Number of items at this level: 22 .B
Baker, Charlotte (2012) Chromatic Ambivalence: Colouring the Albino. In: Cultures of Colour: Visual, Material, Textual. Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp. 143-153. ISBN 9780857454645
Baker, Charlotte (2015) Multilingual literature and official bilingualism in Cameroon:Francis Nyamnjoh’s A Nose for Money (2006) and Patrice Nganang’s Temps de chien (2001). International Journal of Francophone Studies, 18 (1). pp. 59-76. ISSN 1368-2679
Baker, Charlotte (2012) Métissages: Williams Sassine's Saint Monsieur Baly, Wirriyamu, and Mémoire d'une peau. Postcolonial Text, 7 (2).
Baker, Charlotte (2012) Parasites and the Postcolonial in Williams Sassine's Saint Monsieur Baly. In: Parasites, Worms and the Human Body in Religion and Culture. Peter Lang, New York, pp. 123-134. ISBN 9781433115479
Braun, Rebecca Joanne (2016) The world author in us all:conceptualising fame and agency in the global literary market. Celebrity Studies, 7 (4). ISSN 1939-2397 (In Press)
Braun, Rebecca Joanne and Spiers, Emily (2016) Introduction: Re-viewing literary celebrity. Celebrity Studies, 7 (4). ISSN 1939-2397 (In Press)G
Galloway, Janice and Fell, Alison and Lochhead, Liz and Butlin, Ron and Brown, George Mackay (1995) Shouting it Out: Stories from Contemporary Scotland. Hodder Gibson. ISBN 978-0340655016
Gräbner, Cornelia (2012) Public poetry performances of the 1970s and 1980s:reconsiderations of poetic licence. In: Lírica i deslírica. University of the Balearic Islands Press, Palma de Mallorca.H
Hendry, Diana and Pow, Thomas (2005) Sparks! Mariscat Press. ISBN 978-0946588411P
Pearce, Lynne (1991) Woman/Image/Text: Readings in Pre-Raphaelite Art and Literature. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0802069126
Pearce, Lynne (2012) The urban imaginary:writing, migration, place. Mobilities, 7 (1). pp. 1-11. ISSN 1745-0101
Pow, Thomas (2012) In Another World: Among Europe's Dying Villages. Polygon. ISBN 978-1846971952
Pow, Thomas (1992) In the Palace of Serpents: Experience of Peru. Canongate. ISBN 978-0862413620
Pow, Thomas (2008) Introduction. In: An Apple from a Tree and Other Early Stories. Kennedy and Boyd, Glasgow, pp. 7-17. ISBN 978-1904999553
Pow, Thomas (2003) Landscape and Legacies. Iynx Publishing. ISBN 978-0954058340
Pow, Thomas (1990) The Moth Trap. Canongate. ISBN 978-0862412999
Pow, Thomas (1996) Red Letter Day. Bloodaxe Books. ISBN 978-1852243685
Pow, Thomas (1987) Rough Seas. Canongate. ISBN 978-0862411503
Pow, Thomas (2007) Transfusion. Shoestring Press. ISBN 978-1904886549S
Schad, John (2001) Writing the Bodies of Christ: the Church from Carlyle to Derrida. Ashgate. ISBN 0754605388
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Neo-African Literature: A History of Black Writing.
