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Aprenda A Lidar Com O Seu Chefe - Isbn:9788577680863

  • Book Title: Aprenda a lidar com o seu chefe
  • ISBN 13: 9788577680863
  • ISBN 10: 857768086X
  • Author: Max Gehringer
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Category (general): Business & Economics
  • Publisher: Gold Editora Ltda
  • Format & Number of pages: book
  • Synopsis: O que aconteceu com o seu novo chefe é o chamado “efeito loteria". Quem ganha na loteria começa a imaginar que parentes e amigos vão querer dinheiro emprestado. Então, o que antes era uma relação bem equilibrada, em que ninguém ...

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Ramón Suárez Vázquez (Author of Construyendo la Constitución Europea

Ramón Suárez Vázquez

Ramon Suarez is the founder of Betacowork coworking space in Brussels, a hub for entrepreneurs and professionals. He is the author of the Coworking Handbook (a guide for coworking space operators) and is one of the founding members of the Startup EuropeMore Ramon Suarez is the founder of Betacowork coworking space in Brussels, a hub for entrepreneurs and professionals. He is the author of the Coworking Handbook (a guide for coworking space operators) and is one of the founding members of the Startup Europe Coworking Assembly.

Ramon actively promotes tech startups in Belgium as a board member of Betagroup (the largest tech network in Belgium, with 7,000 members), Startups.be (an umbrella organization that brings together the entities that help tech entrepreneurs in Belgium), and Global Entrepreneurship Week Belgium (a week to celebrate and promote entrepreneurship).

He speaks regularly at international conferences, namely about coworking and tech entrepreneurship. Ramon also blogs as the correspondent of Loogic, the leading Spanish blog about web entrepreneurship. He has 15 years experience in marketing and communication and is among the top tech influencers in the country according to DataNews.

Ramón Suárez Vázquez’s Books

Avg rating: 4.26 47 ratings 2 reviews

  • Construyendo la Constitución Europea. Crónica política de la Convención.

Published 2003 1 Edition

  • La Constitución Europea, manual de instrucciones

    it was amazing 5.00

    Published 2005 1 Edition

  • Mac OS X Jaguar: iniciación y referencia

    it was amazing 5.00

    Published 2003 1 Edition

  • The Coworking Handbook: The Guide for Owners and Operators: Learn How To Open and Run a Successful Coworking Space

    Published 2014 6 Editions

  • Microsoft VISIO 2002 Paso a Paso

    it was amazing 5.00

    Published 1992 2 Editions

    Author Details

    Born in Alcala de Henares, Madrid, Spain on March 1971.

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    Aprenda a lidar com o seu chefe - ISBN:9788577680863

    LIDAR

    This lidar (laser range finder) may be used to scan buildings, rock formations, etc. to produce a 3D model. The LIDAR can aim its laser beam in a wide range: its head rotates horizontally, a mirror flips vertically. The laser beam is used to measure the distance to the first object on its path.

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging. also LADAR ) is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light. often using pulses from a laser. LIDAR technology has application in geomatics. archaeology. geography. geology. geomorphology. seismology. forestry. remote sensing and atmospheric physics. [ 1 ] as well as in airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), laser altimetry and LIDAR contour mapping.

    The acronym LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging ) is often used in military contexts. The term "laser radar " is sometimes used, even though LIDAR does not employ microwaves or radio waves and therefore is not radar in the strict sense of the word.

    Contents General description

    LIDAR uses ultraviolet. visible. or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules. [ 1 ] A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution .

    LIDAR has been used extensively for atmospheric research and meteorology. Downward-looking LIDAR instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites are used for surveying and mapping – a recent example being the NASA Experimental Advanced Research Lidar. [ 2 ] In addition LIDAR has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles. [ 3 ]

    Wavelengths in a range from about 10 micrometers to the UV (ca. 250 nm) are used to suit the target. Typically light is reflected via backscattering. Different types of scattering are used for different LIDAR applications; most common are Rayleigh scattering. Mie scattering and Raman scattering. as well as fluorescence. Based on different kinds of backscattering, the LIDAR can be accordingly called Rayleigh LiDAR, Mie LiDAR, Raman LiDAR and Na/Fe/K Fluorescence LIDAR and so on. [ 1 ] Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by looking for wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal.

    Design

    A basic LIDAR system involves a laser range finder reflected by a rotating mirror (top). The laser is scanned around the scene being digitised, in one or two dimensions (middle), gathering distance measurements at specified angle intervals (bottom).

    In general there are two kinds of lidar detection schema: "incoherent" or direct energy detection (which is principally an amplitude measurement) and Coherent detection (which is best for doppler, or phase sensitive measurements). Coherent systems generally use Optical heterodyne detection which being more sensitive than direct detection allows them to operate a much lower power but at the expense of more complex transceiver requirements.

    In both coherent and incoherent LIDAR, there are two types of pulse models: micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. Micropulse systems have developed as a result of the ever increasing amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. They use considerably less energy in the laser, typically on the order of one microjoule. and are often "eye-safe," meaning they can be used without safety precautions. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are widely used for measuring many atmospheric parameters: the height, layering and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties (extinction coefficient. backscatter coefficient, depolarization ), temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, trace gas concentration (ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.). [ 1 ]

    There are several major components to a LIDAR system:

