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United States Exports Of Domestic And Foreign Merchandise: Country Of Destination By Subgroup

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  • Book Title: United States Exports of Domestic and Foreign Merchandise: Country of destination by subgroup
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  • Synopsis: 999 •UBGROUPs UNDER 10,000 2 * 727 550 3 MONMETALLI c M1 NERALS, NEC 17 - 582 | 2 * 727 k gog 2 ... ANIMALs AND PRODUCTs, ED 1.8LE C4O 1 DA 1RY PRODUCTs 525 vols2 Q99 suBGROUP's UNDER 10,000 666 l ... GROUP = NoNMETALLIc M1 NERALs 725 6 CONSTR, ExcAV A MINING MACH 185 voz.5 gog SUBGROUPs UNDER 10,000 14,065 760 3 inDUsTRIAL MACH A PARTS, ...

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Figure 5 - Shipper s Export Declaration

1. Exporter - The name and address of the principal party responsible for effecting export from the United States. The exporter as named on the Export License. Report only the first five digits of the ZIP code.

2. Exporter Identification Number - The exporter's Internal Revenue Service Employer Identification Number (EIN) or Social Security Number (SSN) if no EIN has been assigned.

3. Related Party Transaction - One between the U.S. exporter and the foreign consignee, that is, an export from a U.S. person or business enterprise to a foreign business enterprise or from a U.S. business enterprise to a foreign person or business enterprise, when the person owns (directly or indirectly) at any time during the fiscal year, 10 percent or more of the voting securities of the incorporated business enterprise, or an equivalent interest if an unincorporated business enterprise, including a branch. Otherwise, check UNRELATED.

4. Agent of Exporter - The name and address of the duly authorized forwarding agent.

5. Ultimate Consignee - The name and address of the party actually receiving the merchandise for the designated end use or the party so designated on the validated export license.

6. Intermediate Consignee - The name and address of the party in a foreign country who effects delivery of the merchandise to the ultimate consignee or the party so named on the export license.

7. Exporting Carrier - The name of the carrier transporting the merchandise out of the United States. For vessel shipments, give the vessel's flag also.

8. U.S. Port of Export
  • Overland - the U.S. Customs port at which the surface carrier crosses the border.
  • Vessel and air - the U.S. Customs port where the merchandise is loaded on the carrier which is taking the merchandise out of the United States.
  • Postal - the U.S. Post Office where the merchandise is mailed.

9. Method of Transportation - The mode of transport by which the merchandise is exported. Specify by name, i.e. vessel, air, rail, truck, etc. Specify "own power" is applicable.

10. Loading Pier - (For vessel shipments only) The number or name of the pier at which the merchandise is laden aboard the exporting vessel.

11. Containerized - (For vessel shipments only) Cargo originally booked as containerized cargo and that is placed in containers at the operator's option.

12. Point (State) of Origin or Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) Number
  • The two digit U.S. Postal Service abbreviation of the state in which the merchandise actually starts its journey to the port of export, or
  • The state of origin of the commodity of the greatest value, or
  • The state of consolidation, or
  • The Foreign Trade Zone Number for exports leaving a FTZ.

13. Foreign Port of Unloading - (For vessel and air shipments only) The foreign port and country at which the merchandise will be laden from the exporting carrier.

14. Country of Ultimate Destination - The country in which the merchandise is to be consumed, further processed, or manufactured; the final country of destination as known to the exporter at the time of shipment; or the country of ultimate destination as shown on the validated export license.

15. Marks, Numbers, and Kinds of Packages - Marks, numbers, or other identification shown on the packages and the numbers and kinds of packages (boxes, barrels, baskets, etc.).

16. Commodity Description - A sufficient description of the commodity to permit verification of the Schedule B Commodity Number or the description on the validated export license.

17. Schedule B Commodity Number - the commodity number and "check digit" as provided in Schedule B - Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. When form 7513 is used, report only the first six digits of the Schedule B commodity number.

18. Gross Shipping Weight - (For vessel and air shipments only) The gross shipping weight in kilograms, including the weight of containers but excluding carrier equipment (Multiply lbs. by 0.4536 to get kilos; round off to whole numbers.).