Chapters in this book classify the literature reflecting the overlap of African and Western cultures according to its content, stylistic features, and patterns of literary expression. Areas covered are (1) early writers of African descent; (2) the African scene--oral, Afro-Arabic, "apprentice" and "protest," and Southern Bantu literatures; (3) the American scene--19th century, "minstrelsy" and voodoo, the Negro spiritual, blues and calypso, the "Negro Renaissance," the "Golden Years"--1920's, the Depression, "indigenism" in Haiti, and "Negrism" in Cuba; and (4) new problems--the Negritude School and modern African literature. A bibliography of primary literature as well as some secondary sources follows each chapter, while an appendix provides information on magazines devoted to Africa's culture and Afro-American literature, and on literary statistics for sub-Saharan Africa, Afro-America, and translations of works into other languages. (JM)
Grove Press, Inc. 80 University Place, New York, N.Y. 10003 ($1.95 paperback)
Publication Type: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Note: Originally published as "Geschichte der neoafrikanischen Literature;" translated by Oliver Coburn and Ursula Lehrburger
how, in his language particularly, he avoids a "black and white", right/wrong type of judgement of the positions he reviews
With the general growth of feminist work in many academic fields, it is hardly surprising that the relationship between language and gender has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In an attempt to go beyond "folklinguistic" assumptions about how men and women use language (the assumption that women are "talkative", for example), studies have focused on anything from different syntactical, phonological or lexical uses of language to aspects of conversation analysis, such as topic nomination and control, interruptions and other interactional features. While some research has focused only on the description of differences, other work has sought to show how linguistic differences both reflect and reproduce social difference. Accordingly, Coates (1988) suggests that research on language and gender can be divided into studies that focus on dominance and those that focus on difference.
Much of the earlier work emphasized dominance. Lakoff's (1975) pioneering work suggested that women's speech typically displayed a range of features, such as tag questions, which marked it as inferior and weak. Thus, she argued that the type of subordinate speech learned by a young girl "will later be an excuse others use to keep her in a demeaning position, to refuse to treat her seriously as a human being" (1975, p.5). While there are clearly some problems with Lakoff's work - her analysis was not based on empirical research, for example, and the automatic equation of subordinate with `weak' is problematic - the emphasis on dominance has understandably remained at the Centre of much of this work. Research has shown how men nominated topics more, interrupted more often, held the floor for longer, and so on (see, for example, Zimmerman and West, 1975). The chief focus of this approach, then, has been to show how patterns of interaction between men and women reflect the dominant position of men in society.
Some studies, however, have taken a different approach by looking not so much at power in mixed-sex interactions as at how same-sex groups produce certain types of interaction. In a typical study of this type, Maltz and Borker (1982) developed lists of what they described as men's and women's features of language. They argued that these norms of interaction were acquired in same-sex groups rather than mixed-sex groups and that the issue is therefore one of (sub-)cultural miscommunication rather than social inequality. Much of this research has focused on comparisons between, for example, the competitive conversational style of men and the cooperative conversational style of women.
While some of the more popular work of this type, such as Tannen (1987), lacks a critical dimension, the emphasis on difference has nevertheless been valuable in fostering research into gender subgroup interactions and in emphasizing the need to see women's language use not only as subordinate but also as a significant subcultural domain.Although Coates' (1988) distinction is clearly a useful one, it also seems evident that these two approaches are by no means mutually exclusive. While it is important on the one hand, therefore, not to operate with a simplistic version of power and to consider language and gender only in mixed-group dynamics, it is also important not to treat women's linguistic behaviour as if it existed outside social relations of power. As Cameron, McAlinden and O'Leary (1988) ask, "Can it be coincidence that men are aggressive and hierarchically-organized conversationalists, whereas women are expected to provide conversational support?" (p.80). Clearly, there is scope here for a great deal more research that
Cameron, D. F. McAlinden and K. O'Leary (1988). "Lakoff in context: the social and linguistic
This work has been accessed more in Africa than in any other continent.
What is significant about this revised, online edition is that it makes this ground-breaking, seminal work freely available to all who want to use it. This is particularly significant for the African scholar living in an increasingly technologized society on a continent where academics often remain on the periphery of a society consumed by emerging capitalism and political uncertainty. African academics, their universities and libraries are largely under-resourced and can often not afford to purchase hard copies of books. Making this book freely available therefore returns it back to its people on the ground, back to its original home, which underpins the fieldwork represented in the volume. It is now available for the next generation of researchers who will emerge through being influenced by this technologized version of the book.
�Russell H. Kaschula, Journal of African Cultural Studies. Volume 25/1, 2013, pp. 141-44.
