Invasion of the Body Snatchers is one of the most ingenious and influential works of science fiction ever to "take over" the public imagination. Based on the 1955 novel The Body Snatchers by Jack Finney (author of the classic Time and Again), this classic tale of alienation, conformity, and political paranoia has inspired three motion pictures--and terrified three generations of fans. Now this fascinating companion volume--edited by Kevin McCarthy, the star of the original film, and Ed Gorman--explores the enduring power and popularity of The Body Snatchers phenomenon. Filled with photographs, interviews, personal commentaries, and behind-the scenes anecdotes--it is, at once, a tribute to director Don Siegel's 1956 film noir classic of Red Scare paranoia, a reassessment of the 1978 and 1997 remakes, and an homage to the brilliant fiction of author Jack Finney.
Searching Book Reviews.
The story depicts an extraterrestrial invasion that begins in the small fictional California town of Santa Mira. Alien plant spores have fallen from space and grown into large seed pods, each one capable of reproducing a duplicate replacement copy of each human. As each pod reaches full development, it assimilates the physical characteristics, memories, and personalities of each sleeping person placed near it; these duplicates, however, are devoid of all human emotion. Little by little, a local doctor uncovers this "quiet" invasion and attempts to stop it.
The slang expression "pod people" that arose in late 20th Century American culture references the emotionless duplicates seen in the film. [ 2 ]
In 1994, Invasion of the Body Snatchers was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."Plot
Psychiatrist Dr. Hill is called to the emergency room of a hospital, where a screaming man is being held in custody. Dr. Hill agrees to listen to his story. The man identifies himself as Dr. Miles Bennell, and he recounts, in flashback. the events leading up to his arrest and arrival at the hospital:
In Santa Mira, California, Miles Bennell, a local doctor, sees a number of patients suffering from Capgras delusion. Returning from a trip, Miles meets his former girlfriend, Becky Driscoll, who has herself recently come back to town after a recent divorce. Becky's cousin Wilma has the same fear about her Uncle Ira, with whom she lives. Psychiatrist Dr. Dan Kauffman assures Bennell that these cases are merely an "epidemic of mass hysteria ".
That same evening, Bennell's friend Jack Belicec finds a body with his physical features, though it's not fully developed; later, another body is found in the cellar of Becky's home that is a replica of her. When Bennell calls Kauffman to the scene, the bodies have mysteriously disappeared, and Kauffman informs Bennell that he is falling for the same hysteria. The following night, Bennell, Becky, Jack, and Jack's wife Teddy again find duplicates of themselves, emerging from large seed pods in Dr. Bennell's greenhouse. They conclude that the townspeople are being replaced while asleep by exact physical copies. Miles tries to make a long distance call for help from federal authorities, but the phone operator claims that all long-distance lines are busy; Jack and Teddy drive off to seek help in the next town. Bennell and Becky discover that by now all of the town's inhabitants have been replaced and are devoid of humanity; they flee to Bennell's office to hide for the night.
The next morning, they see truckloads of the large pods heading to neighboring towns, to be planted by "pod people" and used to replace surrounding populations little by little. Kauffman and Jack, both of whom are "pod people" by now, arrive at Bennell's office and reveal that an extraterrestrial life form is responsible for the invasion. After their takeover, they explain, life loses its frustrating complexity, because all emotions and sense of individuality vanish. Bennell and Becky escape and hide in an abandoned mine outside of town. Bennell comes upon a nearby farm and discovers more large seed pods being grown by the hundreds. While he is gone, Becky falls asleep and is transformed; when he returns and kisses her he realizes what has happened. She calls out to the pursuing "pod people". Bennell, now panicking, runs and eventually finds himself on a crowded highway. After seeing a truck bound for San Francisco and Los Angeles filled with pods, he frantically screams to passing motorists, "They're here already! You're next! You're next!"