19. "D" (Domestic) or "F" (Foreign)
  • Domestic exports - Merchandise grown, produced, or manufactured (including imported merchandise which has been enhanced in value) in the United States.
  • Foreign exports - merchandise that has entered the United States and is being reexported in the same condition as when imported.

20. Net Quantity The amount in terms of the unit(s) specified in Schedule B with the unit indicated or the unit as specified on the validated export license. (Report whole units.)

21. Value - Selling price or cost if not sold, including inland freight, insurance, and other charges to U.S. port of export, but excluding unconditional discounts and commissions (nearest whole dollar, omit cents).

22. Export License Number or Symbol - Validated export license number and expiration date or general license symbol.

23. Export Commodity Control Number (ECCN) - (When required) ECCN number of commodities listed on the Commodity Control List (commodities subject to U.S. Department of commerce export controls) in the Export Administration Regulations.

24. Bill of Lading or Air Waybill Number - The exporting carrier's bill of lading or air waybill number.

25. Date of Exportation - (Not required for vessel and postal shipments) The date of departure or date of clearance, if date of departure is not known.

26. Designation of Agent - Signature of exporter authorizing the named agent to effect the export when such agent does not have power of attorney.

27. Signature - Signature of exporter or authorized agent certifying the truth and accuracy of the information on the SED.

Unz & Co. "Basic Guide to Exporting" © 1998-9

Source:

instruction2.mtsac.edu

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Material Information Title: United States exports of domestic and foreign merchandise Portion of title: Country of destination by commodity Physical Description:

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Exporting: Sample Shipper s Export Declaration

Exporting: Sample Shipper's Export Declaration

Figure 5 - Sample Shipper's Export Declaration

1. Exporter. The name and address of the principal party responsible for effecting export from the United States. The exporter as named on the Export License. Report only the first five digits of the ZIP code.

2. Exporter Identification Number. The exporter's Internal Revenue Service Employer Identification Number (EIN) or Social Security Number (SSN) if no EIN has been assigned.

3. Related Party Transaction. One between the U.S. exporter and the foreign consignee, that is, an export from a U.S. person or business enterprise to a foreign business enterprise or from a U.S. business enterprise to a foreign person or business enterprise, when the person owns (directly or indirectly) at any time during the fiscal year, 10 percent or more of the voting securities of the incorporated business enterprise, or an equivalent interest if an unincorporated business enterprise, including a branch. Otherwise, check "Unrelated."

4. Agent of Exporter. The name and address of the duly authorized forwarding agent.

5. Ultimate Consignee. The name and address of the party actually receiving the merchandise for the designated end use or the party so designated on the validated export license.

6. Intermediate Consignee. The name and address of the party in a foreign country who effects delivery of the merchandise to the ultimate consignee or the party so named on the export license.

7. Exporting Carrier. The name of the carrier transporting the merchandise out of the United States. For vessel shipments, give the vessel's flag also.

8. U.S. Port of Export.

  • Overland - the U.S. Customs port at which the surface carrier crosses the border.
  • Vessel and air - the U.S. Customs port where the merchandise is loaded on the carrier which is taking the merchandise out of the United States.
  • Postal - the U.S. Post Office where the merchandise is mailed.

9. Method of Transportation. The mode of transport by which the merchandise is exported. Specify by name, i.e. vessel, air, rail, truck, etc. Specify "own power" is applicable.

10. Loading Pier. (For vessel shipments only) The number or name of the pier at which the merchandise is laden aboard the exporting vessel.

11. Containerized. (For vessel shipments only) Cargo originally booked as containerized cargo and that is placed in containers at the operator's option.

12. Point (State) of Origin or Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ) Number.

  • The two digit U.S. Postal Service abbreviation of the state in which the merchandise actually starts its journey to the port of export, or
  • The state of origin of the commodity of the greatest value, or
  • The state of consolidation, or
  • The Foreign Trade Zone Number for exports leaving a FTZ.

13. Foreign Port of Unloading. (For vessel and air shipments only) The foreign port and country at which the merchandise will be laden from the exporting carrier.

14. Country of Ultimate Destination. The country in which the merchandise is to be consumed, further processed, or manufactured; the final country of destination as known to the exporter at the time of shipment; or the country of ultimate destination as shown on the validated export license.

15. Marks, Numbers, and Kinds of Packages. Marks, numbers, or other identification shown on the packages and the numbers and kinds of packages (boxes, barrels, baskets, etc.).