In �Oral Literature in Africa�, Ruth Finnegan explores themes common to anthropology, linguistics and sociology, debunking commonly held conceptions of the time and reestablishing the relevance of studying the oral arts of Africa with as much rigour as any other form of artistic expression.
Ruth Finnegan�s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa.
This revised edition makes Finnegan�s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, prose, "drum language" and drama, and an overview of the social, linguistic and historical background of oral literature in Africa. Oral Literature in Africa has been accessed by hundreds of readers in over 60 different countries, including Ethiopia. Kenya. Rwanda and numerous other African countries.
This volume is complemented by original recordings of stories and songs from the Limba country (Sierra Leone), collected by Finnegan during her fieldwork in the late 1960s, which are are hosted by the World Oral Literature Project and are freely accessible here .
This book is part-funded by an Unglue.it campaign.
Oral Literature in Africa
Ruth Finnegan | September 2012
xliv + 570 | 39 b&w illustrations | 6.14" x 9.21" (234 x 156 mm)
World Oral Literature Series. vol. 1 | ISSN: 2050-7933 (Print); 2054-362X (Online)
ISBN Paperback: 9781906924706
ISBN Hardback: 9781906924713
ISBN Digital (PDF): 9781906924720
ISBN Digital ebook (epub): 9781906924737
ISBN Digital ebook (mobi): 9781906924744
BIC subject codes: JHMC (Social and cultural anthropology, ethnography), HBTD (Oral history), 1H (Africa)
You may also be interested in:
List of Illustrations
Forward by Mark Turin
Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Acknowledgements: Addendum 2012
Note on Sources and References
I � INTRODUCTION
1. The 'oral' nature of African unwritten literature
The significance of performance in actualization, transmission, and composition. Audience and occasion. Implications for the study of oral literature. Oral art as literature.
2. The perception of African oral literature
Nineteenth-century approaches and collections. Speculations and neglect in the twentieth century. Recent trends in African studies and the revival of interest in oral literature.
3. The social, linguistic, and literary background
Social and literary background. The linguistic basis � the example of Bantu. Some literary tools. Presentation of the material. The literary complexity of African cultures.
II � POETRY
4. Poetry and patronage
Variations in the poet's position. Court poets. Religious patronage. Free-lance and wandering poets. Part-time poets. A note on 'epic'.
Introductory: nature and distribution; composers and reciters; occasions. Southern Bantu praise poetry: form and style; occa�sions and delivery; traditional and contemporary significance.
6. Elegiac poetry
General and introductory. Akan funeral dirges: content and themes; structure, style, and delivery; occasions and functions; the dirge as literature.
7. Religious poetry
Introductory. Didactic and narrative religious poetry and the Islamic tradition; the Swahili tenzi. Hymns, prayers, and incanta�tions: general survey; the Fante Methodist lyric. Mantic poetry: Sotho divining praises; odu Ifa (Yoruba).
8. Special purpose poetry � war, hunting, and work
Military poetry: Nguni; Akan. Hunting poetry: Yoruba ijala; Ambo hunters' songs. Work songs.
Occasions. Subject-matter. Form. Composition.
10. Topical and political songs
Topical and local poetry. Songs of political parties and movements: Mau Mau hymns; Guinea R.D.A. songs; Northern Rhodesian party songs.
11. Children's songs and rhymes
Lullabies and nursery rhymes. Children's games and verses; Southern Sudanese action songs.
III � PROSE
12. Prose narratives I. Problems and theories
Introductory. Evolutionist interpretations. Historical-geographi�cal school. Classification and typologies. Structural-functional approach. Conclusion.
13. Prose narratives II. Content and form.
What is known to date: content and plot; main characters. Types of tales: animal stories; stories about people; 'myths'; �legends' and historical narratives. What demands further study: occasions; role of narrators; purpose and function; literary conventions; per�formance; originality and authorship. Conclusion.
The significance and concept of the proverb. Form and style. Content. Occasions and functions. Specific examples: Jabo; Zulu; Azande. Conclusion.
Riddles and related forms. Style and content. Occasions and uses. Conclusion.
