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Charles Dickens And The Street Children Of London - Isbn:9780547677286

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  • Book Title: Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London
  • ISBN 13: 9780547677286
  • ISBN 10: 0547677286
  • Author: Andrea Warren
  • Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
  • Category (general): Other
  • Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
  • Format & Number of pages: 160 pages, book
  • Synopsis: —epitaph frequently quoted in England when Charles Dickens died ANDREA WARREN is the author of numerous books for young readers, including Orphan Train Rider: One Boy's True Story, We Rode the Orphan Trains, Surviving Hitler: A ...

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Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Author: demlanhboy | 7-03-2015, 16:05 | Views: 0

Andrea Warren, "Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London"
ISBN: 0547395744 | 2011 | EPUB | 160 pages | 71 MB


Provoked by the horrors he saw every day, Charles Dickens wrote novels that were originally intended as instruments for social change - to save his country's children.
Charles Dickens is best known for his contributions to the world of literature, but during his young life, Dickens witnessed terrible things that stayed with him: families starving in doorways, babies being "dropped" on streets by mothers too poor to care for them, and a stunning lack of compassion from the upper class. After his family went into debt and he found himself working at a shoe-polish factory, Dickens soon realized that the members of the lower class were no different than he, and, even worse, they were given no chance to better themselves. It was then that he decided to use his greatest talent, his writing ability, to tell the stories of those who had no voice.

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Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Author: rover | 8-03-2015, 00:03 | Views: 0

Andrea Warren, "Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London"
ISBN: 0547395744 | 2011 | EPUB | 160 pages | 71 MB


Provoked by the horrors he saw every day, Charles Dickens wrote novels that were originally intended as instruments for social change - to save his country's children.
Charles Dickens is best known for his contributions to the world of literature, but during his young life, Dickens witnessed terrible things that stayed with him: families starving in doorways, babies being "dropped" on streets by mothers too poor to care for them, and a stunning lack of compassion from the upper class. After his family went into debt and he found himself working at a shoe-polish factory, Dickens soon realized that the members of the lower class were no different than he, and, even worse, they were given no chance to better themselves. It was then that he decided to use his greatest talent, his writing ability, to tell the stories of those who had no voice.

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Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Provoked by the horrors he saw every day, Charles Dickens wrote novels that were originally intended as instruments for social change — to save his country’s children.

Charles Dickens is best known for his contributions to the world of literature, but during his young life, Dickens witnessed terrible things that stayed with him: families starving in doorways, babies being “dropped” on streets by mothers too poor to care for them, and a stunning lack of compassion from the upper class. After his family went into debt and he found himself working at a shoe-polish factory, Dickens soon realized that the members of the lower class were no different than he, and, even worse, they were given no chance to better themselves. It was then that he decided to use his greatest talent, his writing ability, to tell the stories of those who had no voice.

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David Perdue s Charles Dickens Page - Dickens London


Dickens' genius was thrust upon the world stage at a time of intense change in London and probably none more dramatic than that of the coming of the railroad. This change can be seen in the progress of Dickens' novels.

The quaint coaching inns of Pickwick Papers gave way, in later novels, to reports of railway travel, particularly in Dombey and Son (serialized Oct 1846 to April 1848) where the intrusion of the railroad, and its effects on the city, are described in some detail.

Starting in the late 1830s, competing railway companies burrowed into London as far as possible, displacing the poor, and then building a terminus. The result was a ring of railway stations such as London Bridge Station (1836), Euston Station (1837), and Paddington Station (1838) with no central connection. This increased congestion in the city, as connections had to be made by coach.

Railway Stations were considered modern day cathedrals and contained elegant hotels. As railway travel became more affordable, and traffic increased, cheaper and seedier hotels grew up around the stations and the elegant hotels lost business.

Dickens lamented the changes wrought by the railroads but, like most Victorians, accepted the change as a necessity in his travels. His faith in the railways was severely shaken when he was involved in a serious accident at Staplehurst in 1865.

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Throughout his work Dickens relishes in the description of food and drink in such a way as to make the most meager meal seem a feast. From Pip and Joe comparing slices of bread in Great Expectations to the Ghost of Christmas Present's magnificent spread, Dickens celebrates the culinary delights of his day. There is much roast fowl and joint of mutton, plum pudding and boiled beef.

Drinking is ubiquitous in Dickens. From the peasants in Paris soaking up the spilled wine in the street in A Tale of Two Cities to Mr. Micawber's famous punch, everyone seems to have a drink in their hand. This partly reflects the fact that, in Dickens' London, alcohol was safer to drink than the water.