16. Commodity Description. A sufficient description of the commodity to permit verification of the Schedule B Commodity Number or the description on the validated export license.

17. Schedule B Commodity Number. the commodity number and "check digit" as provided in Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. When form 7513 is used, report only the first six digits of the Schedule B commodity number.

18. Gross Shipping Weight. (For vessel and air shipments only) The gross shipping weight in kilograms, including the weight of containers but excluding carrier equipment (Multiply lbs. by 0.4536 to get kilos; round off to whole numbers.).

19. "D" (Domestic) or "F" (Foreign).

  • Domestic exports - Merchandise grown, produced, or manufactured (including imported merchandise which has been enhanced in value) in the United States.
  • Foreign exports - merchandise that has entered the United States and is being reexported in the same condition as when imported.

20. Net Quantity. The amount in terms of the unit(s) specified in Schedule B with the unit indicated or the unit as specified on the validated export license. (Report whole units.)

21. Value. Selling price or cost if not sold, including inland freight, insurance, and other charges to U.S. port of export, but excluding unconditional discounts and commissions (nearest whole dollar, omit cents).

22. Export License Number or Symbol. Validated export license number and expiration date or general license symbol.

23. Export Commodity Control Number (ECCN). (When required) ECCN number of commodities listed on the Commodity Control List (commodities subject to U.S. Department of Commerce export controls) in the Export Administration Regulations.

24. Bill of Lading or Air Waybill Number. The exporting carrier's bill of lading or air waybill number.

25. Date of Exportation. (Not required for vessel and postal shipments) The date of departure or date of clearance, if date of departure is not known.

26. Designation of Agent. Signature of exporter authorizing the named agent to effect the export when such agent does not have power of attorney.

27. Signature. Signature of exporter or authorized agent certifying the truth and accuracy of the information on the SED.

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Four Fallacies About Trade And Globalization - Analysis - Eurasia Review

Eurasia Review Four Fallacies About Trade And Globalization – Analysis

Fear of trade overlooks that most value creation in advanced economies is based on services, not manufacturing.

By Ajai Gaur and Ram Mudambi*

Trade typically figures prominently in US presidential election, and 2016 is no exception. While campaigning, politicians tend to adopt anti-international business positions that are theoretically unsound and lack empirical evidence.

Four fallacies underline these common political arguments.

Fallacy 1: Manufacturing jobs are the basis of American prosperity.

Fallacy 2: Imports make us poorer.

Fallacy 3: Success of foreign firms always helps foreign countries, success of US firms always helps the US economy.

Fallacy 4: To export, firms must sell to buyers in foreign countries.

The manufacturing fallacy: Since 1980, elections have included clarion calls to bring manufacturing jobs back to America. President Barack Obama focused on reviving the manufacturing sector, and in the current election, Donald Trump vows to revitalize manufacturing to “reclaim millions of American jobs” while Hillary Clinton has promoted a “make it in America” strategy on the stump.

Yet manufacturing continues to shrink as a percentage of total employment. By some estimates, while US manufacturing output increased sixfold between 1950 and 2008, the share of manufacturing jobs as a percentage of all jobs decreased from about 30 percent to 10 percent. The reduction in the share of manufacturing jobs despite a significant increase in manufacturing output is primarily due to tremendous productivity gains since World War II, stemming from continual innovations in technology and management practices. This is neither new nor unique to the US. According to the US Department of Agriculture, the share of US farm sector employment fell from 90 percent to about 10 percent between 1790 and 1950. This was due to increased use of heavy machinery and automation, and a simultaneous migration of labor from the farm sector to the manufacturing and service sectors. Furthermore, all major industrialized nations have experienced job losses in the manufacturing sector.

Guessing game: Actual job losses due to robots may not be as bad as anticipated for most countries (Source: George Graetz and Guy Michaels. “Robots at Work”; Scott Andes and Mark Muro. “Don’t Blame the Robots for Lost Manufacturing Jobs”)

Political arguments often neglect the underlying structure of different economies. Most advanced economies have become primarily service economies. As the structure of the US economy has changed, so have its drivers of value creation. Advanced economies add greater value by focusing on non-repetitive, high-value-added specialized activities such as innovation and marketing, while emerging economies concentrate on repetitive, low-value-added standardized activities. Rich countries are service economies, focused on finance, engineering, design and health care, and this is dictated by their comparative advantage.