16. Oratory, formal speaking, and other stylized forms
Oratory and rhetoric: Burundi; Limba. Prayers, curses, etc. Word play and verbal formulas. Names.
IV � SOME SPECIAL FORMS
17. Drum language and literature
Introductory � the principle of drum language. Examples of drum literature: announcements and calls; names; proverbs; poetry. Conclusion.
Introductory. Some minor examples: Bushman 'plays'; West African puppet shows. Mande comedies. West African masquerades: South-Eastern Nigeria; Kalabari. Conclusion.
Ruth Finnegan is Visiting Research Professor and Emeritus Professor in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the Open University where, as a founder member of the academic staff, she has spent much of her academic career. With a first degree in classical languages and literatures (Oxford�s Literae Humaniores ) she moved into anthropology as a graduate and spent several years conducting fieldwork and teaching in Africa. Her publications have consistently been inspired by these overlapping literary, historical and anthropological backgrounds. Her particular interests are in the anthropology/sociology of artistic activity, communication, and performance; debates relating to literacy, 'orality' and multimodality; and amateur and other 'hidden' activities. She has published widely on aspects of communication and expression, especially oral performance, literacy, and music-making. She was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 1996 and an Honorary Fellow of Somerville College Oxford in 1997; and was awarded an OBE for services to Social Sciences in 2000 and the Rivers Memorial medal by the Royal Anthropological Institute in 2016.
Publications, rooted in cultural anthropology but also drawing on a range of disciplinary traditions, include: Limba Stories and Story-Telling 1967, 1981; Oral Literature in Africa 1970; Modes of Thought (joint ed.), 1973; Oral Poetry. 1977 (2nd edn 1992); Information Technology: Social Issues (joint ed.), 1987; Literacy and Orality: Studies in the Technology of Communication ,1988; The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town 1989 (2nd edn 2007); Oral Traditions and the Verbal Arts 1992; South Pacific Oral Traditions (joint ed.),1995; Tales of the City: A Study of Narrative and Urban Life. 1998; Communicating: The Multiple Modes of Human Interconnection. 2002; Participating in the Knowledge Society: Researchers Beyond the University Walls (ed.), 2005; and The Oral and Beyond: Doing Things with Words in Africa. 2007. Her most recent book, Why Do We Quote? The Culture and History of Quotation. was published by Open Book Publishers in 2011.
© 2012 Ruth Finnegan. Forward © 2012 Mark Turin.
This book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC-BY 3.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work; to adapt the work and to make commercial use of the work providing attribution is made to the author (but not in any way that suggests that she or he endorses you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information:
Ruth Finnegan, Oral Literature in Africa. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0025
Further details and the full legal statement of this CC-BY licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
This volume is complemented by original recordings of stories and songs from the Limba country (Sierra Leone), collected by Finnegan during her fieldwork in the late 1960s. These recordings are hosted by the World Oral Literature Project, and are freely accessible here .
Reviews of the original edition of Oral Literature in Africa.
". a book certain to establish itself as a classic in the field of oral literature, distinguished alike for the range of its reference, the weight of its judgements and the quality of its discriminations. Future scholars are likely to find it not so much a gateway [. ] as a vast web from which their innumerable lines of inquiry will radiate and to which they will ultimately return."
� The Times Literary Supplement
"This is a comprehensive, scholarly and one would think definitive study of the subject."
� African Studies Association Bulletin
"Besides being a goldmine for scholars, [ Oral Literature in Africa ] is a delight for the general reader. Finnegan conveys the richness and joy of the African imagination. The people and animals and spirits of Africa live, laugh, weep and quarrel between the covers of her book."
