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Engineering

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Engineering - Journal

Engineering Engineering

Engineering is an international open access, peer reviewed journal with the primary goal to provide a high-level platform where academic achievements of great importance in engineering science and technology can be disseminated and shared. Proceeding from scientific discoveries, the research achievements disseminated by this journal should be convertible through innovation into a new productive force so as to promote the development of world-class industries and engineering projects of important socio-economic significance.

We are interested in:

(1) News & Focus— Global perspectives, news focus, and updates on central issues;

(2) Views & Comments— Expository and heuristic comments and reviews on major issues, articles, and events; and

(3) Research— Outstanding research results, in the form of research articles, reviews, perspectives, short communications regarding critical issues, and so on.

All manuscripts must be prepared in English, and are subject.

Engineering is an international open access, peer reviewed journal with the primary goal to provide a high-level platform where academic achievements of great importance in engineering science and technology can be disseminated and shared. Proceeding from scientific discoveries, the research achievements disseminated by this journal should be convertible through innovation into a new productive force so as to promote the development of world-class industries and engineering projects of important socio-economic significance.

We are interested in:

(1) News & Focus— Global perspectives, news focus, and updates on central issues;

(2) Views & Comments— Expository and heuristic comments and reviews on major issues, articles, and events; and

(3) Research— Outstanding research results, in the form of research articles, reviews, perspectives, short communications regarding critical issues, and so on.

All manuscripts must be prepared in English, and are subject to a rigorous and fair peer-review process. Accepted papers will immediately appear online, followed by a printed hard copy. The journal publishes original papers including but not limited to the following fields:

• Aeronautical and Astronautical Science and Technology
Agricultural Engineering
Architecture and Civil Engineering
Bioengineering
Biomedical Engineering
Chemical Engineering and Technology
• Communication and Transportation Engineering
Computer Science and Technology
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Engineering Education
Engineering Management
Environmental Science and Engineering
Food Science and Engineering
Forestry Engineering
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering
Hydraulic Engineering
Information and Communication Engineering
Instrument Science and Technology
Materials Science and Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Mechanics
Metallurgical Engineering
Mineral Engineering
Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
Nuclear Energy Science and Engineering
Oil and Natural Gas Engineering
Optical Engineering
Power Engineering and Engineering Thermophysics
Surveying and Mapping
• Systems and Control Engineering
Textile Science and Engineering
Light Industry Technology and Engineering

Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages .

Source:

www.journals.elsevier.com

Articles

Engineering - definition of engineering by The Free Dictionary

engineering

a. The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems.

b. The profession of or the work performed by an engineer.

2. Skillful maneuvering or direction: geopolitical engineering; social engineering.

engineering

(Professions) the profession of applying scientific principles to the design, construction, and maintenance of engines, cars, machines, etc (mechanical engineering ), buildings, bridges, roads, etc (civil engineering ), electrical machines and communication systems (electrical engineering ), chemical plant and machinery (chemical engineering ), or aircraft (aeronautical engineering ). See also military engineering

en•gi•neer•ing

(ˌɛn dʒəˈnɪər ɪŋ)

1. the practical application of science and mathematics, as in the design and construction of machines, vehicles, structures, roads, and systems.

2. the action, work, or profession of an engineer.

3. skillful or artful contrivance or manipulation.

engineering - the practical application of science to commerce or industry

profession - an occupation requiring special education (especially in the liberal arts or sciences)

application. practical application - the act of bringing something to bear; using it for a particular purpose; "he advocated the application of statistics to the problem"; "a novel application of electronics to medical diagnosis"

aeronautical engineering - the activity of designing and constructing aircraft

chemical engineering - the activity of applying chemistry to the solution of practical problems

communications technology - the activity of designing and constructing and maintaining communication systems

computer technology - the activity of designing and constructing and programming computers

high tech. high technology - highly advanced technological development (especially in electronics)

rail technology. railroading - the activity of designing and constructing and operating railroads

engineering - the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems; "he had trouble deciding which branch of engineering to study"

flood control - (engineering) the art or technique of trying to control rivers with dams etc in order to minimize the occurrence of floods

aeronautical engineering - the branch of engineering science concerned with the design and construction of aircraft

bionics - application of biological principles to the study and design of engineering systems (especially electronic systems)

bioengineering. ergonomics. biotechnology - the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments

chemical engineering - the branch of engineering that is concerned with the design and construction and operation of the plants and machinery used in industrial chemical processes

civil engineering - the branch of engineering concerned with the design and construction of such public works as dams or bridges