The import fallacy: The second popular myth is that imports make a country poorer, and a country must export more than it imports to be prosperous. There are two major problems with this view. First, merchandise trade deficits per se, when countries import more goods and services than they export, are not detrimental to economic growth. Basic economics tells us that merchandise trade deficits must be offset by capital account surpluses because every country’s balance of payments must be zero by definition. Simply put, imports must be paid for with current goods, or exports, or past accumulations or future goods – capital.

As long as the domestic economy is an attractive destination for foreign capital, a country can afford to run deficits. Thus, an innovation-driven economy, such as the United States, can support trade deficits year after year, by way of an inflow of foreign capital. Foreign investment also brings benefits for the domestic economy, including more and higher paying jobs. In the long run, the only way to reduce trade deficits in a healthy manner is to encourage savings. Restricting imports only weakens the domestic economy.

Further, imports and exports go hand in hand. The top export destinations for the US – Canada, the EU, Mexico and China – are also the top locations from which the US imports. Likewise, the top exporting states – Texas, Illinois, Kentucky, and Michigan – are also top importing states.

The mechanics of this correlation are illustrated by Boeing, the largest single US exporter, and its most recent export success – the 787 Dreamliner. This plane has more than 1,100 orders from 60 customers around the world. However, Boeing is also one of the largest US importers. To build the 787, Boeing sources parts from many countries. The 787 illustrates the nature of success in the global economy – countries and firms that do not source from the best in the world cannot export to the rest of the world.

The foreign firm fallacy: “What’s good for General Motors is good for America,” a misquote in itself, became a slogan for many politicians. The underlying rationale is that US firms are better for the US economy in terms of producing and keeping jobs in the US.

The truth is that US subsidiaries of foreign multinationals have an annual payroll of $510 billion with average wages of $80,041 – 30 percent higher than the national average. These foreign subsidiaries pay 14 percent of US federal corporate income tax, and produce $360 billion in US exports, about 26 percent of the total. Additionally, they spend $45.2 billion annually on US-based R&D activities, accounting for about 16 percent of all R&D performed by US companies.

The reality of the global economy is that few major firms locate high-value activities based on nationality of headquarters. Such activities are based on local resource availability. So long as the United States remains a high-knowledge economy with valuable technological resources and innovation capabilities, it will continue to attract high-value-creating subsidiaries of foreign enterprises. Foreign firms in general, compared to local firms, source more locally, pay higher wages, perform more R&D intensive activities and export more. More importantly, they provide strong linkages for domestic firms to participate in global value chains. This leads to the last fallacy.

The export fallacy: Traditional thinking about exports is that nations must sell to buyers in foreign countries. This was true when firms operated in silos set by organizational boundaries. This is no longer true in the modern economy dominated by global value chains. Different organizations add value at different parts of the chain. Thus, even though a firm may not be directly engaged in selling to a foreign buyer, it may be part of a chain that generates exports.

There are three sets of firms within a global value chain – original equipment manufacturers, tier 1 suppliers and tier 2 suppliers. The original manufacturers ar e “orchestrators” who conceptualize the product and develop overall design. Manufacturing of critical components is then outsourced to tier 1 suppliers that specialize in specific parts. Those suppliers rely on tier 2 suppliers for components. Along with the orchestrators, tier 1 and 2 suppliers are integral parts of the global value chain. Domestic firms can thus become proxy exporters by supplying local or foreign orchestrators. In the aerospace industry, the design firm Sitec, by virtue of being a supplier to Spirit that makes airframes for Airbus, sells its product all over the world without directly dealing with foreign buyers or markets. Such indirect participation in a global value chain reduces the risks associated with direct exports while imparting critical learning that a firm can use if it decides to go international.

Takeaways: These fallacies offer insights about the nature of international business in today’s global economy:

First, most value creation in advanced economies is based on services and not manufacturing. The sooner policymakers and the general public acknowledge this fact, the sooner the nation can focus on priorities that support robust economic growth.

Second, the trade deficit is not always a bad thing and importing is often a key to exporting success. More importantly, limiting imports certainly won’t help in promoting domestic growth or reversing the trade deficit.