    1. Laser — 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. They are inexpensive, but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye, the maximum power is limited by the need to make them eye-safe. Eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications. A common alternative, 1550 nm lasers, are eye-safe at much higher power levels since this wavelength is not focused by the eye, but the detector technology is less advanced and so these wavelengths are generally used at longer ranges and lower accuracies. They are also used for military applications as 1550 nm is not visible in night vision goggles, unlike the shorter 1000 nm infrared laser. Airborne topographic mapping lidars generally use 1064 nm diode pumped YAG lasers, while bathymetric systems generally use 532 nm frequency doubled diode pumped YAG lasers because 532 nm penetrates water with much less attenuation than does 1064 nm. Laser settings include the laser repetition rate (which controls the data collection speed). Pulse length is generally an attribute of the laser cavity length, the number of passes required through the gain material (YAG, YLF, etc.), and Q-switch speed. Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses, provided the LIDAR receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth. [ 1 ]
    2. Scanner and optics — How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which they are scanned. There are several options to scan the azimuth and elevation, including dual oscillating plane mirrors, a combination with a polygon mirror, a dual axis scanner (see Laser scanning). Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal.
    3. Photodetector and receiver electronics — Two main photodetector technologies are used in lidars: solid state photodetectors, such as silicon avalanche photodiodes, or photomultipliers. The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a LIDAR design.
    4. Position and navigation systems — LIDAR sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the sensor. Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).

    3D imaging can be achieved using both scanning and non-scanning systems. "3D gated viewing laser radar" is a non-scanning laser ranging system that applies a pulsed laser and a fast gated camera.

    Imaging LIDAR can also be performed using arrays of high speed detectors and modulation sensitive detectors arrays typically built on single chips using CMOS and hybrid CMOS/CCD fabrication techniques. In these devices each pixel performs some local processing such as demodulation or gating at high speed down converting the signals to video rate so that the array may be read like a camera. Using this technique many thousands of pixels / channels may be acquired simultaneously. [ 4 ] High resolution 3D LIDAR cameras use homodyne detection with an electronic CCD or CMOS shutter. [ 5 ]

    A coherent Imaging LIDAR uses Synthetic array heterodyne detection to enables a staring single element receiver to act as though it were an imaging array. [ 6 ]

    Applications

    This LIDAR-equipped mobile robot uses its LIDAR to construct a map and avoid obstacles.

    Other than those applications listed above, there are a wide variety of applications of LIDAR, as often mentioned in National LIDAR Dataset programs.

    Agriculture

    Agricultural Research Service scientists have developed a way to incorporate LIDAR with yield rates on agricultural fields. This technology will help farmers improve their yields by directing their resources toward the high-yield sections of their land.

    LIDAR also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer. LIDAR can create a topological map of the fields and reveals the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service blended this topological information with the farm land’s yield results from previous years. From this information, researchers categorized the farm land into high-, medium-, or low-yield zones. [ 7 ] This technology is valuable to farmers because it indicates which areas to apply the expensive fertilizers to achieve the highest crop yield.

    Archaeology

    LIDAR has many applications in the field of archaeology including aiding in the planning of field campaigns, mapping features beneath forest canopy, [ 8 ] and providing an overview of broad, continuous features that may be indistinguishable on the ground. LIDAR can also provide archaeologists with the ability to create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of archaeological sites that can reveal micro-topography that are otherwise hidden by vegetation. LiDAR-derived products can be easily integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) for analysis and interpretation. For example at Fort Beausejour - Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada, previously undiscovered archaeological features have been mapped that are related to the siege of the Fort in 1755. Features that could not be distinguished on the ground or through aerial photography were identified by overlaying hillshades of the DEM created with artificial illumination from various angles. With LiDAR the ability to produce high-resolution datasets quickly and relatively cheaply can be an advantage. Beyond efficiency, its ability to penetrate forest canopy has led to the discovery of features that were not distinguishable through traditional geo-spatial methods and are difficult to reach through field surveys, as in the pioneering work at Caracol by Arlen Chase and his wife Diane Zaino Chase. [ 9 ]

    Biology and conservation

    LIDAR has also found many applications in forestry. Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using airborne LIDAR systems. Similarly, LIDAR is also used by many industries, including Energy and Railroad, and the Department of Transportation as a faster way of surveying. Topographic maps can also be generated readily from LIDAR, including for recreational use such as in the production of orienteering maps.[1]

    In addition, the Save-the-Redwoods League is undertaking a project to map the tall redwoods on California's northern coast. LIDAR allows research scientists to not only measure the height of previously unmapped trees but to determine the biodiversity of the redwood forest. Stephen Sillett who is working with the League on the North Coast LIDAR project claims this technology will be useful in directing future efforts to preserve and protect ancient redwood trees. [ 10 ] [ Full citation needed ]

    Geology and soil science

    High-resolution digital elevation maps generated by airborne and stationary LIDAR have led to significant advances in geomorphology. the branch of geoscience concerned with the origin and evolution of Earth's surface topography. LIDAR's abilities to detect subtle topographic features such as river terraces and river channel banks, measure the land surface elevation beneath the vegetation canopy, better resolve spatial derivatives of elevation, and detect elevation changes between repeat surveys have enabled many novel studies of the physical and chemical processes that shape landscapes. In addition to LIDAR data collected by private companies, academic consortia have been created to support the collection, processing and archiving of research-grade, publicly available LIDAR datasets. The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM). supported by the National Science Foundation. collects and distributes LIDAR data in support of scientific research and education in a variety of fields, particularly geoscience and ecology. [ citation needed ]

    In geophysics and tectonics, a combination of aircraft-based LIDAR and GPS have evolved into an important tool for detecting faults and measuring uplift. The output of the two technologies can produce extremely accurate elevation models for terrain that can even measure ground elevation through trees. This combination was used most famously to find the location of the Seattle Fault in Washington, USA. [ 11 ] This combination is also being used to measure uplift at Mt. St. Helens by using data from before and after the 2004 uplift. [ 12 ] Airborne LIDAR systems monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts of growth or decline. A satellite based system is NASA's ICESat which includes a LIDAR system for this purpose. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper [ 13 ] is also used extensively to monitor glaciers and perform coastal change analysis. The combination is also used by soil scientists while creating a soil survey. The detailed terrain modeling allows soil scientists to see slope changes and landform breaks which indicate patterns in soil spatial relationships.

