was the chairman of the Polish writers and journalist community. He moved to Warsaw in 1918, [2] and became a writer.

His children's books. particularly the series about the goat, Koziołek Matołek. have an enduring popularity in Poland, whatever the sharp changes in the country's fortunes and its political system. They have been translated into many other languages. Among others, they are very popular in Israel. where Polish Jewish immigrants since the 1920s and 1930s took care to have many of them translated into Hebrew and introduced them to their own children.

Makuszyński was temporarily blacklisted right after World War II by his chief rival at the Polish Academy of Literature and later, communist apparatchik Wincenty Rzymowski. a plagiarist. Makuszyński died in 1953 in Zakopane. where he lived from 1945. He was buried at the Peksowe Brzysko cemetery in Zakopane. There is a museum dedicated to him in the city, originally launched by his surviving wife Janina. [4]

Makuszyński's grave in Zakopane

Source:

www.mashpedia.com

Project MUSE - Two Words to the Wise

Two Words to the Wise Foreword

Anyone with training or coursework in linguistics knows how interesting language can be. The stories behind the words, phrases, and texts of any given language are fascinating in their own right, and they also help us to gain a deeper understanding of that language and the rich and often unexpected connections.

Introduction

In the spring of 2004 Marcin Bolec, the editor of Biały Orzeł/White Eagle. a bilingual Polish-American newspaper published biweekly in Boston, invited me to contribute to his publication. I proposed writing a series of articles or a column on Polish language and folklore.

1. Two Words to the Wise

Why does an intelligent speaker of English need to hear only one word (A word to the wise is sufficient ), while the corresponding Polish speaker needs two (Mądrej głowie dość dwie słowie [Two words are enough for a wise head])? Plautus, the Roman author who coined the proverb, didn't even count;.

2. Winged Words

Collections of proverbs often include expressions that scholars would put in a separate category, for example, famous quotations, which are technically known as "winged words" (skrzydlate słowa ). The term comes from Homer, who used the formula many times in the Iliad and Odyssey.

3. Bullish on Proverbs

Like other European languages, Polish is influenced by English. Sometimes a Polish speaker will borrow an English word to fill a perceived gap in Polish terminology. The author of a recent magazine article about biographies, for example, wrote that in the West a biographer typically "rna sztab researcherów" (has a staff of researchers).

4. Harvest Festival

Many years ago one of my students at the University of Massachusetts gave a public slide lecture about the year he had spent living with a family in a Polish village. After Jim's talk a member of the audience came up to berate him for referring to the people with whom he had lived in Poland as "peasants.".

5. From Month to Month

Unlike English, Polish does not normally capitalize the names of months. But the Polish historical calendar does single out some months for capitalization. Wrzesień with a capital W is unambigously September 1939, when the Nazi invasion started World War II.

6. Morowy

Amidst the more serious commemorations of the sixtieth anniversity [summer 2004] of the Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie ), it is also appropriate to recall a merry, optimistic song connected with that historical event. The words to "Pałacyk Michla" (the title refers to Michler's mill, a building in the Wola section of Warsaw).

7. Fine Distinctions

Charles V (1500-58), King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, was supposed to have said that he spoke Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to his horse. He apparently had no use for English, and his conversational skills seem not to have extended to the Slavic languages.

8. Husbands and Wives

Folk wisdom sometimes offers contradictory advice. One Polish proverb, for example, encourages boldness: Śmiałym szczęście sprzyja (Fortume favors the bold), while another discourages it: Śmiałków psy gryzą (The bold get bitten by dogs). A proverb that goes back at least to the seventeenth century takes a positive view of marriage.

9. The Name of the Devil

During the spring of 2005 my two students in advanced Polish read a wonderful novel about a schoolboy detective, Szatan z siódmej klasy (The Devil of the Seventh Grade) by Komel Makuszyftski (1884-1953). Makuszyński's book, first published in 1937, has been reprinted many times and was made into a film in 1960.

10. Talking Turkey

With memories of Thanksgiving still fresh, it's time to talk turkey, but in the literal sense, not in the sense of speaking frankly, which in Polish is mówić bez ogródek (literally, "to speak without fences"). The turkey is native to the New World, but was imported to the Old World in the sixteenth century.