As Bennell finishes his story at the hospital, Dr. Hill and the on-duty doctor doubt his account until an injured truck driver, involved in a highway accident, is brought into the emergency room. He was found in his wrecked truck buried under a load of giant seed pods. Both doctors realize that Bennell's story is true, and they immediately call the federal authorities.Cast Production Novel and screenplay
Jack Finney's novel ends with the extraterrestrials finally leaving Earth after they find that humans are offering strong resistance, despite having little reasonable chance against the alien invasion; the "pod people" have a life span of no more than five years, so five years after taking over the last human being, the invaders would then have to seek out a new world with new life forms as hosts, leaving behind a depopulated Earth. [ 2 ]Budgeting and casting
In this screenshot from the trailer; the principal cast (topright going clockwise): Carolyn Jones as Teddy, Kevin McCarthy as Dr. Miles Bennell, King Donovan as Jack Belicec, and Dana Wynter as Becky Driscoll; discover the pods growing
Invasion of the Body Snatchers was originally scheduled for a 24-day shoot and a budget of US$ 454,864. The studio later asked Wanger to cut the budget significantly. The producer proposed a shooting schedule of 20 days and a budget of $350,000. [ 3 ]
Initially, Wanger considered Gig Young. Dick Powell. Joseph Cotten and several others for the role of Miles. For Becky, he considered casting Anne Bancroft. Donna Reed. Kim Hunter. Vera Miles and others. With the lower budget, however, he abandoned these choices and cast Richard Kiley. who had just starred in The Phenix City Story for Allied Artists. [ 3 ] Kiley turned the role down and Wanger cast two relative newcomers in the lead roles: Kevin McCarthy. who had just starred in Siegel's An Annapolis Story . and Dana Wynter. who had done several major dramatic roles on television. [ 4 ]
Future director Sam Peckinpah had a small part as Charlie, a meter reader. Peckinpah was a dialogue coach on five Siegel films in the mid-1950s, including this one. [ 5 ]Principal photography
Originally, producer Wanger and Siegel wanted to film Invasion of the Body Snatchers on location in Mill Valley, California. the town just north of San Francisco. that Jack Finney described in his novel. [ 3 ] In the first week of January 1955, Siegel, Wanger and screenwriter Daniel Mainwaring visited Finney to talk about the film version and to look at Mill Valley. The location proved too expensive and Siegel with Allied Artist executives found locations resembling Mill Valley in the Los Angeles area, including Sierra Madre. Chatsworth. Glendale. Los Feliz. Bronson and Beachwood Canyons. all of which would make up the town of "Santa Mira" for the film. [ 3 ] In addition to these outdoor locations, much of the film was shot in the Allied Artists studio on the east side of Hollywood. [ 2 ]
Invasion of the Body Snatchers was shot by cinematographer Ellsworth Fredericks in 23 days between March 23 and April 18, 1955. The cast and crew worked a six-day week with Sundays off. [ 3 ] The production went over schedule by three days because of night-for-night shooting that Siegel wanted. Additional photography took place in September 1955, filming a frame story on which the studio had insisted (see Original intended ending ). The final budget was $382,190. [ 2 ]Post-production
The project was originally named The Body Snatchers after the Finney serial. [ 6 ] However, Wanger wanted to avoid confusion with the 1945 Val Lewton film The Body Snatcher . The producer was unable to come up with a title and accepted the studio's choice, They Come from Another World and that was assigned in summer 1955. Siegel objected to this title and suggested two alternatives, Better Off Dead and Sleep No More. while Wanger offered Evil in the Night and World in Danger. None of these were chosen, and the studio settled on Invasion of the Body Snatchers in late 1955. [ 6 ] The film was released at the time in France under the mistranslated title "L'invasion des profanateurs de sépultures " (literally: Invasion of the defilers of tombs ), which remains unchanged today.
