Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
Publisher: Dover Publications | ISBN: 0486600998 | edition 1954 | PDF | 306 pages | 6,2 mb
As enjoyable as it is important, this classic encompasses 30 years of highly original experiments and theories. Its lively, readable expositions discuss dynamics, elasticity, sound, strength of materials, more. 126 diagrams.
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This is the standard translation of one of the greatest single works by one of Western sciences' greatest single men, the Renaissance physicist Galileo Galilei. Written near the end of his life, the book had to be published abroad and led to Galileo's condemnation. But he nevertheless considered it to be "superior to everything else of mine published."
Despite the fact that the book encompasses thirty years of highly original experimentation and theorizing on the part of this singular man, it is eminently readable. Written as a discussion between a master and two students, it sets forth its hundreds of experiments and summarizes the conclusions Galileo drew from those experiments in a brisk, direct style. Using helpful geometric demonstrations, Galileo discusses aspects of fracture of solid bodies, cohesion, leverage, the speed of light, sound, pendulums, falling bodies, projectiles, uniform motion, accelerated motion, and the strength of wires, rods, and beams under different loadings and placements.
Not only does the book display the genius of one of the makers of our civilization, but it also presents, for the historian of science, considerable information about Renaissance misapprehensions that Galileo refuted.
"The publishers are to be congratulated for making this celebrated book once more readily available." — Quarterly of Applied Physics.
Reprint of the translation by H. Crew and A. de Salvio.
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This is the standard translation of one of the greatest single works by one of Western science's greatest single men, the Renaissance physicist Galileo Galilei. Written near the end of his life, the book had to be published abroad and led toMore This is the standard translation of one of the greatest single works by one of Western science's greatest single men, the Renaissance physicist Galileo Galilei. Written near the end of his life, the book had to be published abroad and led to Galileo's condemnation. But he nevertheless considered it to be "superior to everything else of mine published."
Despite the fact that the book encompasses 30 years of highly original experimentation and theorizing on the part of this singular man, it is eminently readable. Written as a discussion between a master and two students, it sets forth its hundreds of experiments and summarizes the conclusions Galileo drew from those experiments in a brisk, direct style. Using helpful geometric demonstrations, Galileo discusses aspects of fracture of solid bodies, cohesion, leverage, the speed of light, sound, pendulums, falling bodies, projectiles, uniform motion, accelerated motion, and the strength of wires, rods and beams under different loadings and placements.Get a copy Friends’ Reviews
To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up .Community Reviews
JP rated it really liked it
over 1 year ago
A review of all of the learning of his youth, he writes this as a dialogue between three scientific explorers playing the role of teacher, experimenter, and student. He covers a lot of content in relatively few pages. More than anything else here, we see the process of th. Read full review
Tassos rated it it was amazing
over 1 year ago
High recommendation to those that are curious to how science and mostly mechanics and engineering came to be what they are today.
A profound insight in Galileo's thoughts and the general way of thinking of that era, where science was still highly connected with philosophy.
D'arcy rated it really liked it
over 1 year ago
The classic work in which Galileo lays out his vision of the solar system, presenting evidence in support of the Copernican system, the views we now accept. For his troubles, Galileo was hauled before the Inquisition and placed on house arrest for the remainder of his life. The prose becomes a little dense at times, but with a bit of scientific knowledge, it's possible to grasp the basic concepts. ( )
One of the foundational works of modern science, the text speaks for itself in its lucidity and its grounding in method. I review it to address a criticism leveled at this book by reviewers, particularly at Amazon.
Some have concluded that the publisher has made an error, and that the original intent was to present Galileo's original paper on heliocentrism and Copernicus, "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican". As the texts herein are Galileo's works on accelerated motion, the conclusion is drawn that a major mistake was made.
I believe this perception is based on marketing that associates the series with Copernicus' discoveries in particular.
The fact is that this book is part of a series, the arc of which is to present the current model of the physical world from Copernicus' discovery of the heliocentric solar system to Einstein's revelation that space and time are warped or displaced by mass and energy. Reviewers mistakenly believed that this Galilean text was intended to stand in support of Copernicus' discovery. In fact, this text is meant to show the development of the laws of motion, and is merely part of the overall series. Hawking's introduction recognizes this correctly, in contradiction to the misunderstanding of Amazon reviewers.
Those interested in the origins of modern science, the history of science, physics, or intellectual history may well wish to read through this gem.
This is the single best book on physics I have ever read. Its clarity of thought and breadth of subject are unmatched. If you have ever wanted to know why some materials float in water while others sink, why objects fall at a speed independent of their mass but why feathers fall slower than stones, or
how to convince a guy you met in a bar that air does have weight (and how to measure it), read this book. ( )
Author: Galileo Galilei
Date Released: 1954
Page Count: 306
Isbn10 Code: 0486600998
Isbn13 Code: 9780486600994
As enjoyable as it is important, this classic encompasses 30 years of highly original experiments and theories. Its lively expositions discuss dynamics, elasticity, sound, strength of materials, and more. 126 diagrams. Language Notes Text: English (translation) Original Language: Italian --This text refers to an alternate edition.