� Journal of Asian and African Studies
In October 1972, our Czech-written book Literatury eerne Afriky (Literatures of Black Mrica) was published in Prague, presenting a survey of an extensive field. The publication, which was signed at that time by all three authors, differed from most contemporary introductions to the study of Mrican literatures in a threefold way: a) The authors attempted to cover various literacy and literary efforts in the area roughly delimited by Senegal in the west, Kenya in the east, Lake Chad in the north and the Cape in the south. We were well aware-even at that time-that neither technically nor linguistically would it be possible to cover all literary efforts within that area. We did try, however, to include in our survey both the literacies and literatures written in the Indo-European linguae francae (English, French, Portuguese) and in at least several of the major African languages of the area. We did not attempt an exhaustive description, but wished, rather, to show the mutual relationships which emerge, if the literatures of thii area, written either in the major linguae francae or in the African languages, are studied not as isolated phenomena, but as mutually complementary features. b) As two of us were linguists and one was a literary historian, we did not limit our analysis of the developing literacies and literatures to the purely cultural and literary aspects.
Our intention wa R to deal-whcre and if it was relevant-not only with the process of African literary development, but also with the simultaneous, complementar.
lit, epub, fb2, azw, mobi, odf, pdf, ibooks, pdg, txtTags
William Blake Albion Rose. c. 1796. Copyright Trustees of the British Museum
Three things particularly distinguish study in the Department of English at Chicago: the high level of intellectual discourse, informed by continuing attention to intellectual history and theory; the strong commitment to historical research; and the broadly interdisciplinary character of our intellectual lives. All three make our programs in British literature and culture particularly noteworthy.
Our commitment to the long history of Anglophone literatures and cultures is perhaps most evident in the strength of our faculty and student work in the Renaissance and the Eighteenth-Nineteenth Centuries. We also have powerful clusters in a number of other areas that combine the resources of Departmental and other University faculty, brought together by faculty-graduate student workshops, centers, committees, and institutes in which we are heavily involved. For example, students will find rich resources in Medieval Studies, Poetry and Poetics, Theater and Performance, gender and race, and colonial, post-colonial, and transnational areas (in conjunction with centers for South Asian. East Asian. Middle Eastern. and Latin American studies). The Department of English also has significant groups of faculty working on law and literature (Slauter); politics and political theory (Hadley); philosophy and literature (Miller, Keenleyside); aesthetic theory and relations between literature and the visual and material arts (Mitchell, Helsinger, Slauter, Campbell, B. Brown, and Morgan); and psychoanalytic theory and criticism (Ruddick, Veeder). We maintain multiple connections with the Department of Comparative Literature and commitments to language study. And of course, our outstanding Americanist faculty share interests, students, and conversations continually with the faculty listed below.
Of particular interest to students working in British literature and culture is the University's Nicholson Center for British Studies. which offers an annual lecture series, brown-bag lunches for student presentations, and several year-long dissertation research fellowships as well as short term research grants for students who need to do research in Britain. Our undergraduate program in London, coordinated through the Nicholson Center, employs one graduate student as a program assistant in the fall term each year. Other University resources for students in British literature and culture include the Center for Gender Studies ; the Center for the Study of Race, Politics, and Culture ; and the Franke Institute for the Humanities (the last is currently directed by English faculty member James Chandler). All these regularly sponsor lectures, conferences, symposia, workshops, and exhibitions, and also offer doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships.
The ethos of cooperative work extends to close relations with colleagues at area universities and libraries (Northwestern, University of Illinois Chicago, Loyola, Roosevelt, DePaul, and others), including individual co-teaching arrangements and the more formal consortia in Medieval, Renaissance, and Eighteenth-Century studies facilitated by the Newberry Library, itself an important resource.