EE. electrical engineering - the branch of engineering science that studies the uses of electricity and the equipment for power generation and distribution and the control of machines and communication

computer science. computing - the branch of engineering science that studies (with the aid of computers) computable processes and structures

architectural engineering - the branch of engineering that deals with the construction of buildings (as distinguished from architecture as a design art)

industrial engineering. industrial management - the branch of engineering that deals with the creation and management of systems that integrate people and materials and energy in productive ways

information technology. IT - the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information

mechanical engineering - the branch of engineering that deals with the design and construction and operation of machinery

nanotechnology - the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)

nuclear engineering - the branch of engineering concerned with the design and construction and operation of nuclear reactors

naval engineering - the branch of engineering that deals with the design and construction and operation of ships

rocketry - the branch of engineering science that studies rocket design and operation

sink - (technology) a process that acts to absorb or remove energy or a substance from a system; "the ocean is a sink for carbon dioxide"

source - (technology) a process by which energy or a substance enters a system; "a heat source"; "a source of carbon dioxide"

2.adj (works, factory, worker ) → metalmeccanico/a

engine engineering engineering

n ingeniería; genetic — ingeniería genética

References in classic literature ?

The dry-goods stores were not down among the counting-houses, banks, and wholesale warerooms, where gentlemen most do congregate, but Jo found herself in that part of the city before she did a single errand, loitering along as if waiting for someone, examining engineering instruments in one window and samples of wool in another, with most unfeminine interest, tumbling over barrels, being half-smothered by descending bales, and hustled unceremoniously by busy men who looked as if they wondered `how the deuce she got there'.

Herein it is the same with the American whale fishery as with the American army and military and merchant navies, and the engineering forces employed in the construction of the American Canals and Railroads.

Jack Duane was from the East; he was a college-bred man--had been studying electrical engineering .

Frank was praised, as a quiet, gentleman-like, interesting lad -but he was also reported to be rather slow at acquiring the rudiments of engineering science.

And so, having undertaken to give telephone service, they presently found themselves battling with the most intricate and baffling engineering problem of modern times--the construction around the tele- phone of such a mechanism as would bring it into universal service.

With us, our Priests are Administrators of all Business, Art, and Science; Directors of Trade, Commerce, Generalship, Architecture, Engineering. Education, Statesmanship, Legislature, Morality, Theology; doing nothing themselves, they are the Causes of everything worth doing, that is done by others.

But the reason why he wants sometimes to go off at a tangent may just be that he is predestined to make the road, and perhaps, too, that however stupid the "direct" practical man may be, the thought sometimes will occur to him that the road almost always does lead somewhere, and that the destination it leads to is less important than the process of making it, and that the chief thing is to save the well-conducted child from despising engineering. and so giving way to the fatal idleness, which, as we all know, is the mother of all the vices.

Once I happened to speak of an engineering job I had been on the previous year in Florida, and of the contrast between the winter landscape about us and that in which I had found myself the year before; and to my surprise Frome said suddenly: "Yes: I was down there once, and for a good while afterward I could call up the sight of it in winter.

Their cities were veritable hothouses, and when I had come within this one my respect and admiration for the scientific and engineering skill of this buried nation was unbounded.

As for the road itself, I never saw such an engineering work, though Sir Henry said that the great road over the St.

The local doctor had suggested that many gentlemen now went in for engineering. but Mrs.

You will think more highly of your genus when you have seen its armies and navies, its great cities, and its mighty engineering works.

Source:

www.thefreedictionary.com

Engineering

Engineering

The Watt steam engine. a major driver in the Industrial Revolution. underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. This model is on display at the main building of the ETSIIM in Madrid, Spain.

Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific. mathematical. economic. social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of people.

[T]he creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination; or to construct or operate the same with full cognizance of their design; or to forecast their behavior under specific operating conditions; all as respects an intended function, economics of operation and safety to life and property. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ]

One who practices engineering is called an engineer. and those licensed to do so may have more formal designations such as Professional Engineer. Chartered Engineer. Incorporated Engineer. Ingenieur or European Engineer. The broad discipline of engineering encompasses a range of more specialized subdisciplines. each with a more specific emphasis on certain fields of application and particular areas of technology.

Contents History

The concept of engineering has existed since ancient times as humans devised fundamental inventions such as the pulley, lever, and wheel. Each of these inventions is consistent with the modern definition of engineering, exploiting basic mechanical principles to develop useful tools and objects.