11. Christmas

The English name "Christmas" stresses the celebration or feast of Christ: the -mas part is related to the word "mass," which early on in English was used in the sense of a religious festival as well as a religious service. The Polish name for the holiday, Boże Narodzenie (literally, "God's birth").

12. New Year's Day

In a story published in the newspaper Kurier Warszawski on January 3, 1880, the novelist Boleslaw Prus (pen name of Aleksander Glowacki, 1845-1912) described the "old custom" that "changed people into wandering locusts," namely the visits paid to exchange New Year's greetings.

13. Orange (and Green) Ukraine

During December 2004 a great deal of international media attention was focused on Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in Kiev, where the supporters of presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko gathered. The word maidan can be found in the Oxford English Dictionary. which defines it as referring primarily to South Asia.

14. Celebrations

During the 1963-64 academic year I lived in Żaczek. a dormitory at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow. The name of the dormitory derives from the Old Polish word for student—żak —which came into Polish from Czech, and into Czech from a Romance-language version of Latin diaconus or Greek diakonos.

15. Relativity

I've had occasion to observe in these essays that Polish sometimes makes finer distinctions than English. We can see this in particular in the area that anthropologists call "kinship terminology," the system of names that a culture uses to designate relatives by blood or marriage.

16. "O Mouse!" and Other Vocatives

In Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland the heroine tries to enlist the help of a mouse: "O Mouse, do you know the way out of this pool? I am very tired of swimming about here, O Mouse!" The author comments that" Alice thought this must be the right way of speaking to a mouse.

17. Foodways

In her book Polish-American Folklore Deborah Anders Silverman devotes a chapter to Polish-American foodways. "Food ways" is the term that folklorists use to cover such questions as what members of a group eat (and what they don't eat), how they prepare their foods.

18. Donuts and Dialects

Every spring a certain Massachusetts supermarket chain, which shall remain nameless, features in its ads a traditional Polish delicacy, pączki. A pączek is described in a current Polish dictionary as follows: "a round yeast pastry, fried in oil, filled with jelly and covered with powdered sugar or glazed".

19. Why Not Italia?

In almost every European language the country whose capital is Rome is called by some version of Italia. the name inherited from Latin. Only in Polish and Hungarian do we find very different names: Włochy in the former and Olaszország (literally "Italian-country"; pronounced approximately "olasorsag") in the latter.

20. Colors

In an earlier chapter I pointed out that czerwony. the Polish word for "red," comes from the name of an insect, Polish cochineal (Porphyrophora polonica ), which the ancient Slavs collected to make a red dye. None of the other Polish color terms have quite such an exotic origin.

21. Animal Stories

During a discussion of Polish names for animals, a colleague from another university was asked by one of her students how you say "gerbil" in Polish, and she didn't know the answer. She posted the question to an internet discussion list for Polish teachers, one of whom supplied the answer.

22. More Animal Stories

The last chapter was devoted to a menagerie ranging from gerbils to wolves, and I promised more animal stories this time. Let's start with the crocodile, a creature that is both exotic and dangerous. So when Klara, the heroine of Aleksander Fredro's 1833 comedy Zemsta (Revenge).

23. St. John's Eve

June 24 in the Roman Catholic calendar is St. John's Day, the day dedicated to John the Baptist. Like some other Christian holidays, it took the place of an earlier pagan holiday, in this case the celebration of the summer solstice, when spring gives way to summer (around June 21).

24. Euphemisms

One of the many terms shared by Polish and English (as well as many other languages) is eujemizm/euphemism. which refers to a word or phrase used to express something less than directly, or "forcefully in substance, [but] gently in manner." The quoted phrase paraphrases the subtitle of the dictionary of Polish euphemisms.

25. Polish vs. English Spelling

English spelling is notoriously difficult. An anonymous supporter of George Bernard Shaw's campaign for spelling reform once suggested to him that, given the present system, the word fish could be spelled ghoti: gh as in cough, o as in women. and ti as in nation.

26. Urban Folksongs

When we speak in Polish of muzyka ludowa (folk music) or piosenka ludowa (folksong), we think of traditional works that have typically been passed down from generation to generation and are most commonly the products of unknown composers and authors.