Note: British Literatures and Cultures is not a distinct program, but rather an area of focus within the Department of English. Prospective applicants interested in the study of British Literatures and Cultures should follow the application procedures described on the Department's homepage.Faculty in British Literatures and Cultures Fields Early and Late Medieval
Study of the Middle Ages at the University of Chicago is normally interdisciplinary, with students taking courses in several departments. Of central importance to the community is the Medieval Studies Workshop at which students and faculty gather to present and discuss their own work and listen to papers by visiting scholars. Old English is regularly taught both at the University of Chicago and in seminars sponsored annually by the Newberry Library. These seminars are led by professors from all over the area; recent seminars include "The Other Texts in the Beowulf Manuscript" (Susan Kim, Illinois State University), "Beowulf" (Christina von Nolcken ), "The Junius Manuscript" (Nathan Breen, DePaul University), "Sin and Forgiveness in Anglo-Saxon England" (Allen Frantzen, Loyola University of Chicago), "The Discovery and Invention of Old English Literature" (John D. Niles, University of Wisconsin at Madison), and "Law and Literature in Anglo-Saxon Literature" (Jana Schulman, Western Michigan University).Renaissance and Early Modern
The study of the Renaissance in England is one of the great strengths of our department. We have a remarkable group of scholar-critics, a group that is both various and harmonious. We all know, respect (and read) each other's work, and we all collaborate in our long-running and very successful Renaissance Workshop. Together, our strengths include comparative and interdisciplinary perspectives on the English Renaissance, with close attention to the intersection of formal and historical models of literary study. Here's a rough sketch of how we break down: our scholars are (in alphabetical order): David Bevington. Shakespearean and critic and editor of Medieval and Renaissance drama; Michael Murrin. a comparatist, working primarily (and widely) on epic and romance, and on the history of literary criticism in the classical, medieval, and early modern periods; Joshua Scodel. who works on Renaissance literary history's relation to the classical tradition and to intellectual and political history; and Richard Strier. who works on religion, politics, Shakespeare, and the lyric.Eighteenth-Century
Eighteenth-century study offers strength in literary and intellectual history (with particular attention to political and aesthetic theory, gender and sexual politics, philosophy, and the novel); in the emergence of literature and other disciplines, scientific as well as humanistic, and the interrelations between academic and public culture; and in the relations between literary form and legal theory. Faculty and students working in British eighteenth and nineteenth century literature and culture host a joint workshop and frequently share course work, conversation, and research across the overlapping "long" eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (c. 1680-1830 and 1775-1910).Romanticism
Faculty working in the field of British Romanticism have particular interests in poetry and fiction, Romantic visual culture and its legacy, legal and political theory, the long history of sentiment, consumer culture and urban life, and the special place of the Romantic literary moment in the emergence of historical thinking about human culture.Victorian
Studying the British Nineteenth Century at the University of Chicago Department of English enables a student to delve both deeply and broadly in the literature, culture, and history of the Victorian period. Courses centrally engaged with visual culture, popular culture, gender and domesticity, the constitution of disciplinary knowledge, politics, and the consolidation of empire are regularly offered. While faculty who specialize in the field mobilize historicist approaches of one kind or another (literary history, cultural history, intellectual history, genealogies of knowledge and affect), every scholar in the field enriches his or her inquiry with an array of critical and theoretical readings in Marxism, post-structuralism, feminism, and post-colonialism.Twentieth Century, Contemporary, and Transnational
In this field at Chicago, as at many institutions, faculty and students often work across national cultures and disciplinary divides, using a variety of critical paradigms. This is true for the very strong groups in film and media studies, modernist and contemporary poetry and poetics, cultural studies, twentieth-century theory (particularly Frankfurt School aesthetics and feminist and gender theory), and fiction and popular culture listed under the Americanist heading. Many of these faculty members direct projects and offer courses on Continental and British materials in addition to their work in American. Working primarily in modern British literature, Lisa Ruddick focuses on modernist fiction, psychoanalytic theory, and poetry and poetics. Loren Kruger is a transnational comparatist specializing in drama, performance studies, and Marxist theories of modernism, with a particular strength in South Africa and Africa but broad knowledge of German, French, British, and American twentieth-century theater. Leela Gandhi works on fin de siècle and early twentieth-century transnational radicalism and teaches courses on postcolonial theory and Indo-Anglian literature. W. J. T. Mitchell also works on twentieth-century literary, aesthetic and political theory, and art and media theory. Lawrence Rothfield offers courses on twentieth-century and contemporary cultural and public policy. John Wilkinson works on late Modernist and contemporary British poetry, with a focus on heterodox lyric poetry from early Auden to Prynne. The Department frequently collaborates with colleagues in History, Anthropology, Political Science, South Asian, East Asian, Comparative Literature, and the Center for Latin American Studies, for both curricular offerings and the direction of oral examinations and dissertations in colonial and postcolonial literature and theory and transnational and global literatures and cultures. Resources are particularly strong for students interested in South Asian, East Asian, African, and Latin American or Caribbean cultures as these form parts of British and Anglophone literary cultures.Selected Recent Courses Medieval Literature
A History of Afro-Portuguese Literature
Russell G. Hamilton
Publication Year: 1975
Voices From an Empire was first published in 1975. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.