Wanger wanted to add a variety of speeches and prefaces. [ 7 ] He suggested a voice-over introduction for Miles. [ 8 ] While the film was being shot, Wanger tried to get permission in England to use a Winston Churchill quotation as a preface to the film. The producer sought out Orson Welles to voice the preface and a trailer for the film. He wrote speeches for Welles' opening on June 15, 1955, and worked to persuade Welles to do it, but was unsuccessful. Wanger considered science fiction author Ray Bradbury instead, but this did not happen, either. [ 8 ] Mainwaring eventually wrote the voice-over narration himself. [ 6 ]
The studio scheduled three film previews on the last days of June and the first day of July 1955. [ 8 ] According to Wanger's memos at the time, the previews were successful. Later reports by Mainwaring and Siegel, however, contradict this, claiming that audiences could not follow the film and laughed in the wrong places. In response the studio removed much of the film's humor, "humanity" and "quality," according to Wanger. [ 8 ] He scheduled another preview in mid-August that also did not go well. In later interviews Siegel pointed out that it was studio policy not to mix humor with horror. [ 8 ]
Wanger saw the final cut in December 1955 and protested the use of the Superscope aspect ratio. [ 6 ] Its use had been included in early plans for the film, but the first print was not made until December. Wanger felt that the film lost sharpness and detail. Siegel originally shot Invasion of the Body Snatchers in the 1.85:1 aspect ratio. Superscope was a post-production laboratory process designed to create an anamorphic print from non-anamorphic source material that would be projected at an aspect ratio of 2.00:1. [ 6 ] [ 9 ]Original intended ending
Both Siegel and Mainwaring were satisfied with the film as shot. It was originally meant to end with Miles screaming as truckloads of pods pass him by. [ 7 ] The studio, wary of a pessimistic conclusion, insisted on adding a prologue and epilogue to the movie suggesting a more optimistic outcome to the story, which is thus told mainly in flashback. In this version the movie begins with a ranting Bennell in custody in a hospital emergency ward. He then tells an arriving doctor (Whit Bissell ) his story. In the closing scene pods are found at a highway accident, confirming his warning. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is notified, possibly in time to save the Earth. [ 2 ]
Mainwaring scripted this framing story and Siegel shot it on September 16, 1955, at the Allied Artists studio. [ 6 ] In a later interview Siegel complained, "The film was nearly ruined by those in charge at Allied Artists who added a preface and ending that I don't like." [ 10 ] In his autobiography Siegel added that "Wanger was very much against this, as was I. However, he begged me to shoot it to protect the film, and I reluctantly consented […]". [ 11 ]
While the Internet Movie Database states that the film's original ending had been reinstated for a re-release in 1979, [ 12 ] Steve Biodrowski of Cinefantastique magazine claims that the film is still released with the additional footage, including a 2005 screening at the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. honoring director Don Siegel. [ 13 ]
Though disapproved of by most reviewers, George Turner (in American Cinematographer ) [ 14 ] and Danny Peary (in Cult Movies ) [ 15 ] endorsed the subsequently added frame story. Nonetheless, Peary emphasized that the added scenes changed significantly what he saw as the film's original intention (see Themes ).Theatrical release
When the film was released domestically in February 1956, many theaters displayed several pods made of papier-mâché in theater lobbies and entrances, along with large lifelike black and white cutouts of McCarthy and Wynter running away from a crowd. The film made more than $1 million in the first month, and in 1956 alone made more than $2.5 million in the U.S. [ 2 ] When the British release (with cuts imposed by the British censors [ 16 ] ) took place in late 1956, the film earned more than a half million dollars in ticket sales. [ 6 ]Themes
Some reviewers saw in the story a commentary on the dangers facing America for turning a blind eye to McCarthyism ,"Leonard Maltin speaks of a McCarthy-era subtext." [ 17 ] or of bland conformity in postwar Eisenhower -era America. Others viewed it as an allegory for the loss of personal autonomy in the Soviet Union or communist systems in general. [ 18 ] For the BBC. David Wood summarized the circulating popular interpretations of the film as follows: "The sense of post-war, anti-communist paranoia is acute, as is the temptation to view the film as a metaphor for the tyranny of the McCarthy era." [ 19 ] Danny Peary in Cult Movies pointed out that the addition of the framing story had changed the film's stance from anti-McCarthyite to anti-communist. [ 15 ] Michael Dodd of The Missing Slate has called the movie "one of the most multifaceted horror films ever made", arguing that by "simultaneously exploiting the contemporary fear of infiltration by undesirable elements as well as a burgeoning concern over homeland totalitarianism in the wake of Senator Joseph McCarthy’s notorious communist witch hunt, it may be the clearest window into the American psyche that horror cinema has ever provided". [ 20 ]