27. New Words and Meanings

Among the books that I've recently added to my library are the first two parts of an interesting publication by the Polish Language Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Instytut l Jęyka Polskiego Polskiej Akademii Nauk ). Before going any further, I should point out that the expression" Academy of Sciences" is a bit misleading.

28. More New Words and Meanings

Most of the neologisms (new words and new meanings of old words) that I wrote about in the previous chapter were examples of how the English language continues to influence Polish. This time let's consider some neologisms that seem to be purely native developments.

29. The City at the Foot of Wawel Castle

During the academic year 2005-06 my department played host to a visiting professor from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, so it seemed appropriate to devote some attention to that city, which is known as gród pod Wawelem or gród podwawelski. roughly, the city at the foot of Wawel Castle.

30. Weather Words

The events of the summer of 2005 in the American Gulf Coast drew attention to the forces of nature and the weather that they produce. A powerful storm like Katrina and Rita is called a typhoon (Polish tajfun ) when it occurs in the Pacific region and a hurricane (Polish huragan ) in the Atlantic region.

31. A Little Bird Told Me

For those of us in New England autumn is associated mostly with leaves changing color, but the fall is also when we see flocks of birds heading south. So perhaps this is a good time to talk about birds in Polish language and folklore. The Polish word for bird, ptak. is shared by Czech (pták ).

32. False Friends

Although the comment cannot be found in any of his published works, George Bernard Shaw is often quoted as having said that "England and America are two countries separated by the same language." He might have had in mind, among other things, words that exist both in British and American English.

33. Positions Abstract and Concrete

November 11, celebrated since 1954 in the United States as Veterans Day, was observed from 1938 until 1954 as Armistice Day. It marked the anniversary of the World War I armistice, which took effect in 1918 at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month.

34. Miner's Day

In one of the lessons of Wśród Polaków (Among Poles), a textbook of Polish for English-speakers, Leszek, a Polish student, and Mary, his Canadian fellow-student, are invited by Leszek's aunt and uncle to visit them in Katowice for Barbórka. Derived from a dialect form of "Barbara," Barbórka is the name of the holiday of miners.

35. Christmas Presents

When December rolls around in the United States, one hears occasional complaints that the traditional greeting "Merry Christmas" has been replaced—at least in the public sphere (in stores, the media, government offices, etc.)—by the more inclusive (or more "politically correct") "Happy Holidays.".

36. Republics and Councils

The last week of the year brings two historical anniversaries. On December 29, 1989, the Polish Sejm (parliament) approved a law that amended the Polish constitution by changing the official name of the country from Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa (the Polish People's Republic) to Rzeczpospolita Polska (the Republic of Poland or the Polish Republic).

37. Time

It's not clear how many people celebrating New Year's Eve on Times Square in New York City or at Boston's First Night on December 31, 2005 realized that 2006 would officially begin not at midnight, but one second later. The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, based at the Paris Observatory.

38. Cats

According to the Polish monthly KOT ("the magazine for cat-lovers"), World Cat Day (Światowy Dzień Kota) was observed in Poland for the first time in 2006. Although the major international celebration (including a Cat Pride March) was held in Rome on February 17, the Polish observance was on Sunday, February 19.

39. What Do You Have on Your liver?

The liver might seem a strange topic for one of these felietony (the Polish word for "columns," from French feuilleton. but I was inspired (if that's the word) by a Polish song. Among pre-war Polish szlagiery (hit songs) there is one that suggests a simple way to deal with many of life's difficulties: pain, regret, failure, fear.

40. International Women's Day

March 8 usually comes and goes with little notice in the American media of International Women's Day. This is the case even though the idea of a day devoted to women's rights (in particular, the right to vote) originated in the United States with a National Woman's (singular) Day rally in New York in 1908.

41. For April Fool's Day

When someone mentions in the same breath two things that seem to have no connection with one another, one can ask in Polish Co ma piernik do wiatraka? (What does gingerbread [or a spice cake] have to do with a windmill?). The word for "windmill" is clearly related to wiatr (wind).

42. The Language of Flowers

"April showers," according to an English proverb first recorded around 1430, "bring May flowers." Polish farmers prefer their rain in May: Suchy kwiecień, mokry maj, będzie żyto jako gaj (A dry April, a wet May, the rye will be like a grove [of trees D. Poles seem to share this preference with Spaniards.