The literature of the various regions of Lusophone Africa has received relatively little critical attention compared with that which has been focused on the work of writers in the English- and French- speaking countries of Africa. With the profound changes which are occurring in the social and political structures of Lusophone Africa, there is particular need for the comprehensive look at Afro-Protuguese literature which this account provides.
Professor Hamilton traces the development of this literature in the broad perspective of it social, cultural, and aesthetic context. He discusses the whole of the Afro-Portuguese literary phenomenon, as it occurs on the Cape Verde archipelago, in Guinea-Bissau, on the Guinea Gulf islands of Sao Tome and Principe, in Angola, and in Mozambique.
In an introduction he discusses some basic questions about Afro-Protuguese literature, among them, the matter of a definition of this body of writing, the implications of the concept of negritude, the role of Portugal and Brazil in Afro-Portuguese literature, and the social and cultural significance of the dominant literary themes found in the various regions of Lusophone Africa. Because he sees the regionalist movement in Angola as the most significant in terms of a neo-African orientation, he begins the book with an extensive study of the literature of that country. Many examples of afro-Portuguese poetry are given, both in the original language and in the English translation. There is a bibliography, and a map shows the African regions of study.Cover
Since the completion of the body of this study there have been some startling changes in Portugal and Portuguese Africa. The first significant occurrence came on 25 April 1974 with the unexpected overthrow of the right-wing dictatorship that had ruled Portugal for nearly fifty years.Contents Introduction
When Gomes Eanes de Zurara, official chronicler of the Portuguese court, wrote his panegyric Feitos da Guiné (Exploits in Guinea, 1453) he did more than set down the deeds of the first Europeans to penetrate sub-Saharan Africa. Zurara, who himself never went beyond Morocco, helped form some of Europe's first impressions of black Africa.Part I. Angola 1. Social and Cultural Background of the Modern Era
Portugal's largest overseas province (three times as large as Texas and nearly fourteen times as large as Portugal itself) derives its name from the word Ngola. dynastic title of the sixteenth-century Mbundu kingdom, the Mbundu being one of the major ethnic groups of the Kimbundu people.2. Colonialists, Independents, and Precursors
A considerable body of literature, mainly prose fiction, and almost exclusively cultivated by Europeans about Africa, appeared in the 1930s and the 1940s, although there were scattered antecedents as early as the late nineteenth century. The authors of these works often labeled them "colonial novels," an apt term in view of their inherent Western ethnocentrism.3. "Let's Discover Angola"
Carlos Ervedosa wrote that in 1948 those filhos da terra who were just coming of age took stock of their situation and came forth with the slogan "Vamos descobrir Angola!" (Let's Discover Angola!) 1 Bessa Victor channeled his Angolanness into timorous expressions of nativism; intellectuals born during the twenties.4. Toward a Poetry of Angola
At the height of its literary activity, from about 1951 to 1961, Angola's young generation struggled with the problem of poetry in versus poetry of Angola, the latter being naturally their goal as a sign of regional maturity and a readiness to take their legitimate place among other autochthonous literatures.5. Prose Fiction in Angola
The short story rapidly became a popular genre in Angola as writers took cognizance of their cultural and literary circumstances in the 1950s. For a number of reasons, lack of resources and time being two, the novel was little cultivated by the generation of aware writers.Part II. Mozambique 6. Portugal's East African Province
In his book Luanda, "ilha" crioula Mário António speaks of the Cape Verde archipelago, the Guinea Gulf islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, Angola, and Brazil as Atlantic regions that share certain cultural aspects. He excludes Mozambique obviously because of its location on Africa's east coast.7. Mozambique's Modern Literary Climate