In An Illustrated History of the Horror Film. Carlos Clarens saw a trend manifesting itself in Science Fiction films, dealing with dehumanization and fear of the loss of individual identity, being historically connected to the end of "the Korean War and the well publicized reports of brainwashing techniques". [ 21 ] Comparing Invasion of the Body Snatchers with Robert Aldrich 's Kiss Me Deadly and Orson Welles ' Touch of Evil . Brian Neve found a sense of disillusionment rather than straightforward messages, with all three films being "less radical in any positive sense than reflective of the decline of [the screenwriters'] great liberal hopes". [ 22 ]
Despite a general agreement among film critics regarding these political connotations of the film, actor Kevin McCarthy said in an interview included on the 1998 DVD release that he felt no political allegory was intended. The interviewer stated that he had spoken with the author of the novel, Jack Finney, who professed no specific political allegory in the work. DVD commentary track, quoted in Feo Amante's homepage. [ 23 ]
In his autobiography, I Thought We Were Making Movies, Not History. Walter Mirisch writes: "People began to read meanings into pictures that were never intended. The Invasion of the Body Snatchers is an example of that. I remember reading a magazine article arguing that the picture was intended as an allegory about the communist infiltration of America. From personal knowledge, neither Walter Wanger nor Don Siegel, who directed it, nor Dan Mainwaring, who wrote the script nor original author Jack Finney, nor myself saw it as anything other than a thriller, pure and simple." [ 24 ]
Don Siegel spoke more openly of an existing allegorical subtext, but denied a strictly political point of view: "[…] I felt that this was a very important story. I think that the world is populated by pods and I wanted to show them. I think so many people have no feeling about cultural things, no feeling of pain, of sorrow. […] The political reference to Senator McCarthy and totalitarianism was inescapable but I tried not to emphasize it because I feel that motion pictures are primarily to entertain and I did not want to preach." [ 25 ] Film scholar J. P. Telotte wrote that Siegel intended for pods to be seductive; their spokesperson, a psychiatrist, was chosen to provide an authoritative voice that would appeal to the desire to "abdicate from human responsibility in an increasingly complex and confusing modern world." [ 26 ]Reaction Critical reception
Largely ignored by critics on its initial run, [ 14 ] Invasion of the Body Snatchers received wide critical acclaim in retrospect and is considered one of the best films of 1956. [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ] The film holds a 98% "Fresh" rating on the review aggregate Web site Rotten Tomatoes. [ 30 ]
In recent years, critics such as Dan Druker, Chicago Reader have hailed the film as a "genuine Sci-Fi classic". [ 31 ] (Leonard Maltin ) described Invasion of the Body Snatchers as "influential, and still very scary". [ 17 ] Time Out called the film, one of the "most resonant" and "one of the simplest" of the genre. [ 32 ]Legacy
Invasion of the Body Snatchers was selected in 1993 for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". [ 33 ] In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten top Ten " — the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres — after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Invasion of the Body Snatchers was acknowledged as the ninth best film in the science fiction genre. [ 34 ] The film was also placed on AFI's AFI's 100 Years. 100 Thrills. a list of America's most heart-pounding films. [ 35 ] The film was included on Bravo 's 100 Scariest Movie Moments . [ 36 ] Similarly, the Chicago Film Critics Association named it the 29th scariest film ever made. [ 37 ] Time magazine included Invasion of the Body Snatchers on their list of 100 all-time best films, [ 38 ] the top 10 1950s Sci-Fi Movies, [ 39 ] and Top 25 Horror Films. [ 40 ]DVD releases
The film was released on DVD in 1998 by U.S.-label Republic (an identical re-release by Artisan followed in 2002); it includes the Superscope version plus a 1.375:1 Academy ratio version. The latter is not the original full frame edition, but a pan and scan reworking of the Superscope edition that loses visual detail.