    Meteorology and atmospheric environment

    The first LIDAR systems were used for studies of atmospheric composition, structure, clouds, and aerosols. Initially based on ruby lasers, LIDAR for meteorological applications was constructed shortly after the invention of the laser and represent one of the first applications of laser technology.

    Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) is used for range-resolved measurements of a particular gas in the atmosphere, such as ozone, carbon dioxide, or water vapor. The LIDAR transmits two wavelengths: an "on-line" wavelength that is absorbed by the gas of interest and an off-line wavelength that is not absorbed. The differential absorption between the two wavelengths is a measure of the concentration of the gas as a function of range. DIAL LIDARs are essentially dual-wavelength backscatter LIDARS. [ citation needed ]

    Doppler LIDAR and Rayleigh Doppler LIDAR are used to measure temperature and/or wind speed along the beam by measuring the frequency of the backscattered light. The Doppler broadening of gases in motion allows the determination of properties via the resulting frequency shift [ 14 ] [ 15 ]. Scanning LIDARs, such as NASA's HARLIE LIDAR, have been used to measure atmospheric wind velocity in a large three dimensional cone. [ 16 ] ESA's wind mission ADM-Aeolus will be equipped with a Doppler LIDAR system in order to provide global measurements of vertical wind profiles. [ 17 ] A doppler LIDAR system was used in the 2008 Summer Olympics to measure wind fields during the yacht competition. [ 18 ] Doppler LIDAR systems are also now beginning to be successfully applied in the renewable energy sector to acquire wind speed, turbulence, wind veer and wind shear data. Both pulsed and continuous wave systems are being used. Pulsed systems using signal timing to obtain vertical distance resolution, whereas continuous wave systems rely on detector focusing.

    Synthetic Array LIDAR allows imaging LIDAR without the need for an array detector. It can be used for imaging Doppler velocimetry, ultra-fast frame rate (MHz) imaging, as well as for speckle reduction in coherent LIDAR. [ 6 ] An extensive LIDAR bibliography for atmospheric and hydrospheric applications is given by Grant. [ 19 ]

    Law enforcement

    See also: LIDAR speed gun

    LIDAR speed guns are used by the police to measure the speed of vehicles for speed limit enforcement purposes and offer a number of advantages [ clarification needed ] over radar speed guns. [ citation needed ]

    Military

    Few military applications are known to be in place and are classified, but a considerable amount of research is underway in their use for imaging. Higher resolution systems collect enough detail to identify targets, such as tanks. Here the name LADAR is more common. Examples of military applications of LIDAR include the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for counter-mine warfare by Arete Associates. [ 20 ]

    A NATO report (RTO-TR-SET-098) evaluated the potential technologies to do stand-off detection for the discrimination of biological warfare agents. The potential technologies evaluated were Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR), Differential Scatterring (DISC), and Ultraviolet Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF). The report concluded that : Based upon the results of the LIDAR systems tested and discussed above, the Task Group recommends that the best option for the near-term (2008–2010) application of stand-off detection systems is UV LIF. [ 21 ]

    The Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System (LR-BSDS) was developed for the US Army to provide the earliest possible standoff warning of a biological attack. It is an airborne system carried by a helicopter to detect man-made aerosol clouds containing biological and chemical agents at long range. The LR-BSDS, with a detection range of 30 km or more, was fielded in June 1997. [ 22 ]

    Five LIDAR units produced by the German company Sick AG were used for short range detection on Stanley. the autonomous car that won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge .

    A robotic Boeing AH-6 performed a fully autonomous flight in June 2010, including avoiding obstacles using LIDAR. [ 23 ] [ 24 ]

    Physics and astronomy

    A worldwide network of observatories uses lidars to measure the distance to reflectors placed on the moon. allowing the moon's position to be measured with mm precision and tests of general relativity to be done. MOLA, the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a LIDAR instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite (the NASA Mars Global Surveyor ) to produce a spectacularly precise global topographic survey of the red planet.

    In September, 2008, NASA's Phoenix Lander used LIDAR to detect snow in the atmosphere of Mars. [ 25 ]

    In atmospheric physics, LIDAR is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium. sodium. or molecular nitrogen and oxygen. These measurements can be used to calculate temperatures. LIDAR can also be used to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles.

    At the JET nuclear fusion research facility, in the UK near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, LIDAR Thomson Scattering is used to determine Electron Density and Temperature profiles of the plasma. [ 26 ]

    Robotics

    LIDAR technology is being used in Robotics for the perception of the environment as well as object classification. [ 27 ] The ability of LIDAR technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. [ 28 ] Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

    Surveying

    Aerial LiDAR surveying from a paraplane operated by Scandinavian Laser Surveying

    Airborne LIDAR sensors are used by companies in the Remote Sensing field to create point clouds of the earth ground [ clarification needed ] for further processing (e.g. used in forestry). [ citation needed ]

    Transportation

    LIDAR has been used in Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems for automobiles. Systems such as those by Siemens and Hella use a lidar device mounted on the front of the vehicle, such as the bumper, to monitor the distance between the vehicle and any vehicle in front of it. [ 29 ] In the event the vehicle in front slows down or is too close, the ACC applies the brakes to slow the vehicle. When the road ahead is clear, the ACC allows the vehicle to accelerate to a speed preset by the driver. Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