Third, on average, foreign firms pay higher wages, have higher R&D-intensity and greater exports than domestic firms, thereby generating significant benefits for the domestic economy.

Finally, connecting to a global value chain is a means of becoming a “proxy exporter” without the risks of international activity.
*Ajai Gaur is Associate Professor of Strategy and International Business at the Rutgers Business School, Newark and New Brunswick. He is currently serving as the president of the Asia Academy of Management. He also serves as a consulting editor of the Journal of International Business Studies and as a senior editor of the Journal of World Business and the Asia Pacific Journal of Management.

*Ram Mudambi is the Frank M. Speakman Professor of Strategy at the Fox School of Business at Temple University in Philadelphia, where he is the director of the Institute for Global Management Studies. He also serves as an editor of the Global Strategy Journal.

About the Author

YaleGlobal Online is a publication of the Whitney and Betty MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies at Yale. The magazine explores the implications of the growing interconnectedness of the world by drawing on the rich intellectual resources of the Yale University community, scholars from other universities, and public- and private-sector experts from around the world. The aim is to analyze and promote debate on all aspects of globalization through publishing original articles and multi-media presentations. YaleGlobal also republishes, with a brief comment, important articles from other publications that illuminate the many sides of this complex phenomenon. To the extent permitted by copyright arrangements, YaleGlobal archives such articles and makes them available for search and retrieval.

1 Comment on "Four Fallacies About Trade And Globalization – Analysis"

I would like to comment on two issues.
American people talk about trade but mostly the issue is about capital export. Many US companies are closing their doors and moving to foreign countries for more profits, lower taxes, and weak regulations relative to the US economy. It is also true that other countries are devaluing their currencies and providing export supports to make their commodities cheaper globally. Dumping has also been used. These issues do not represent free world trade. They are unfair practices affecting importing countries negatively, particularly on the employment level: job destruction.
The authors have made another mistake. People are talking about more exports in order to cut trade deficit. US trade deficit indicates that imports are higher than exports and increased exports become a goal in order to balance the trade balance. This is a sound economic idea, which will increase the GDP and economic growth for cutting national debt and reducing unemployment. I have never heard that the American people are trying to use the Mercantilist idea that more exports relative to imports is the goal. Finally, if you listen to what Mr. Trump has been saying, for example, you can find that he is talking about manufacturing companies leaving the US economy and bad trade deals and practices of other countries against the US economy.

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Reader Ebook United States Exports Of Domestic And Foreign Merchandise Including Exports Under The Lend Lease Program

U S exports by air of domestic and foreign merchandise including exports under the lend lease program commodity by country of destination

• Theme : _ "U S exports by air of domestic and foreign merchandise including exports under the lend lease program commodity by country of destination"
• Idea : _ United States. Bureau of the Census
• Classified : _
• Speak : _ (en) Spoken
• Sheet : _ Files
• Labeling : _
• Creation Since: _ 1946
• ISBN Reviews : _ OTHER
• ISBN Directly : _ STANFORD:36105113747393
• Identity Code : _ PVJIAQAAIAAJ

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Import Export Definitions

Delivered at Frontier (Named place)

A term used primarily for movement of shipments between contiguous countries. The Seller is to deliver the goods, cleared for export, assuming all risks and costs up to the named place at the frontier. The Buyer assumes all costs and risks at the named place at the frontier including import clearance.

Delivered Duty Paid (Named place of destination)

In this situation, the Seller is to deliver the goods assuming all costs and risks to the named place of destination (including duties and import clearance). The Buyer is to take delivery of the goods at the named place of destination upon clearance of the goods.

Delivered Duty Unpaid (Named place of destination)

The Seller is to deliver the goods assuming all costs and risks to the named place of destination (excluding duty and import clearance). The Buyer is to take delivery of the goods at the named place of destination and to assume all risks and costs (including import clearance and duties).

Delivered Ex Quay, Duty Paid (Named port of destination)

The Seller is to deliver the goods, cleared for import, assuming all costs and risks on the quay at the named port of destination including offloading and import clearance, duty paid. The Buyer is to take delivery of the goods and assume all costs and risks upon clearance of the goods.