The term engineering itself has a much more recent etymology, deriving from the word engineer. which itself dates back to 1325, when an engine’er (literally, one who operates an engine ) originally referred to “a constructor of military engines.” [ 5 ] In this context, now obsolete, an “engine” referred to a military machine, i.e.. a mechanical contraption used in war (for example, a catapult ). Notable exceptions of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g.. the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers .

The word “engine” itself is of even older origin, ultimately deriving from the Latin ingenium (c. 1250), meaning “innate quality, especially mental power, hence a clever invention.” [ 6 ]

Later, as the design of civilian structures such as bridges and buildings matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering [ 4 ] entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the older discipline of military engineering .

Ancient era

The Pharos of Alexandria, the pyramids in Egypt. the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece. the Roman aqueducts. Via Appia and the Colosseum. Teotihuacán and the cities and pyramids of the Mayan. Inca and Aztec Empires, the Great Wall of China. among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of the ancient civil and military engineers.

Ancient Greece developed machines in both the civilian and military domains. The Antikythera mechanism. the first known mechanical computer. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] and the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing. two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial revolution, and are still widely used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. [ 10 ]

Chinese, Greek and Roman armies employed complex military machines and inventions such as artillery which was developed by the Greeks around the 4th century B.C. [ 11 ] the trireme. the ballista and the catapult. In the Middle Ages, the Trebuchet was developed.

Renaissance era

The first electrical engineer is considered to be William Gilbert, with his 1600 publication of De Magnete. who was the originator of the term "electricity ". [ 12 ]

The first steam engine was built in 1698 by mechanical engineer Thomas Savery. [ 13 ] The development of this device gave rise to the industrial revolution in the coming decades, allowing for the beginnings of mass production .

With the rise of engineering as a profession in the eighteenth century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. Similarly, in addition to military and civil engineering the fields then known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.

Modern era

The International Space Station represents a modern engineering challenge from many disciplines.

Electrical engineering can trace its origins in the experiments of Alessandro Volta in the 1800s, the experiments of Michael Faraday. Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric motor in 1872. The work of James Maxwell and Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century gave rise to the field of Electronics. The later inventions of the vacuum tube and the transistor further accelerated the development of electronics to such an extent that electrical and electronics engineers currently outnumber their colleagues of any other Engineering specialty. [ 4 ]

The inventions of Thomas Savery and the Scottish engineer James Watt gave rise to modern Mechanical Engineering. The development of specialized machines and their maintenance tools during the industrial revolution led to the rapid growth of Mechanical Engineering both in its birthplace Britain and abroad. [ 4 ]

Chemical Engineering. like its counterpart Mechanical Engineering, developed in the nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution. [ 4 ] Industrial scale manufacturing demanded new materials and new processes and by 1880 the need for large scale production of chemicals was such that a new industry was created, dedicated to the development and large scale manufacturing of chemicals in new industrial plants. [ 4 ] The role of the chemical engineer was the design of these chemical plants and processes. [ 4 ]

Aeronautical Engineering deals with aircraft design while Aerospace Engineering is a more modern term that expands the reach envelope of the discipline by including spacecraft design. [ 14 ] Its origins can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the turn of the century from the 19th century to the 20th although the work of Sir George Cayley has recently been dated as being from the last decade of the 18th century. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was largely empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. [ 15 ]

The first PhD in engineering (technically, applied science and engineering ) awarded in the United States went to Willard Gibbs at Yale University in 1863; it was also the second PhD awarded in science in the U.S. [ 16 ]

Only a decade after the successful flights by the Wright brothers. there was extensive development of aeronautical engineering through development of military aircraft that were used in World War I. Meanwhile, research to provide fundamental background science continued by combining theoretical physics with experiments.

In 1990, with the rise of computer technology, the first search engine was built by computer engineer Alan Emtage .