    Wind farm optimization

    Lidar can be used to increase the energy output from wind farms by accurately measuring wind speeds and wind turbulence. [ 30 ] An experimental [ 31 ] lidar is mounted on a wind turbine rotor to measure oncoming horizontal winds, and proactively adjust blades to protect components and increase power. [ 32 ]

    Other uses

    The video for the song "House of Cards" by Radiohead was believed to be the first use of real-time 3D laser scanning to record a music video. The range data in the video is not completely from a LIDAR, as structured light scanning is also used. [ 33 ] [ 34 ]

    See also References External links
    • An Airborne Altimetric LiDAR tutorial. A tutorial on altimetric LiDAR.
    • NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar. NASA's EAARL is an airborne Lidar designed to map complex coastal environments above and below the water, within vegetated areas. It is also being used to map the bottom topography is shallow braided rivers and streams.
    • CALIPSO. The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite—space-based laser remote sensing of clouds and aerosols for a better understanding of climate change issues
    • NCAR REAL. NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) created the Raman-shifted Eyesafe Aerosol Lidar. This eyesafe high energy lidar with scanning capability expands the applications to include mapping urban atmospheric pollutants and studies of dispersion very near the surface of the earth.
    • NOAA Oceanographic (Fish) Lidar
    • Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX)
    • EOSL - The Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory at GTRI has a nationally known program in lidar research and development.
    • The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Raman Lidar Laboratory - This laboratory has a ground and an upcoming airborne Raman lidar measuring water vapor, aerosols and other atmospheric species
    • The USGS Center for LIDAR Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK) - A website intended to "facilitate data access, user coordination and education of lidar remote sensing for scientific needs."
    • Tutorial slides on LIDAR (aerial laser scanning)
    • Weier, John. 2004. Conservation in 3D. Conservation in Practice 5(3):39-41. On the conservation applications of LIDAR.
    • How Lidar Works
    • NOAA Coastal Services Center Lidar - Coastal lidar data is available for free download. Data span more than a decade and include topographic and bathymetric elevations for all the coastal states and range from shoreline strips to full county coverage. The distribution tool allows the user to customize his download for area of interest, datum, projection and format.

    v · d · e Earth-based meteorological equipment and instrumentation

    Look at other dictionaries:

    LIDAR — Ce lidar balaye son champ de vision avec son faisceau laser et mesure pour chaque point balayé la distance entre le lidar et le point, permettant la reconstruction d un modèle tridimensionnel de la scène. Il peut ainsi être utilisé pour des… … Wikipédia en Français

    lidar — [ lidar ] n. m. • 1971; acronyme angl. de Light Detecting And Ranging « détection et repérage par la lumière » ♦ Techn. Appareil de détection qui émet un faisceau laser et en reçoit l écho, permettant de déterminer la distance d un objet. La… … Encyclopédie Universelle

    lidar — um touro. lidar com lidava com crianças. lidar em a mãe lidava em serviços de arranjo da casa … Dicionario dos verbos portugueses

    Lidar — [Abkürzung für englisch light detection and ranging], Umweltanalytik: die Übertragung des Radarprinzips auf den Frequenzbereich des Lichts (sichtbar … Universal-Lexikon

    lidar — v. intr. 1. Trabalhar. 2. Andar na lida; combater, lutar, pelejar. 3. Tourear. • v. tr. 4. Correr (touros) … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

    lidar — lȉdar m DEFINICIJA meteor. radar koji emitira jake impulse svjetlosti (lasera) koji se odbijaju od čestica u atmosferi; koristi se u mjerenju brzine i smjera vjetra te količine čestica u najdonjem sloju atmosfere (do visine 10 20 km) ETIMOLOGIJA… … Hrvatski jezični portal

    lidar — [lī′där΄] n. [ LI(GHT) + (RA)DAR] a meteorological instrument using transmitted and reflected laser light for detecting atmospheric particles, as pollutants, and determining their elevation, concentration, etc … English World dictionary

    Lidar — Animation der 2D Abtastung LIDAR Wasserdampf Lidar auf der Zugspitze Lidar … Deutsch Wikipedia

    LIDAR — Estación Leica LIDAR utilizado para el escaneo de edificios, formaciones rocosas, etc. con el objetivo de generar modelos 3D. LIDAR (un acrónimo del inglés Light Detection and Ranging o Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging) es una tecnología que… … Wikipedia Español

    LIDAR — Wasserdampf LIDAR auf der Zugspitze Lidar steht für „light detection and ranging“ und ist eine dem Radar (englisch radiowave detection and ranging) sehr verwandte Methode zur Entfernungs und Geschwindigkeitsmessung sowie zur Fernmessung… … Deutsch Wikipedia

    Source:

    en.academic.ru

    Aprenda a lidar com o seu chefe - ISBN:9788577680863

    Lidar Book Title Lidar Book Subtitle Range-Resolved Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere Copyright 2005 DOI 10.1007/b106786 Print ISBN 978-0-387-40075-4 Online ISBN 978-0-387-25101-1 Series Title Springer Series in Optical Sciences Series Volume 102 Series ISSN 0342-4111 Publisher Springer New York Copyright Holder Springer Science+Business Media Inc. Additional Links
    • About this Book
    Topics
    • Optics, Optoelectronics, Plasmonics and Optical Devices
    • Environmental Monitoring/Analysis
    • Environmental Physics
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    • Electronics
    • Aerospace
    • Automotive
    eBook Packages
    • Physics and Astronomy
    Editors
    • Dr. Claus Weitkamp (10)
    Editor Affiliations
    • 10. GKSS-Forschungszentrum, Institut für Küstenforschung
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    GRASS GIS for the distinction of vegetation from buildings using LiDAR altimetric data

    Schwalbe, E. Maas H-G. and Seidel, F. (2001). “3D building model generation from airborne laser scanner data using 2D GIS data and orthogonal point cloud projections”. In ISPRS WG III/3, III/4, V/3 Workshop – Laser scanning 2005, pp.209-214.