Delivered Ex Ship (Named port of destination)

The Seller is to deliver the goods, uncleared for import, on board the vessel assuming all costs and risks up to the named port of destination. The Buyer is to take delivery of the goods at the named port of destination and arrange for offloading, import clearance and delivery to destination.

Delivery Instructions

Provides specific information to the inland carrier concerning the arrangement made by the forwarder to deliver the merchandise to the particular pier or steamship line. Not to be confused with Delivery Order which is used for import cargo.

Demurrage

Penalty for excess time taken for loading or unloading a vessel. Demurrage refers only to situations in which the charter or shipper, rather than the vessel’s operator, is a fault.

Deposit of Estimated Duties

This refers to antidumping duties which must be deposited upon entry of merchandise which is the subject of an antidumping duty order for each manufacturer, producer or exporter equal to the amount by which the foreign market value exceeds the United States price of the merchandise.

Direct Investment

Direct Investment is defined in the international Monetary Fund’s Balance of Payments Manual as “investment that is made to acquire a long lasting interest in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor, the investor’s purpose being to have an effective voice in the management of the enterprise.” In the United States, direct investment is defined for statistical purposes as the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one person of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated business enterprise, or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise. Direct investment transactions are not limited to transactions in voting securities. The percentage ownership of voting securities is used to determine if direct investment exists, but once it is determined that it does, all parent-affiliate transactions, including those not involving voting securities, are recorded under direct investment. See: Foreign Direct Investment in the United States

Destination Control Statement

Any of various statements which the U.S. Government requires to be displayed on export shipments (controlled), and which specify the destinations for which export of the shipment has been authorized.

Devaluation

The official lowering of the value of one country’s currency in terms of one or more foreign currencies. Thus, if the U.S. dollar is devalued in relation to the French franc, one dollar will “buy” lower francs than before.

Disclosure Meeting

An informal meeting in which the ITA discloses to parties to the proceeding the methodology used in determining the results of an antidumping investigation or administrative review.

Dismissal of Petition

A determination made by the International Trade Administration that the petition does not properly allege the basis on which antidumping duties may be imposed, does not contain information deemed reasonably available to the petitioner supporting the allegations, or is not filed by an appropriate interested party.

Dispatch

An amount paid by a vessel’s operator to a charterer if loading or unloading is completed in less time than stipulated in the charter party.

Distribution license

The distributipn license is a bulk license that allows the holder to make multiple exports of authorized commodities to foreign cosignees who are approved in advance by the Bureau of Export Administration. The procedure also authorizes approved foreign cosignees to reexport among themselves and to certain approved countries.

Distributor

A foreign intermediary who sells directly for a supplier and maintains an inventory of the supplier’s products.

District Export Councils (DEC)

DECs serve as a voluntary auxiliary of US&FCS district offices to support export expansion activities. There are 51 DECs with 1800 members that help with workshops and also provide counseling to less experienced exporters.

Diversionary Dumping

This occurs when foreign producers sell to a third country market at a less than fair value and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.

Dock Receipt

A receipt issued by an ocean carrier to acknowledge receipt of a shipment at the carrier’s dock or warehouse facilities. Also see: Warehouse Receipt.

Documents Against Acceptance (DIA)

Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer’s acceptance of the attached draft.

Documents Against Payment (D/P)

Instructions given by a shipper to a bank indicating that documents transferring title to goods should be delivered to the buyer (or drawee) only upon the buyer’s payment of the attached draft.

Domestic Exports

Exports of domestic merchandise include commodities that are grown, produced, or manufactured in the United States. Also commodities of foreign origin that have been changed in the United States, including U.S. Foreign Trade Zones, from the form in which they were imported, or which have been enhanced in value by further manufacture in the United States.

Domestic International Sales Corporation

The predecessor of the Foreign Sales Corporation that took on a new definition as a result of the 1984 Tax Reform Act. DISCs can now provide a tax deferral on up to S 10 million of exports so long as the funds remain in export-related investments.

Domicile

The place where a draft acceptance is made payable.

Downstream Dumping

This occurs when foreign producers sell at below cost to a producer in its domestic market and the product is then further processed and shipped to another country.

Draft (or Bill of Exchange)

An unconditional order in writing from one person (the drawer) to another (the drawee), directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named payee at a fixed or determinable future date.

Drawback

A refund of duties paid on imported goods which is provided at the time of their reexportation.