Main branches of engineering

Engineering, much like other science, is a broad discipline which is often broken down into several sub-disciplines. These disciplines concern themselves with differing areas of engineering work. Although initially an engineer will usually be trained in a specific discipline, throughout an engineer's career the engineer may become multi-disciplined, having worked in several of the outlined areas. Engineering is often characterized as having four main branches: [ 17 ] [ 18 ]

  • Chemical engineering – The exploitation of both engineering and chemical principles in order to carry out large scale chemical process.
  • Civil engineering – The design and construction of public and private works, such as infrastructure (airports, roads, railways, water supply and treatment etc.), bridges. dams, and buildings.
  • Electrical engineering – a very broad area that may encompass the design and study of various electrical and electronic systems, such as electrical circuits, generators. motors. electromagnetic /electromechanical devices, electronic devices, electronic circuits, optical fibers. optoelectronic devices, computer systems, telecommunications, instrumentation, controls, and electronics .
  • Mechanical engineering – The design of physical or mechanical systems, such as power and energy systems, aerospace /aircraft products, weapon systems, transportation products engines. compressors. powertrains. kinematic chains. vacuum technology, and vibration isolation equipment.

New specialties sometimes combine with the traditional fields and form new branches. A new or emerging area of application will commonly be defined temporarily as a permutation or subset of existing disciplines; there is often gray area as to when a given sub-field becomes large and/or prominent enough to warrant classification as a new "branch." One key indicator of such emergence is when major universities start establishing departments and programs in the new field.

For each of these fields there exists considerable overlap, especially in the areas of the application of sciences to their disciplines such as physics, chemistry and mathematics.

Methodology

Design of a turbine requires collaboration of engineers from many fields, as the system is subject to mechanical, electro-magnetic and chemical processes. The blades, rotor and stator as well as the steam cycle all need to be carefully designed and optimised.

Engineers apply the sciences of physics and mathematics to find suitable solutions to problems or to make improvements to the status quo. More than ever, engineers are now required to have knowledge of relevant sciences for their design projects, as a result, they keep on learning new material throughout their career.

If multiple options exist, engineers weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements. The crucial and unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. It is usually not enough to build a technically successful product; it must also meet further requirements.

Constraints may include available resources, physical, imaginative or technical limitations, flexibility for future modifications and additions, and other factors, such as requirements for cost, safety. marketability, productibility, and serviceability. By understanding the constraints, engineers derive specifications for the limits within which a viable object or system may be produced and operated.

Problem solving

Engineers use their knowledge of science. mathematics. logic. economics. and appropriate experience or tacit knowledge to find suitable solutions to a problem. Creating an appropriate mathematical model of a problem allows them to analyze it (sometimes definitively), and to test potential solutions.

Usually multiple reasonable solutions exist, so engineers must evaluate the different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best meets their requirements. Genrich Altshuller. after gathering statistics on a large number of patents. suggested that compromises are at the heart of "low-level" engineering designs, while at a higher level the best design is one which eliminates the core contradiction causing the problem.

Engineers typically attempt to predict how well their designs will perform to their specifications prior to full-scale production. They use, among other things: prototypes. scale models. simulations. destructive tests. nondestructive tests. and stress tests. Testing ensures that products will perform as expected.

Engineers take on the responsibility of producing designs that will perform as well as expected and will not cause unintended harm to the public at large. Engineers typically include a factor of safety in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failure. However, the greater the safety factor, the less efficient the design may be.

The study of failed products is known as forensic engineering. and can help the product designer in evaluating his or her design in the light of real conditions. The discipline is of greatest value after disasters, such as bridge collapses, when careful analysis is needed to establish the cause or causes of the failure.

Computer use

A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around the Space Shuttle during re-entry. Solutions to the flow require modelling of the combined effects of the fluid flow and heat equations.

As with all modern scientific and technological endeavors, computers and software play an increasingly important role. As well as the typical business application software there are a number of computer aided applications (Computer-aided technologies ) specifically for engineering. Computers can be used to generate models of fundamental physical processes, which can be solved using numerical methods.

One of the most widely used tools in the profession is computer-aided design (CAD) software which enables engineers to create 3D models, 2D drawings, and schematics of their designs. CAD together with Digital mockup (DMU) and CAE software such as finite element method analysis or analytic element method allows engineers to create models of designs that can be analyzed without having to make expensive and time-consuming physical prototypes.

These allow products and components to be checked for flaws; assess fit and assembly; study ergonomics; and to analyze static and dynamic characteristics of systems such as stresses, temperatures, electromagnetic emissions, electrical currents and voltages, digital logic levels, fluid flows, and kinematics. Access and distribution of all this information is generally organized with the use of Product Data Management software. [ 22 ]

There are also many tools to support specific engineering tasks such as Computer-aided manufacture (CAM) software to generate CNC machining instructions; Manufacturing Process Management software for production engineering; EDA for printed circuit board (PCB) and circuit schematics for electronic engineers; MRO applications for maintenance management; and AEC software for civil engineering.