    SITHOLE, G. and VOSSELMAN, G. (2006). “Bridge detection in airborne laser scanner data”. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Volume 61:33—46.

    SITHOLE, G. and VOSSELMAN, G. (2004). “Experimental comparison of filter algorithms for bare earth extraction from airborne laser scanning point clouds”.ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 59 (Issues 1-2):85—101.

    STRAUB, B-M.(2003). “A Top-Down operator for the automatic extraction of trees – Concept and performance evaluation”. In ISPRS WG III/3 workshop – 3D reconstruction from airborne laserscanner and InSAR data. Volume XXXIV 3/W13,Dresden, Germany. October 8-10.

    BRANDTBERG, T. (2007). “Classifying individual tree spieces under leaf-off and leaf-on conditions using airborne LiDAR”. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Volume 69:325—340.

    HUG, C. and WEHR, A. (1997). “Detecting and identifying topographic objects in imaging laser altimetry data”. In International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Volume XXXII/3-4W2.

    TOVARI, D. and PFEIFER, N. (2005). “Segmentation based robust interpolation –a new approach to laser data filtering”. In ISPRS WG III/3, III/4, V/3 Workshop –Laser scanning, pp. 79—84.

    FORLANI, G. and NARDINOCCHI, C. (2001). “Building detection and roof extraction in laser scanning data”. In International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Volume XXXIV.

    TARSHA-KURDI, F. LANDES, T. GRUSSENMEYER, P. and SMIGIEL, E.,(2006). “New approach for automatic detection of buildings in airborne laser scanner data using first echo only”. In ISPRS Symposium of Commision III –Photogrammetric Computer Vision. Bonn, Germany. September, 20-22.

    MATIKAINEN, L. KAARTINEN, H. and HYYPPA, J.,(2007). “Classification tree based building detection from laser scanner and aerial image data”. In ISPRS Workshop on Laser Scanning and SilviLaser, pp. 280—287.

    RASS DEVELOPMENT TEAM, (2008). “GRASS 6.2 Users Manual”.ITC-irst Trento, Italy. Electronic document:http://grass.osgeo.org/grass62/manuals/html62_user/index.html.

    ROVELLI M.A. CANNATA M.A. and LONGONI U.M.,(2002). “Managing and processing LiDAR data within GRASS”. Proceedings of the Open Source GISGRASS users conference. 29 pages. Trento, Italy. September, 11- 13.

    ROVELLI M.A. CANNATA M.A. and LONGONI U.M.,(2004). “LiDAR data filtering and DTM interpolation within GRASS”. Transaction in GIS, Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

    ANTOLÍN, R. BROVELLI, M.A. FILIPPI, F. VISMARA, F.,(2006). “Digital terrain models determination by LiDAR technology: Po Basin experimentation”. Bolletino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini, Anno LXV, n 2, pp. 69-89 .

    ATOLÍN, R. and BROVELLI, M.A. (2007). “LiDAR data filtering with GRASS GIS for the determination of Digital Terrain Models”. In “I Jornadas de SIG libre”.Girona, España. March, 4-6.

    19 Jun 2013 16:40

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    eprints.ucm.es

    Atmospheric Lidar ATLID onboard EarthCARE Mission - Optical Payloads for Space Missions - H - li - re - Wiley Online Library

    26. Atmospheric Lidar ATLID onboard EarthCARE Mission Summary

    The EarthCARE mission, sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the ESA Living Planet Programme, is developed in cooperation with JAXA. It addresses the interaction and impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiative budget. For the first time, a suite of four complementary instruments will make simultaneous observations of the same cloud/aerosol scene. ATLID, the Atmospheric backscatter LIDar will determine vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol physical parameters (altitude, optical depth, backscatter ratio and depolarisation ratio) in synergy with the cloud profiling radar provided by JAXA, the multi spectral imager and the broad-band radiometer.

    Operating in the UV range at 355 nm, ATLID provides atmospheric echoes with a vertical resolution up to 100 m from ground to an altitude of 40 km. Thanks to a high spectral resolution filtering, the lidar is able to separate the relative contribution of aerosol and molecular scattering, which gives access to aerosol optical depth. Co-polarised and cross-polarised components of the Mie scattering contribution are also separated and measured on dedicated channels. The combination of a powerful laser transmitter delivering short pulses at 51 Hz and low noise detection chains based on memory CCD provide capability to measure even faint backscatter from sub-visible cirrus. Radiometric stability is ensured by a continuous active re-alignment system maintaining the accurate co-alignment of emission and reception paths, and by a highly stable injection of the single-mode laser transmitter.

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    Lidar - Wikipedia, Photos and Videos

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    Agricultural Research Service scientists have developed a way to incorporate lidar with yield rates on agricultural fields. This technology will help farmers improve their yields by directing their resources toward the high-yield sections of their land.

    Lidar also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer. Lidar can create a topographical map of the fields and reveals the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service blended this topographical information with the farmland yield results from previous years. From this information, researchers categorized the farm land into high-, medium-, or low-yield zones. [20] This technology is valuable to farmers because it indicates which areas to apply the expensive fertilizers to achieve the highest crop yield.

    Another application of lidar beyond crop health and terrain mapping is crop mapping in orchards and vineyards. Vehicles equipped with lidar sensors can detect foliage growth to determine if pruning or other maintenance needs to take place, detect variations in fruit production, or perform automated tree counts.