43. A Caseful of Cases

One of the things that discourages students—even those of Polish heritage—from studying the Polish language is the difficulty of its grammar, or, to put it another way, the numerous opportunities one has for making mistakes when speaking or writing Polish.

44. Forget-me-not

When I wrote earlier about flowers and their place in Polish proverbs and songs, there was room to mention only a small number of flowers. One of those that I omitted turns out to have its own holiday in Poland. Since 2002 May 15 has been celebrated as Dzień Polskiej Niezapominajki (Polish Forget-me-not Day), a Polish version of Earth Day.

45. Spirits and Ghosts

In Polish the third member of the Trinity is referred to as Duch Święty. The traditional English translation of the New Testament Greek phrase is Holy Ghost. which goes back to the King James Version (first published in 1611), but in most twentieth-century translations the term used is Holy Spirit.

46. Signs of the Zodiac

If you receive mail from Poland, you have probably seen some of the Zodiac stamps designed by Maciej Jędrysik and first issued by Poczta Polska (the Polish postal system) in 1996. One doesn't have to be a fan of astrology to appreciate the witty graphic design of this series.

47. Only in Lwów

June 2006 marked the 650th anniversary of the official establishment of the Western Ukrainian city of Lviv, known in Polish as Lwów. The city existed before 1356, but in that year the Polish King, Kazimierz the Great, granted its inhabitants a kind of charter of self-government (przywilej lokacyjny ) that was based on German law.

48. Teeth

The word "stomatology," which means the study of diseases of the mouth, is rare in English, but in Polish stomatologia is the normal word for dentistry, and stomatolog is a synonym for dentysta (dentist). The official professional title of a Polish dentist used to be lekarz stomatolog (literally, "physician-dentist").

49. Mosquitoes

The summer brings many pleasant things, but also brings visits from the mosquito, known in Polish as komar. The word moskit does exist in Polish, but is mostly used to refer to mosquitoes of the tropics. Komar is related etymologically to the Lithuanian and Latvian words for "bee" and more distantly to the English verb "hum.".

50. Us and Them

The cover of the July 15, 2006 issue of the Warsaw weekly Polityka reproduces a portrait of the identical twins Lech and Jaroslaw Kaczynski with the caption Nasz prezydent, nasz premier (Our president, our premier). The caption referred to the fact that the Polish head of state, President Lech Kaczyński.

51. We're on Vacation

Dorota Skibińska of Somerville, Massachusetts, wrote to ask about the origin of the expression kołonie letnie. which ought to mean "summer colonies," but means "summer camp (for children)." Polish etymological dictionaries are not terribly helpful in this question since, like etymological dictionaries of other languages.

52. Street Ballads

In chapter 26 I mentioned the urban folksongs popularized by Stanislaw Grzesiuk. Among them is one that is particularly topical in September. One version of the song starts with the following stanza.

53. Minorities

The Polish-Lithuanian state that began with the dynastic marriage of Jadwiga and Jagiełło in 1386 and was formalized by the Union of Lublin in 1569 was known as Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (the Republic of the Two Nations). In English we use the word "nation" as a synonym for "state" or "country," but in Polish and other languages the word refers to a group of people. …

54. Vegetables

October 1 has been celebrated since 1977 as World Vegetarian Day (Międzynarodowy Dzień Wegetarianizmu ). The Polish website www. wegetarianizm.net estimates that there are presently 2 million vegetarians in Poland, and another website, www.wegetariani e.pl. includes among its wege przepisy recipes.

55. Of Making Many Dictionaries There Is No End

Some people like to read detective novels, others are fond of cookbooks. Myself, I'm a fan of dictionaries. A recent addition to my collection is an 840-page volume called Wielki słownik frazeologiczny PWN z przysłowiami (The Great PWN Phraseological Dictionary with Proverbs).

56. Yet Another Dictionary

Dictionaries are usually compiled by a committee, but occasionally they are the product of a single individual. That is the case, for example, with a new dictionary of colloquial Polish compiled by Maciej Czeszewski that contains around 7000 entries.