Drawback System

The Drawback System, a part of Customs’ Automated Commercial System, provides the means for processing and tracking drawback claims.

Drawee

The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the indicated amount. Compare: Drawer. Also see: Draft.

Drawer

The individual or firm that issues or signs a draft, and thus, stands to receive payment of the indicated amount from the drawee. Compare: Drawee. Also see: Draft.

Dual Pricing

The selling of identical products in different markets for different prices. This often reflects dumping practices.

Dumping

Importing merchandise into a country (e.g. the United States) at low prices that are detrimental to local producers of the same kind of merchandise.

Dumping Margin

The amount by which the imported merchandise is sold in the United States below the home market or third country price or the constructed value (that is, less than its “fair value”). For example, if the U.S. “purchase price” is $200 and the fair value is $220, the dumping margin is $20. This margin is expressed as a percentage of the United States price. In this example, the margin is 10 percent. o Duty A tax imposed on imports by the customs authority of a country. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods (ad valorem duties), some other factor such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties).

The Eastern Europe Business Information Center

The Eastern Europe Business Information Center (EEBIC) is a Department of Commerce facility that was opened in January 1990 to provide information on trade and investment opportunities in Eastern Europe.

Economic Bulletin Board

The EBB is a personal computer-based economic bulletin board operated by the U.S. Department of Commerce in Washington, D.C. The EBB is an online source for trade leads and statistical releases from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Census Bureau, the International Trade Administration, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Federal Reserve Board, Department of the Treasury, and other Federal agencies.

Economic Officers

Embassy officials who analyze and report on macroeconomic trends and trade policies and their implications for U.S. policies and programs. Economic officers represent U.S. interests and arrange and participate in economic and commercial negotiations. See: Commercial Officers; Foreign Service

Economic Policy Council

The EPC was established by Executive Order in 1985 to address major trade policy issues in a single forum as a means of reducing tensions between different groups, such as the Trade Policy Committee and the Senior Interagency Group. The Council was modified in the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. Membership includes the Treasury, (chair pro tem), State, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Transportation, the 0MB, the U.S. Trade Representative, the Council of Economic Advisers, and the Assistant to the President for Science and Technology.

Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce, and Transportation

EDIFACT is an international syntax used in the interchange of electronic data. Customs uses
EDIFACT to interchange data with the importing trade community.

Electronic License Application and Information Network

ELAiNE is a BXA 24-hour on-line service that allows exporters to submit license applications.

EMC See: Export Management Company. Enabling Clause

Part I of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) framework which permits developed country members to give a more favorable treatment to developing countries and special treatment to the least developed countries, notwithstanding the most-favored-nation provisions of the GATT.

End-Use Codes

The HTSA and Schedule B classifications are summarized into six principal “end-use” categories and further subdivided into about 140 broad commodity groupings. The concept of end-use demand was developed for balance of payments purposes by the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

End-user

The person abroad that receives and ultimately uses the exported or reexported items. The end- user is not a forwarding agent or intermediary, but may be the purchaser or ultimate consignee.

Enforced Compliance. See: Compliance Strategy. Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative

EPCI is a series of measures to tighten export controls on goods and technologies useful in the production of chemical and missile weapons systems. EPCI allows Commerce greater authority to deny exports of low level goods and technologies to nation of proliferation concern.

Enterprise for the Americas Initiative

The EAT, which was launched in June 1990, is intended to develop a new economic relationship of the U.S. with Latin America. The EAT has trade investment, debt, and environment aspects. With regard to trade, the EM involves an effort to move towards free trade agreements with markets in Latin America and the Caribbean, particularly with groups of countries that have associated for purposes of trade liberalization. To begin the process of creating a hemispheric free trade system, the U.S. seeks to enter into “framework” agreements on trade and investment with interested countries or groups of countries. These agreements set up intergovernmental councils to discuss and, where appropriate, to negotiate the removal of trade and investment barriers.

Entrepot

An intermediary storage facility where goods are kept temporarily for distribution within a country for reexport.

Entry Summary System

An entry is the minimum amount of documentation needed to secure the release of imported merchandise. The Entry Summary System, a part of Customs’ Automated Commercial System, contains data on release, summary rejection, collection liquidation, and extension or suspension.

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