    Lidar is useful in GPS-denied situations, such as in nut and fruit orchards where GPS signals to farm equipment featuring precision agriculture technology or a driverless tractor may be partially or completely blocked by overhanging foliage. Lidar sensors can detect the edges of rows so that farming equipment can continue moving until GPS signal can be reestablished.

    Archaeology [ edit ]

    Lidar has many applications in the field of archaeology including aiding in the planning of field campaigns, mapping features beneath forest canopy, and providing an overview of broad, continuous features that may be indistinguishable on the ground. [21] Lidar can also provide archaeologists with the ability to create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of archaeological sites that can reveal micro-topography that are otherwise hidden by vegetation. Lidar-derived products can be easily integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) for analysis and interpretation. For example, at Fort Beauséjour - Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada, previously undiscovered archaeological features below forest canopy have been mapped that are related to the siege of the Fort in 1755. Features that could not be distinguished on the ground or through aerial photography were identified by overlaying hillshades of the DEM created with artificial illumination from various angles. With lidar, the ability to produce high-resolution datasets quickly and relatively cheaply can be an advantage. Beyond efficiency, its ability to penetrate forest canopy has led to the discovery of features that were not distinguishable through traditional geo-spatial methods and are difficult to reach through field surveys, as in work at Caracol by Arlen Chase and his wife Diane Zaino Chase. [22] The intensity of the returned signal can be used to detect features buried under flat vegetated surfaces such as fields, especially when mapping using the infrared spectrum. The presence of these features affects plant growth and thus the amount of infrared light reflected back. [23] In 2012, lidar was used by a team attempting to find the legendary city of La Ciudad Blanca in the Honduran jungle. During a seven-day mapping period, they found evidence of extensive man-made structures that had eluded ground searches for hundreds of years. [24] In June 2013 the rediscovery of the city of Mahendraparvata was announced. [25] In another study, lidar was used to reveal stone walls, building foundations, abandoned roads, and other features of the landscape in southern New England, USA that had been obscured in aerial photography by the region's dense forest canopy. [26] [27] [28] In May 2012, lidar was used to locate a previously unknown ruined city in the La Mosquitia region of Honduras. [29]

    Autonomous vehicles [ edit ]

    Forecast 3D Laser System uses a SICK LMC lidar sensor

    Autonomous vehicles use lidar for obstacle detection and avoidance to navigate safely through environments, using rotating laser beams. [30] Cost map or point cloud outputs from the lidar sensor provide the necessary data for robot software to determine where potential obstacles exist in the environment and where the robot is in relation to those potential obstacles. Singapore's Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) is actively developing technologies for autonomous lidar vehicles. [31] Examples of companies that produce lidar sensors commonly used in robotics or vehicle automation are Sick [32] and Hokuyo. [33] Examples of obstacle detection and avoidance products that leverage lidar sensors are the Autonomous Solution, Inc. Forecast 3D Laser System [34] and Velodyne HDL-64E. [35]

    It has been shown that lidar can be manipulated, such that self-driving cars are tricked into taking evasive action. [36]

    Biology and conservation [ edit ]

    Lidar imaging comparing old-growth forest (right) to a new plantation of trees (left).

    Lidar has also found many applications in forestry. Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using airborne lidar systems. Similarly, lidar is also used by many industries, including Energy and Railroad, and the Department of Transportation as a faster way of surveying. Topographic maps can also be generated readily from lidar, including for recreational use such as in the production of orienteering maps. [37]

    In addition, the Save-the-Redwoods League is undertaking a project to map the tall redwoods on the Northern California coast. Lidar allows research scientists to not only measure the height of previously unmapped trees but to determine the biodiversity of the redwood forest. Stephen Sillett. who is working with the League on the North Coast lidar project, claims this technology will be useful in directing future efforts to preserve and protect ancient redwood trees. [38] [ full citation needed ]

    Geology and soil science [ edit ]

    High-resolution digital elevation maps generated by airborne and stationary lidar have led to significant advances in geomorphology (the branch of geoscience concerned with the origin and evolution of the Earth surface topography). The lidar abilities to detect subtle topographic features such as river terraces and river channel banks, to measure the land-surface elevation beneath the vegetation canopy, to better resolve spatial derivatives of elevation, and to detect elevation changes between repeat surveys have enabled many novel studies of the physical and chemical processes that shape landscapes. [39] In 2005 the Tour Ronde in the Mont Blanc massif became the first high alpine mountain on which lidar was employed to monitor the increasing occurrence of severe rock-fall over large rock faces allegedly caused by climate change and degradation of permafrost at high altitude. [40]

    In geophysics and tectonics, a combination of aircraft-based lidar and GPS has evolved into an important tool for detecting faults and for measuring uplift. The output of the two technologies can produce extremely accurate elevation models for terrain - models that can even measure ground elevation through trees. This combination was used most famously to find the location of the Seattle Fault in Washington. United States. [41] This combination also measures uplift at Mt. St. Helens by using data from before and after the 2004 uplift. [42] Airborne lidar systems monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts of growth or decline. A satellite-based system, the NASA ICESat. includes a lidar sub-system for this purpose. The NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper [43] is also used extensively to monitor glaciers and perform coastal change analysis. The combination is also used by soil scientists while creating a soil survey. The detailed terrain modeling allows soil scientists to see slope changes and landform breaks which indicate patterns in soil spatial relationships.