57. Department of Galician Studies

For a few years the office opposite mine in Herter Hall at UMass Amherst was occupied by a talented young professor of Spanish literature (now at Princeton University) who had grown up in the Spanish region of Galicia. We used to joke about establishing a Department of Galician Studies.

58. Giving Thanks

Poland doesn't celebrate Thanksgiving Day, that typical American holiday, but it does have a term for it, namely Dzień Dziękezynienia (literally, "Day of Thanksgiving"). Both the English word thanksgiving and the Polish dziękczynienie are by origin religious terms that entered their respective languages as translations or paraphrases of the Greek eueharistia.

59. It's Elementary

On December 10, 1903 Marie Sklodowska-Curie (or: Maria CurieSklodowska, as the university in Lublin that bears her name prefers) and her husband, Pierre Curie, received the Nobel Prize in physics for their work on radioactivity, which included the discovery in 1888 of the chemical elements radium and polonium (in Polish: rad and polan ).

60. Winter

As I wrote this in December 2006, winter had not yet officially come to Massachusetts, but the days were getting shorter and the temperatures, lower. Winter in the northern hemisphere was to begin officially on December 22, the date of the winter solstice (in Polish: przesilenie zimowe ).

61. Three Kings

In the fall of 2000, during a discussion of family traditions in my introductory folklore course, a student told about visiting her boyfriend's Polish-American family during the previous Christmas season. She said that she had noticed the inscription "K M B = 00" written in chalk on the door frame of the house and asked her boyfriend about it.

62. Grandparents' Days

On January 21 and 22 Poland celebrates Dzień Babei (Grandmother's Day) and Dzień Dziadka (Grandfather's Day), respectively. In this internet age you can go on line and find whole collections of ready-made verses to send to your grandmother or grandfather. One example is the following, which could be used for both holidays.

63. Officers and Soldiers

I've had occasion in these pages more than once to mention the Polish folklorist and literary historian Julian Krzyzanowski (1892-1976). Students of Polish literature and folklore might be forgiven for thinking that Mount Krzyzanowski in Alaska was named after him, but in reality it honors the man.

64. Wandering Melodies

If you happened to have had occasion to call the Polish Ministry of Defense in late 2006 or early 2007, the music that you would have heard while waiting to be connected was that of a seventy-year-old march, "My, Pierwsza Brygada" (We, the First Brigade). It was the song of the First Brigade of the Polish Legions, which was led by Marshal Józef Piłsudski, who called it his favorite song.

65. Groundhogs and Other Animals

Reading through past columns, I noticed that I had left a few promissory notes along the way. For example, at the end of a column about animals I wrote that I would return to that topic in a future column. Since February 2 was celebrated as Groundhog Day in the United States and Canada, this would seem to be a good time to revisit that subject.

66. Resisting Occupation

On March 20, 1942, a new symbol of resistance to Nazi occupation—a stylized anchor (kotwica )—was painted for the first time on the walls of occupied Warsaw. The "anchor" consisted of the letter "P" to which was attached a rounded "W," the two letters standing for the phrase Polska Walcząca (Fighting Poland).

67. Musical Words

Some languages seem to play a specialized role as the source of terminology in other languages. English, for example, is a major source for scientific and technical terminology; German, for philosophical vocabulary; French, for diplomatic and culinary terminology; and Italian, for musical vocabulary.

68. Why Polish Is So Hard

Polish is a difficult language for adult English speakers to learn, and various factors contribute to this difficulty. Polish spelling, as I've pointed out earlier, is generally much easier to master than English spelling, although it takes some getting used to.

69. Frogs

The cover of the April 28, 2007 issue of the weekly Polityka is adorned with a photograph of a frog under the headline Trzeba zjeść tę żabę (literally, "We have to [or: one has to] eat that frog"). The article to which it refers deals with the difficulty of building roads, airports, and stadiums without running into opposition from the European Union and ecologists.

70. Maria Konopnicka

May 23, 2007 marks the 165th anniversary of the birth of Maria Konopnicka (1842-1910), who wrote poetry and literary and publicistic prose, but is perhaps best remembered for her contributions to Polish children's literature. She has been described as the author of "the first artistically ambitious poetry and other works for children.

Index of Polish Words and Expressions

Source:

muse.jhu.edu

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