DVD editions exist on the British market (including a computer colorized version), German market (as Die Dämonischen ) and Spanish market (as La Invasión de los Ladrones de Cuerpos ).
Olive Films released a Blu-ray Disc Superscope version of the film in 2012.Related works
"When you've heard one bagpipe tune, you've heard them both." -- Jack Finney
Jack Finney (October 2, 1911 — November 14, 1995) was an American author. His best-known works are science fiction and thriller, including The Body Snatchers and Time and Again. The former was the basis for the 1956 movie Invasion of the Body Snatchers and its remakes.Quotes more �� less
"I went up a straight crooked lane and, I said 'No thanks, yes if yer please."
↑ Hide "Quotes" Section ↑Biography more �� less
Finney was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and given the name John Finney. After his father died when he was three years old, he was renamed Walter Braden Finney in honor of his father, but continued to be known as "Jack" throughout his life. He attended Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois, graduating in 1934. He married Marguerite Guest and they had two children, Kenneth and Marguerite. After living in New York City and working for an advertising agency there, he moved with his family to California in the early 1950s. He lived in Mill Valley, California, and died of pneumonia and emphysema in Greenbrae, California.
↑ Hide "Biography" Section ↑Writing Career more �� less
Finney's first short story, "The Widow's Walk", won a contest sponsored by Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine in 1946. His first novel, 5 Against the House, was published in 1954. It was made into a movie the following year.
Finney's novel The Body Snatchers (1955) was the basis for the 1956 movie Invasion of the Body Snatchers (and its remakes). It tells the story of aliens who invade Earth by emerging from pods and taking over the bodies of humans.
Another novel, Assault on a Queen (1959), became a film with Frank Sinatra as the leader of a gang that pulls a daring robbery of the RMS Queen Mary.
Finney's greatest success came with his science fiction novel Time and Again (1970). Its protagonist, Simon Morley, is working in advertising in New York City when he is recruited for a secret government project trying to achieve time travel. Instead of using a physical machine, the participants steep themselves in the history and culture of a particular time and place, then travel there through hypnosis or self-hypnosis. Morley travels to the New York City of 1882. The novel is notable for Finney's vivid and detailed picture of life in the city at that time. Morley sees many actual historical sites, some now gone (e.g. the post office that, until 1939, stood in what is now the southern tip of City Hall Park) and some still existing (e.g. St. Patrick's Cathedral, then the tallest building in its Fifth Avenue neighborhood).
In 1987, Finney was given the World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement at the World Fantasy Convention, held in Nashville, Tennessee.
Finney's story "Such Interesting Neighbors" was made into an episode of the Spielberg-created anthology series Amazing Stories and starred Adam Ant and Marcia Strassman.
In 1995, twenty-five years after Time and Again. Finney published a well-received sequel called From Time to Time featuring the further adventures of Morley, this time centering on Manhattan in 1912. Finney died at the age of 84 not long after finishing the book.
The 1998 television movie The Love Letter. starring Campbell Scott and Jennifer Jason Leigh, is based on Finney's short story of the same name, which appeared in The Saturday Evening Post (1959).
The Third Level. Knox College's science fiction and fantasy publication, is named for Finney's short story and collection.
↑ Hide "Writing Career" Section ↑Works more �� less
↑ Hide "Works" Section ↑
This author page uses material from the Wikipedia article "Jack Finney". which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0Loading.
Celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of one of the earliest science fiction novels by rediscovering Jack Finney’s internationally acclaimed Invasion of the Body Snatchers —which Stephen King calls a story “to be read and savored for its own satisfactions,” now repackaged with a foreword by #1 New York Times bestselling author Dean Koontz.
On a quiet fall evening in the peaceful town of Mill Valley, California, Dr. Miles Bennell discovers an insidious, horrifying plot. Subtly, almost imperceptibly, alien life-forms are taking over the bodies and minds of his neighbors, friends, family, the woman he loves, and the entire world as he knows it.