In recent years the use of computer software to aid the development of goods has collectively come to be known as Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). [ 23 ]

Social context

Engineering is a subject that ranges from large collaborations to small individual projects. Almost all engineering projects are beholden to some sort of financing agency: a company, a set of investors, or a government. The few types of engineering that are minimally constrained by such issues are pro bono engineering and open design engineering.

By its very nature engineering is bound up with society and human behavior. Every product or construction used by modern society will have been influenced by engineering design. Engineering design is a very powerful tool to make changes to environment, society and economies, and its application brings with it a great responsibility. Many engineering societies have established codes of practice and codes of ethics to guide members and inform the public at large.

Engineering projects can be subject to controversy. Examples from different engineering disciplines include the development of nuclear weapons. the Three Gorges Dam. the design and use of Sport utility vehicles and the extraction of oil. In response, some western engineering companies have enacted serious corporate and social responsibility policies.

Engineering is a key driver of human development. [ 24 ] Sub-Saharan Africa in particular has a very small engineering capacity which results in many African nations being unable to develop crucial infrastructure without outside aid. The attainment of many of the Millennium Development Goals requires the achievement of sufficient engineering capacity to develop infrastructure and sustainable technological development. [ 25 ]

All overseas development and relief NGOs make considerable use of engineers to apply solutions in disaster and development scenarios. A number of charitable organizations aim to use engineering directly for the good of mankind:

Relationships with other disciplines Science

Scientists study the world as it is; engineers create the world that has never been.

There exists an overlap between the sciences and engineering practice; in engineering, one applies science. Both areas of endeavor rely on accurate observation of materials and phenomena. Both use mathematics and classification criteria to analyze and communicate observations.

Scientists may also have to complete engineering tasks, such as designing experimental apparatus or building prototypes. Conversely, in the process of developing technology engineers sometimes find themselves exploring new phenomena, thus becoming, for the moment, scientists.

In the book What Engineers Know and How They Know It. [ 29 ] Walter Vincenti asserts that engineering research has a character different from that of scientific research. First, it often deals with areas in which the basic physics and/or chemistry are well understood, but the problems themselves are too complex to solve in an exact manner.

Examples are the use of numerical approximations to the Navier-Stokes equations to describe aerodynamic flow over an aircraft, or the use of Miner's rule to calculate fatigue damage. Second, engineering research employs many semi-empirical methods that are foreign to pure scientific research, one example being the method of parameter variation .

As stated by Fung et al. in the revision to the classic engineering text, Foundations of Solid Mechanics :

"Engineering is quite different from science. Scientists try to understand nature. Engineers try to make things that do not exist in nature. Engineers stress invention. To embody an invention the engineer must put his idea in concrete terms, and design something that people can use. That something can be a device, a gadget, a material, a method, a computing program, an innovative experiment, a new solution to a problem, or an improvement on what is existing. Since a design has to be concrete, it must have its geometry, dimensions, and characteristic numbers. Almost all engineers working on new designs find that they do not have all the needed information. Most often, they are limited by insufficient scientific knowledge. Thus they study mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and mechanics. Often they have to add to the sciences relevant to their profession. Thus engineering sciences are born." [ 30 ]

Although engineering solutions make use of scientific principles, engineers must also take into account safety, efficiency, economy, reliability and constructibility or ease of fabrication, as well as legal considerations such as patent infringement or liability in the case of failure of the solution.

Medicine and biology

Leonardo da Vinci. seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer. [ 31 ] He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiognomy .

The study of the human body, albeit from different directions and for different purposes, is an important common link between medicine and some engineering disciplines. Medicine aims to sustain, enhance and even replace functions of the human body. if necessary, through the use of technology .

Modern medicine can replace several of the body's functions through the use of artificial organs and can significantly alter the function of the human body through artificial devices such as, for example, brain implants and pacemakers. [ 32 ] [ 33 ] The fields of Bionics and medical Bionics are dedicated to the study of synthetic implants pertaining to natural systems.

Conversely, some engineering disciplines view the human body as a biological machine worth studying, and are dedicated to emulating many of its functions by replacing biology with technology. This has led to fields such as artificial intelligence. neural networks, fuzzy logic. and robotics. There are also substantial interdisciplinary interactions between engineering and medicine. [ 34 ] [ 35 ]

Both fields provide solutions to real world problems. This often requires moving forward before phenomena are completely understood in a more rigorous scientific sense and therefore experimentation and empirical knowledge is an integral part of both.