    Atmospheric remote sensing and meteorology [ edit ]

    Initially based on ruby lasers, lidar for meteorological applications was constructed shortly after the invention of the laser and represent one of the first applications of laser technology. Lidar technology has since expanded vastly in capability and lidar systems are used to perform a range of measurements that include profiling clouds, measuring winds, studying aerosols and quantifying various atmospheric components. Atmospheric components can in turn provide useful information including surface pressure (by measuring the absorption of oxygen or nitrogen), greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide and methane), photosynthesis (carbon dioxide), fires (carbon monoxide) and humidity (water vapor). Atmospheric lidars can be either ground-based, airborne or satellite depending on the type of measurement.

    Atmospheric lidar remote sensing works in two ways -

    1. by measuring backscatter from the atmosphere, and
    2. by measuring the scattered reflection off the ground (when the lidar is airborne) or other hard surface.

    Backscatter from the atmosphere directly gives a measure of clouds and aerosols. Other derived measurements from backscatter such as winds or cirrus ice crystals require careful selecting of the wavelength and/or polarization detected. Doppler Lidar and Rayleigh Doppler Lidar are used to measure temperature and/or wind speed along the beam by measuring the frequency of the backscattered light. The Doppler broadening of gases in motion allows the determination of properties via the resulting frequency shift. [44] [45] Scanning lidars, such as the conical-scanning NASA HARLIE LIDAR, have been used to measure atmospheric wind velocity. [46] The ESA wind mission ADM-Aeolus will be equipped with a Doppler lidar system in order to provide global measurements of vertical wind profiles. [47] A doppler lidar system was used in the 2008 Summer Olympics to measure wind fields during the yacht competition. [48]

    Doppler lidar systems are also now beginning to be successfully applied in the renewable energy sector to acquire wind speed, turbulence, wind veer and wind shear data. Both pulsed and continuous wave systems are being used. Pulsed systems use signal timing to obtain vertical distance resolution, whereas continuous wave systems rely on detector focusing.

    The term eolics has been proposed to describe the collaborative and interdisciplinary study of wind using computational fluid mechanics simulations and Doppler lidar measurements. [49]

    The ground reflection of an airborne lidar gives a measure of surface reflectivity (assuming the atmospheric transmittance is well known) at the lidar wavelength. However, the ground reflection is typically used for making absorption measurements of the atmosphere. "Differential absorption lidar" (DIAL) measurements utilize two or more closely spaced (<1 nm) wavelengths to factor out surface reflectivity as well as other transmission losses, since these factors are relatively insensitive to wavelength. When tuned to the appropriate absorption lines of a particular gas, DIAL measurements can be used to determine the concentration (mixing ratio) of that particular gas in the atmosphere. This is referred to as an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) approach, since it is a measure of the integrated absorption along the entire lidar path. IPDA lidars can be either pulsed [50] [51] or CW [52] and typically use two or more wavelengths. [53] IPDA lidars have been used for remote sensing of carbon dioxide [50] [51] [52] and methane. [54]

    Synthetic array lidar allows imaging lidar without the need for an array detector. It can be used for imaging Doppler velocimetry, ultra-fast frame rate (MHz) imaging, as well as for speckle reduction in coherent lidar. [15] An extensive lidar bibliography for atmospheric and hydrospheric applications is given by Grant. [55]

    Law enforcement [ edit ]

    Lidar speed guns are used by the police to measure the speed of vehicles for speed limit enforcement purposes. [56]

    Military [ edit ]

    Few military applications are known to be in place and are classified (like the lidar-based speed measurement of the AGM-129 ACM stealth nuclear cruise missile), but a considerable amount of research is underway in their use for imaging. Higher resolution systems collect enough detail to identify targets, such as tanks. Examples of military applications of lidar include the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for counter-mine warfare by Areté Associates. [57]

    A NATO report (RTO-TR-SET-098) evaluated the potential technologies to do stand-off detection for the discrimination of biological warfare agents. The potential technologies evaluated were Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR), Differential Scattering (DISC), and Ultraviolet Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF). The report concluded that : Based upon the results of the lidar systems tested and discussed above, the Task Group recommends that the best option for the near-term (2008–2010) application of stand-off detection systems is UV LIF. [58] However, in the long-term, other techniques such as stand-off Raman spectroscopy may prove to be useful for identification of biological warfare agents.

    Short-range compact spectrometric lidar based on Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) would address the presence of bio-threats in aerosol form over critical indoor, semi-enclosed and outdoor venues like stadiums, subways, and airports. This near real-time capability would enable rapid detection of a bioaerosol release and allow for timely implementation of measures to protect occupants and minimize the extent of contamination. [59]

    The Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System (LR-BSDS) was developed for the US Army to provide the earliest possible standoff warning of a biological attack. It is an airborne system carried by a helicopter to detect man-made aerosol clouds containing biological and chemical agents at long range. The LR-BSDS, with a detection range of 30 km or more, was fielded in June 1997. [60] Five lidar units produced by the German company Sick AG were used for short range detection on Stanley. the autonomous car that won the 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge .

    A robotic Boeing AH-6 performed a fully autonomous flight in June 2010, including avoiding obstacles using lidar. [61] [62]

    Mining [ edit ]

    Lidar is used in the mining industry for various tasks. The calculation of ore volumes is accomplished by periodic (monthly) scanning in areas of ore removal, then comparing surface data to the previous scan. [63]

    Lidar sensors may also be used for obstacle detection and avoidance for robotic mining vehicles such as in the Komatsu Autonomous Haulage System (AHS) [64] used in Rio Tinto's Mine of the Future.

    Physics and astronomy [ edit ]

    A worldwide network of observatories uses lidars to measure the distance to reflectors placed on the moon. allowing the position of the moon to be measured with mm precision and tests of general relativity to be done. MOLA. the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a lidar instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite (the NASA Mars Global Surveyor ) to produce a spectacularly precise global topographic survey of the red planet.