First published in 1955, this classic science fiction thriller about the ultimate alien invasion and the triumph of the human spirit over an invisible enemy has inspired multiple film adaptations and entertained readers for decades. This repackaged edition features a new cover by Hugo award–winning illustrator, John Picacio and a foreword by New York Times bestselling author, Dean Koontz.Post navigation
Sad Wind from the Sea. [A Novel.].
Salvage the Bones
On a quiet fall evening in the small, peaceful town of Mill Valley, California, Dr. Miles Bennell discovered an insidious, horrifying plot. Silently, subtly, almost imperceptibly, alien life-forms were taking over the bodies and minds of hisMore On a quiet fall evening in the small, peaceful town of Mill Valley, California, Dr. Miles Bennell discovered an insidious, horrifying plot. Silently, subtly, almost imperceptibly, alien life-forms were taking over the bodies and minds of his neighbors, his friends, his family, the woman he loved -- the world as he knew it.
First published in 1955, this classic thriller of the ultimate alien invasion and the triumph of the human spirit over an invisible enemy inspired three major motion pictures. Less
To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up .Community Reviews
Stephen rated it it was ok
over 5 years ago
2.5 stars. Now before you think I am about to go all RANTBO on this SF classic, let me say almost mostly partially unequivocally, that I did not DISLIKE this book. I mean I don't recall ever having a meltdown moment like this while reading it:
It’s just that. WAIT. Read full review
Carol rated it really liked it
When my son called last night and asked what I was doing, I told him I had just finished reading Invasion of the Body Snatchers and was thinking of going down the basement to look for seed pods. (he cracked up)
I think everyone pretty much knows this story, and oh what.
Char rated it it was amazing
about 1 year ago
An excellent story and this narrator, Kristoffer Tabori did it justice.
Joe Valdez rated it really liked it
almost 2 years ago
Invasion of the Body Snatchers landed in the bi-weekly fiction magazine Collier's. which published Jack Finney's story as a three-part serial over consecutive issues beginning in November 1954. Finney had already seen thirty of his short stories run in Good Housekeeping o. Read full review
Jim rated it really liked it
about 2 years ago
This is a real blast from the past & held up very well over the years. Sure, there are a few real liberties taken with science, but the doctor making house calls was more jarring to me. That was pretty much gone by the 1970's when this futuristic story was to take pla. Read full review
Dirk Grobbelaar rated it it was amazing
over 4 years ago
A pretty sinister book, this, containing some really creepy moments. It also happens to be written quite well, so, it goes without saying that I enjoyed it. Another forerunner of modern horror, The Body Snatchers. along with I Am Legend. pretty much set the stage for mode. Read full review
Ben Winch rated it liked it
about 1 year ago
I love this story. In neither film nor book version is it perfect, but there's the kernel of something here that seems to me a modern archetype - something like Camus's The Plague but with the added intrigue that the plague in question is - or almost is - invisible. Add t. Read full review
Lori rated it really liked it
4 Stars - Strongly Recommended for the campy fun of it
Released: originally published in 1955
The other night, I was standing in front of my bookshelves looking for a quick read to curl up with. Something seasonally appropriate th. Read full review
The Behrg rated it really liked it
about 1 year ago
“If we believe that we are just animals, without immortal souls, we are already but one step removed from pod people.”
― Jack Finney, Invasion of the Body Snatchers
Invasion of the Body Snatchers was one of the first "scary" films I can remember seeing in my youth. It's al. Read full review
David rated it liked it
Recommends it for: Small-town Californians, divorced psychologists, pod people
Another one of those classic novels that inspired multiple cult-classic films, but have rarely been read by the people who saw the movie(s).
Invasion of the Body Snatchers is a classic "B" movie, and this book is a classic "B" novel. I was not blown away by it, but it's a. Read full review
Charles Albert Russell
Mary Louise Russell
Jesse Eugene Russell (b April 26, 1948) is an African-American inventor and one of the visionaries’ whose innovative perspectives profoundly influenced the wireless communications industry, the driver of growth in 21st century. Trained as an electrical engineer at Tennessee State University and Stanford University, and recognized globally as a thought-leader, technology expert and inventor in the field of wireless communication for over 20 years, Russell has played a major role in shaping the wireless communications industry direction through his visionary leadership and innovative perspectives for standards, technologies as well as innovative new wireless service concepts.