:Several other pages
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Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese
Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamesedefinition - Two_New_Sciences Two New Sciences
Galileo Galilei. Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno à due nuove scienze (1638)
The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche, intorno à due nuove scienze. 1638) was Galileo's final book and a sort of scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years.
After his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems . the Roman Inquisition had banned publication of any work by Galileo, including any he might write in the future. [ 1 ] After the failure of attempts to publish the work in France. Germany. or Poland. it was picked up by Lodewijk Elzevir in Leiden. The Netherlands. where the writ of the Inquisition was of little account (see House of Elzevir ).
The same three men as in the Dialogue carry on the discussion, but they have changed. Simplicio, in particular, is no longer the stubborn and rather dense Aristotelian; to some extent he represents the thinking of Galileo's early years, as Sagredo represents his middle period. Salviati remains the spokesman for Galileo.Contents The Science of materials
The sciences named in the title are the strength of materials and the motion of objects. Galileo worked on an additional section on the force of percussion, but was not able to complete it to his own satisfaction.
The discussion begins with a demonstration of the reasons that a large structure proportioned in exactly the same way as a smaller one must necessarily be weaker known as the square-cube law. Later in the discussion this principle is applied to the thickness required of the bones of a large animal, possibly the first quantitative result in biology. anticipating J.B.S. Haldane 's seminal work On Being the Right Size, and other essays, edited by John Maynard Smith .The Law of falling bodies
Thomas Bradwardine was the first to formulate the equation for the displacement s of a falling object, which starts from rest, under the influence of gravity for a time t (the essential principle had been previously stated by the Oxford Calculators ):
In Two New Sciences Galileo (Salviati speaks for him) used a wood molding. "12 cubits long, half a cubit wide and three finger-breadths thick" as a ramp with a straight, smooth, polished groove to study rolling balls ("a hard, smooth and very round bronze ball"). He lined the groove with "parchment. also smooth and polished as possible". He inclined the ramp at various angles. effectively slowing down the acceleration enough so that he could measure the elapsed time. He would let the ball roll a known distance down the ramp, and used a water clock to measure the time taken to move the known distance; this clock was
a large vessel of water placed in an elevated position; to the bottom of this vessel was soldered a pipe of small diameter giving a thin jet of water, which we collected in a small glass during the time of each descent, whether for the whole length of the channel or for a part of its length; the water thus collected was weighed, after each descent, on a very accurate balance; the differences and ratios of these weights gave us the differences and ratios of the times, and this with such accuracy that although the operation was repeated many, many times, there was no appreciable discrepancy in the results. [ 2 ]Infinity
The book also contains a discussion of infinity. Galileo considers the example of numbers and their squares. He starts by noting that:
it cannot be denied that there are as many as there are numbers because every number is a root of some square: 1 ↔ 1, 2 ↔ 4, 3 ↔ 9, 4 ↔ 16, and so on.
(In modern terms, it is possible to have a bijection between the elements of a set N and the elements of a proper subset S of N). But he notes what appears to be a contradiction:
Yet at the outset we said there are many more numbers than squares, since the larger portion of them are not squares. Not only so, but the proportionate number of squares diminishes as we pass to larger numbers.
He resolves the contradiction by denying the possibility of comparing infinite numbers:
We can only infer that the totality of all numbers is infinite, that the number of squares is infinite, and that the number of their roots is infinite; neither is the number of squares less than the totality of all numbers, nor the latter greater than the former; and finally the attributes "equal," greater," and "less," are not applicable to infinite, but only to finite, quantities.
Indeed, he denies that an infinite quantity can meaningfully be said to be greater than a finite quantity. This is a possible resolution, and it implicitly recognises that he has no definition of comparison for infinite numbers, but is less powerful than the modern resolution.
These issues of infinity arise from problems of rolling circles: if two concentric circles of different radius roll along lines, then if the larger does not slip, it appears clear that the smaller must slip. But in what way? Galileo attempts to clarify the matter by considering hexagons, and then extending to rolling 100 000-gons, or n-gons, where he shows that a finite number of finite slips occur on the inner shape. Eventually he concludes that "The line traversed by the larger circle consists then of an infinite number of points which completely fill it; while that which is traced by the smaller circle consists of an infinite number of points which leave empty spaces and only partly fill the line", which would not be considered satisfactory now.Reactions by Commentators
"So great a contribution to physics was Two New Sciences that scholars have long maintained that the book anticipated Isaac Newton 's laws of motion ." [ 3 ] "Galileo. is the father of modern physics —indeed of modern science "—Albert Einstein. [ 4 ]The flow of time
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