    In September, 2008, the NASA Phoenix Lander used lidar to detect snow in the atmosphere of Mars. [65]

    In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium. sodium. or molecular nitrogen and oxygen. These measurements can be used to calculate temperatures. Lidar can also be used to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles. [66]

    Rock mechanics [ edit ]

    LiDAR has been widely used in rock mechanics for rock mass characterization and slope change detection. Some important geomechanical properties from the rock mass can be extracted from the 3D point clouds obtained by means of the LiDAR. Some of these properties are:

    Some of these properties have be used to assess the geomechanical quality of the rock mass through the RMR index. Moreover, as the orientations of discontinuities can be extracted using the existing methodologies, it is possible to assess the geomechanical quality of a rock slope through the SMR index. [73] In addition to this, the comparison of different 3D point clouds from a slope acquired at different times allows to study the changes produced on the scene during this time interval as a result of rockfalls or any other landsliding processes. [74] [75]

    Robotics [ edit ]

    Lidar technology is being used in robotics for the perception of the environment as well as object classification. [76] The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. [77] Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

    Spaceflight [ edit ]

    Lidar is increasingly being utilized for rangefinding and orbital element calculation of relative velocity in proximity operations and stationkeeping of spacecraft. Lidar has also been used for atmospheric studies from space. Short pulses of laser light beamed from a spacecraft can reflect off of tiny particles in the atmosphere and back to a telescope aligned with the spacecraft laser. By precisely timing the lidar 'echo,' and by measuring how much laser light is received by the telescope, scientists can accurately determine the location, distribution and nature of the particles. The result is a revolutionary new tool for studying constituents in the atmosphere, from cloud droplets to industrial pollutants, that are difficult to detect by other means." [78] [79]

    Surveying [ edit ]

    This TomTom mapping van is fitted with five lidars on its roof rack.

    Airborne lidar sensors are used by companies in the remote sensing field. They can be used to create a DTM (Digital Terrain Model) or DEM (Digital Elevation Model ); this is quite a common practice for larger areas as a plane can acquire 3–4 km wide swaths in a single flyover. Greater vertical accuracy of below 50 mm can be achieved with a lower flyover, even in forests, where it is able to give the height of the canopy as well as the ground elevation. Typically, a GNSS receiver configured over a georeferenced control point is needed to link the data in with the WGS (World Geodetic System ). [80]

    Transport [ edit ]

    LiDAR has been used in the railroad industry to generate asset health reports for asset management and by departments of transportation to assess their road conditions. CivilMaps.com is a leading company in the field. [81] Lidar has been used in adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems for automobiles. Systems such as those by Siemens and Hella use a lidar device mounted on the front of the vehicle, such as the bumper, to monitor the distance between the vehicle and any vehicle in front of it. [82] In the event the vehicle in front slows down or is too close, the ACC applies the brakes to slow the vehicle. When the road ahead is clear, the ACC allows the vehicle to accelerate to a speed preset by the driver. Refer to the Military section above for further examples.

    Wind farm optimization [ edit ]

    Lidar can be used to increase the energy output from wind farms by accurately measuring wind speeds and wind turbulence. [83] [84] Experimental lidar systems [85] [86] can be mounted on the nacelle [87] of a wind turbine or integrated into the rotating spinner [88] to measure oncoming horizontal winds, [89] winds in the wake of the wind turbine, [90] and proactively adjust blades to protect components and increase power. Lidar is also used to characterise the incident wind resource for comparison with wind turbine power production to verify the performance of the wind turbine [91] by measuring the wind turbine's power curve. [92] Wind farm optimization can be considered a topic in applied eolics .

    Solar photovoltaic deployment optimization [ edit ]

    Lidar can also be used to assist planners and developers in optimizing solar photovoltaic systems at the city level by determining appropriate roof tops [93] [94] and for determining shading losses. [95] Recent works focus on buildings' facades solar potential estimation, [96] or by incorporating more detailed shading losses by considering the influence from vegetation and larger surrounding terrain. [97]

    Video games [ edit ]

    Racing game iRacing features scanned tacks, resulting in bumps with millimeter precision in the in-game 3D mapping environment.

    Other uses [ edit ]

    The video for the song "House of Cards " by Radiohead was believed to be the first use of real-time 3D laser scanning to record a music video. The range data in the video is not completely from a lidar, as structured light scanning is also used. [98]

    Alternative technologies [ edit ]

    Recent development of Structure From Motion (SFM) technologies allows delivering 3D images and maps based on data extracted from visual and IR photography. The elevation or 3D data is extracted using multiple parallel passes over mapped area, yielding both visual light image and 3D structure from the same sensor, which is often a specially chosen and calibrated digital camera.

    See also [ edit ] References [ edit ] Further reading [ edit ]
    • Heritage, E. (2011). 3D laser scanning for heritage. Advice and guidance to users on laser scanning in archaeology and architecture. Available at www.english-heritage.org.uk. [2]
    • Heritage, G. & Large, A. (Eds.). (2009). Laser scanning for the environmental sciences. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 1-4051-5717-8
    • Maltamo, M. Næsset, E. & Vauhkonen, J. (2014). Forestry Applications of Airborne Laser Scanning: Concepts and Case Studies (Vol. 27). Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 94-017-8662-3
    • Shan, J. & Toth, C. K. (Eds.). (2008). Topographic laser ranging and scanning: principles and processing. CRC press. ISBN 1-4200-5142-3
    • Vosselman, G. & Maas, H. G. (Eds.). (2010). Airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. Whittles Publishing. ISBN 1-4398-2798-2
    External links [ edit ]

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