He holds numerous patents and continues to invent and innovate in the emerging area of next generation broadband wireless networks, technologies and services, which is frequently referred to as 4G. Russell was inducted into the United States’ National Academy of Engineering during the Clinton Administration for his innovative contribution to the field of Wireless Communication. He pioneered the field of digital cellular communication in the 80s through the use of high power linear amplification and low bit rate voice encoding technologies and received a patent in 1992 (US patent # 5,084,869) for his work in the area of digital cellular base station design.
Russell is currently Chairman and CEO of incNETWORKS,Inc. a New Jersey, USA based Broadband Wireless Communications Company focused on 4th Generation (4G ) Broadband Wireless Communications Technologies, Networks and Services.Contents Early life and education
Jesse Eugene Russell was born April 26, 1948 in Hickville, Tennessee in the United States of America into a large African-American family with eight brothers and two sisters. He is the son of Charles Albert Russell and Mary Louise Russell. His early childhood was spent in economically and socially challenged neighborhoods within the inner-city of Nashville. During his early years, he focused on athletics and not academics. A key turning point in Russell’s life was the opportunity to attend a summer educational program at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Russell participated in this educational opportunity and began his academic and intellectual pursuits. Russell continued his education at Tennessee State University Tennessee State University where he focused on electrical engineering. A Bachelor of Science Degree (BSEE) in Electrical Engineering was conferred in 1972 from Tennessee State University. As a top honor student in the School of Engineering, Russell became the first African American to be hired directly from a Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) by AT&T Bell Laboratories and subsequently became the first African-American in the United States to be selected as the Eta Kappa Nu Outstanding Young Electrical Engineer of the Year in 1980. Russell continued his academic pursuits and obtained his Master of Electrical Engineering (MSEE) degree from Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, in 1973.Innovations & Patents
Russell’s innovations in wireless communication systems, architectures and technology related to radio access networks, end user devices and in-building wireless communication systems has fundamentally changed the wireless communication industry. Known for his patented invention of the digital cellular base station, that enabled new digital services for cellular mobile users, Russell continues to innovate in the emerging next generation broadband wireless communication technologies, products, networks, and services as well as “Mobile Cloud Computing” which are shaping the forefront of the 4G Communication Industry.
Over 100 patents granted or in process, thirty years of experience in Research and Development at prominent institutions, and pioneering technologies such as the invention of the first digital cellular base station and fiber optic microcell utilizing high power linear amplifier technology and digital modulation techniques, which laid the foundation for the digital cellular evolution, digital cellular standards, personal communications networks as well as the emergence of “Mobile Cloud Computing” within 4G broadband wireless networks. These are only some of the inventions that have forged new directions for the wireless communication industry. Listed below are a few significant patents.
Base station for mobile radio telecommunications systemsProfessional Accomplishments
Jesse is currently building the first Broadband Wireless Communications Network focused on 4th Generation Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Communications Networks and Technologies that is fully compliant with International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standards. Russell continues to innovate and invent new wireless communications technology solutions as the Chief Executive Officer of incNETWORKS which designs, sells, and manages privately owned broadband wireless communications’ equipment and networks for emerging broadband cellular applications based on Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio techniques. Offering broadband wireless communications solutions to small and mid-size business customers, incNETWORKS is one of the emerging technology leaders in the development of MicroLTE product platforms for 4G.
Russell joined Bell Labs as a Member of the Technical Staff. He was one of the first designers to embrace the use of microprocessor in the design of equipment for use in the telecommunication network for monitoring and tracking calling patterns within the Bell System Network. The system was referred to as the traffic data collection systems, which using a microprocessor-based portable data terminals for interfacing to electro-mechanical switching systems.
Russell's career, and knowledge in wireless technology and standards advanced, while he served in numerous positions; Director of the AT&T Cellular Telecommunication Laboratory (Bell Labs), Vice President of Advanced Wireless Technology Laboratory (Bell Labs), Chief Technical Officer for the Network Wireless Systems Business Unit (Bell Labs), Chief Wireless Architect of AT&T, and Vice President of Advanced Communications Technologies for AT&T Laboratories (formerly a part of Bell Labs).