Medicine, in part, studies the function of the human body. The human body, as a biological machine, has many functions that can be modeled using Engineering methods. [ 36 ]

The heart for example functions much like a pump, [ 37 ] the skeleton is like a linked structure with levers, [ 38 ] the brain produces electrical signals etc. [ 39 ] These similarities as well as the increasing importance and application of Engineering principles in Medicine, led to the development of the field of biomedical engineering that uses concepts developed in both disciplines.

Newly emerging branches of science, such as Systems biology. are adapting analytical tools traditionally used for engineering, such as systems modeling and computational analysis, to the description of biological systems. [ 36 ]

Art

A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to design. with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.

There are connections between engineering and art; [ 40 ] they are direct in some fields, for example, architecture. landscape architecture and industrial design (even to the extent that these disciplines may sometimes be included in a University's Faculty of Engineering); and indirect in others. [ 40 ] [ 41 ] [ 42 ] [ 43 ]

The Art Institute of Chicago. for instance, held an exhibition about the art of NASA 's aerospace design. [ 44 ] Robert Maillart 's bridge design is perceived by some to have been deliberately artistic. [ 45 ] At the University of South Florida. an engineering professor, through a grant with the National Science Foundation. has developed a course that connects art and engineering. [ 41 ] [ 46 ]

Among famous historical figures Leonardo Da Vinci is a well known Renaissance artist and engineer, and a prime example of the nexus between art and engineering. [ 31 ] [ 47 ]

Other fields

In Political science the term engineering has been borrowed for the study of the subjects of Social engineering and Political engineering. which deal with forming political and social structures using engineering methodology coupled with political science principles. Financial engineering has similarly borrowed the term.

See also Look at other dictionaries:

engineering — en‧gi‧neer‧ing [ˌendʒˈnɪərɪŋ ǁ ˈnɪr ] noun [uncountable] MANUFACTURING the profession and activity of designing the way roads, bridges, machines, electrical equipment etc are built: • Most students specialize in one single branch of engineering … Financial and business terms

Engineering — En gi*neer ing, n. Originally, the art of managing engines; in its modern and extended sense, the art and science by which the properties of matter are made useful to man, whether in structures, machines, chemical substances, or living organisms; … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

engineering — [ ɛn(d)ʒiniriŋ; in ] n. m. • 1949; mot angl. « art de l ingénieur » → génie (III) ♦ Anglic. ⇒ ingénierie(recomm. offic.). ● engineering nom masculin (mot anglais) Synonyme de ingénierie. ● engineering (difficultés) nom masculin (mot anglais) … Encyclopédie Universelle

engineering — [pr. enginíring] n. Studiere a unui proiect industrial sub toate aspectele sale. /cuv. engl. Trimis de siveco, 22.08.2004. Sursa: NODEX  ENGINEERING s.n. (Anglicism) Studiere a unui proiect industrial sub toate aspectele sale (tehnic, economic … Dicționar Român

engineering — [en΄jə nir′iŋ] n. 1. a) the science concerned with putting scientific knowledge to practical uses, divided into different branches, as civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineering b) the planning, designing, construction, or management … English World dictionary

engineering — index building (business of assembling), contrivance, strategy Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary

engineering — 1680s, from ENGINEER (Cf. engineer) (n.). Meaning work done by an engineer is from 1720. As a field of study, attested from 1792. An earlier word was engineership (1640s); engineery was attempted in 1793, but it did not stick … Etymology dictionary

engineering — ► NOUN ▪ the branch of science and technology concerned with the design, building, and use of engines, machines, and structures … English terms dictionary

engineering — /en jeuh near ing/, n. 1. the art or science of making practical application of the knowledge of pure sciences, as physics or chemistry, as in the construction of engines, bridges, buildings, mines, ships, and chemical plants. 2. the action, work … Universalium

engineering — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ heavy, light ▪ precision ▪ advanced ▪ aeronautical, aerospace ▪ civil … Collocations dictionary

Source:

en.academic.ru

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Here's a series that aims to break rules in every direction.

US man gets 18 months in 'Celebgate' nude photo hack

A US man was sentenced to 18 months in prison for hacking the accounts of Hollywood stars, which led to the online release of private nude photos of Jennifer Lawrence, Kate Upton and other celebrities.

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Source:

phys.org

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