Rui de Noronha, who died in 1943 at the age of thirty-four, left a collection of poetry called Sonetos (Sonnets), which was published posthumously in 1949 and apparently was considerably revised by the editors. This mestiço poet borrowed from a European tradition of Parnassian-like verse, and within the fixed metrics of his poetry he occasionally rose to heights of exhortation.8. Euro-African Writers
I have chosen to adopt Euro-African as a term that applies both to those writers who shun the regionalistic for a more universalist expression and to those who, while they may employ a regionalist thematic, do so more as spectators to the incipient events of an Afro-Portuguese literary expression in Mozambique.9. Poetry and Prose from a Black Perspective
Despite his opposition to the idea that Mozambican poetry should express an African frame of reference to the exclusion of other points of view, Rui Knopfli recognized the genuineness of what he himself has called Moçambicanismo. This Mozambicanness refers specifically to the use, by poets and writers of prose fiction.10. Contemporary Trends and Prospects
Mozambique's combative literature parallels Angola's in that during the mid- and late-sixties a small number of militant poets wrote verse while in exile. However, no poet of the caliber of the Angolan Agostinho Neto has contributed to this phase of Mozambican literature.Part III. The Cape Verde Islands 11. Ten African Islands
About the year 1460 Portuguese and Genovese mariners came upon the uninhabited Atlantic island subsequently named Santiago. In the years immediately following, the Portuguese, with the aid of the Genovese navigator Antonio Noli, discovered the remaining, likewise uninhabited, islands of the Cape Verde archipelago.12. The Birth of a Literature
The comment by the seventeenth-century priest Antonio Vieira on the jet black but refined clerics he observed in Santiago suggests the degree of early nonwhite participation in certain institutions that the Portuguese established in Cape Verde. 1 Because of their numerical superiority and the opportunities for a certain amount of upward social mobility, blacks.13. A New Poetry
Janheinz Jahn has declared that all creative writing by persons of African heritage is "under suspicion" until a better critical method of neo-African literature is developed. It might be said, then, that under Western domination any writer of African heritage may express his origins, or even a psychological reaction to his origins, in a subconscious or ambivalent way.14. Cape Verde in Narrative
Although the currents of négritude and black rebirth flowed far from Cape Verde's shores, the fact that island intellectuals began to immerse themselves in a regionalist awareness about the same time that writers in the Caribbean and Africa were in the process of discovering their roots gave the literary movement on the archipelago an impetus and a headstart on the other regions of Portuguese Africa.15. The Case of Portuguese Guinea (Guinea-Bissau)
Most commentators on Afro-Portuguese literature prefer to pass over Guinea. Although there may be little to comment on, even the quantitative absence of a viable literary expression in Portuguese makes the conditions responsible for this situation worthy of consideration within the total phenomenon of creative writing in the five areas.Part IV. São Tomé and Príncipe 16. Two Plantation Islands in the Gulf of Guinea
Historians estimate 1471 to be the year that the Portuguese first reached the two small, uninhabited islands of São Tomé and Príncipe located in the Gulf of Guinea. Príncipe, the smaller of the two equatorial islands, has paralleled and depended on the development of the more important São Tomé.17. Filhos da Terra at Home and Abroad
The few literary works by this small nucleus of filhos da terra display, in several cases, a preoccupation with the reaction of the transplanted "man-of-color" to his European environment. Even those whose writings do use island settings and themes show a concern with racial definitions arising from economic and social distinctions.Conclusions 18. Unity, Diversity, and Prospects for the Future
In approaching my subject from the standpoint of the modern cultural history of Portuguese Africa, I have considered the individual areas as regional entities, each with its own distinctive literary development, and I have also made references to the phenomenon of Afro-Portuguese literature;.Notes
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