As the Director of the AT&T Cellular Telecommunication Laboratory (Bell Labs), this Bell Labs Group formally managed by Russell is credited with the invention of cellular radio technology and received the United States' Medal of Technology for the invention.
Russell continued to develop his expertise as he established and lead an Innovation Center focused on Applied Research in Advanced Communication Technologies that enabling AT&T to extend its existing portfolio of services and expand into new businesses and markets. As a key decision maker in the selection and development of emerging communications technologies, Russell’s efforts lead to the rapid realization of new access network platforms that enable AT&T to expand it’s broadband communication network options (i.e. Specialization: Cable Access Networks, DSL Access Networks, Power-line Carrier Access Networks, Fixed Wireless Access Networks, Satellite Access Networks and Broadband Wireless Communications Networks). The applications of these access technologies were one of the keys in expanding AT&T's interest in re-building it local access services business.Acknowledgements
Invasion of the Body Snatchers — puede referirse a: Invasion of the Body Snatchers (película de 1956) Invasion of the Body Snatchers (película de 1978) Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el mismo título. Si llegaste aquí a través de … Wikipedia Español
Invasion of the Body Snatchers — ist der Originaltitel eines Romans und dreier US amerikanischer Filme. Siehe: Die Körperfresser kommen, Roman von 1955 Die Dämonischen, Film von 1956 Die Körperfresser kommen (Film) von 1978 Invasion (Film) von 2007 Siehe auch: Body Snatchers –… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Invasion of the Body Snatchers — Infobox Film name = Invasion of the Body Snatchers image size = caption = Theatrical poster director = Don Siegel producer = Walter Wanger writer = Novel: Jack Finney Screenplay: Daniel Mainwaring Uncredited: Richard Collins narrator = starring … Wikipedia
Invasion of the Body Snatchers — Voir L Invasion des profanateurs Voir L Invasion des profanateurs de sépulture … Dictionnaire mondial des Films
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (película de 1956) — Invasion of the Body Snatchers Título Muertos vivos (Argentina) La invasión de los ladrones de cuerpos (España) La invasión de los usurpadores de cuerpos (Venezuela) Ficha técnica Dirección Don Siegel Producción … Wikipedia Español
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1978 film) — Infobox Film name = Invasion of the Body Snatchers caption = Promotional poster writer = Novel: Jack Finney Screenplay: W. D. Richter starring = Donald Sutherland Brooke Adams Jeff Goldblum Veronica Cartwright Leonard Nimoy Art Hindle director =… … Wikipedia
Invasion of the Body Snatchers (película de 1978) — Este artículo o sección necesita una revisión de ortografía y gramática. Puedes colaborar editándolo (lee aquí sugerencias para mejorar tu ortografía). Cuando se haya corregido, borra este aviso por favor … Wikipedia Español
Pod People (Invasion of the Body Snatchers) — Pod people (also known as The Body Snatchers) is a nickname given to an alien species featured in the 1955 novel The Body Snatchers by Jack Finney, the 1956 film Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the 1978 remake of the same name and the 1993 film… … Wikipedia
Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers — is a Bugs Bunny short cartoon directed by Greg Ford and released in 1991. There are a few differences that separate this short from the golden age of Looney Tunes. as it takes a different approach from the then standard Chuck Jones cartoon… … Wikipedia
Invasion of the Boy Snatchers — Infobox Book | name = The Clique: Invasion of the Boy Snatchers title orig = translator = image caption = author = Lisi Harrison cover artist = country = United States language = English series = The Clique series genre = Young adult novel… … Wikipedia
Invasion of the Body Squeezers — infobox Book | | name = Invasion of the Body Squeezers, Part 1 orig title = translator = author = R. L. Stine cover artist = Tim Jacobus country = United States language = English series = classification = fiction genre = Horror fiction, Children … Wikipedia
Tags: jack finney about time ebook readers