Dickens, by all indications, was a moderate drinker himself. While diligently pointing out the evils of overindulgence, he also had no patience with the Temperance Movement. which he lampooned in Pickwick Papers. Indeed Dickens had a falling out with his friend and illustrator George Cruikshank when Cruikshank, formerly a heavy drinker, became a zealous supporter of abstinence.

In reply to a letter from an irate advocate of abstinence in 1847 Dickens answered:

"I have no doubt whatever that the warm stuff in the jug at Bob Cratchit's Christmas dinner, had a very pleasant effect on the simple party. I am certain that if I had been at Mr. Fezziwig's ball, I should have taken a little negus -- and possibly not a little beer -- and been none the worse for it, in heart or head. I am very sure that the working people of this country have not too many household enjoyments, and I could not, in my fancy or in actual deed, deprive them of this one when it is so innocently shared."

Demoralisation and Total Abstinence
An article written by Dickens and printed in the Examiner on October 27, 1849, rebuking a call for total abstinence to combat drunkeness.

Dickens' London Links

The Crystal Palace - The 1851 Great Exhibition was the first World's Fair

London 1865 - The Dickens Project's Our Mutual Friend Site

Charles Dickens Museum - Dickens' home at 48 Doughty Street, London (1837-1839)

1859 London Map - From UCLA with annotations and links to an 1827 map, an 1889 map, as well as a current map of London


What was it like to ride in a London Omnibus during Dickens' time? Read this hilarious short sketch, Omnibuses. written by Dickens for the Morning Chronicle on September 26, 1834. It was later included in Sketches by Boz . Also read Henry Mayhew's interview with an omnibus driver.

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Dickens: London into Kent
by Peter Clark
I received an advance copy of this book and found it amazing! Mr. Clark has truly done his homework including recreating Dickens' middle-of-the-night walk from London to Gad's Hill. I plan to put the book to practical use on my next visit to London and Kent!


The Ghost Map
by Steven Johnson
The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic--and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World


The Great Stink
by Clare Clark
A novel of corruption and murder beneath the streets of Victorian London



A favorite public house of Dickens was Ye Old Cheshire Cheese in Fleet Street, an ancient inn rebuilt after the great fire of 1666.

Dickens references Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese in A Tale of Two Cities when Charles Darnay is acquitted of treason and accompanies Sydney Carton "down Ludgate hill to Fleet Street, and so, up a covered way, into a tavern. Here, they were shown into a little room, where Charles Darnay was soon recruiting his strength with a good plain dinner and good wine."

Read about a visit Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese by Joseph Pennell for Harper's Weekly in November 1887.


David Perdue with author Dr Ruth Richardson at the Cheshire Cheese in 2014

Dickens applied his unique power of observation to the city in which he spent most of his life. He routinely walked the city streets, 10 or 20 miles at a time, and his descriptions of nineteenth century London allow readers to experience the sights, sounds, and smells of the old city.


Fleet Street then. and now

This ability to immerse the reader into time and place sets the perfect stage for Dickens to weave his fiction.

Victorian London was the largest, most spectacular city in the world. While Britain was experiencing the Industrial Revolution, its capital was both reaping the benefits and suffering the consequences. In 1800 the population of London was around a million souls. That number would swell to 4.5 million by 1880. While fashionable areas like Regent and Oxford streets were growing in the west, new docks supporting the city's place as the world's trade center were being built in the east. Perhaps the biggest impact on the growth of London was the coming of the railroad in the 1830s which displaced thousands and accelerated the expansion of the city.

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The price of this explosive growth and domination of world trade was untold squalor and filth. In his excellent biography, Dickens . Peter Ackroyd notes that " If a late twentieth-century person were suddenly to find himself in a tavern or house of the period, he would be literally sick - sick with the smells, sick with the food, sick with the atmosphere around him."

Imagine yourself in the London of the early 19th century. The homes of the upper and middle class exist in close proximity to areas of unbelievable poverty and filth. Rich and poor alike are thrown together in the crowded city streets. Street sweepers attempt to keep the streets clean of manure, the result of thousands of horse-drawn vehicles. The city's thousands of chimney pots are belching coal smoke, resulting in soot which seems to settle everywhere. In many parts of the city raw sewage flows in gutters that empty into the Thames. Street vendors hawking their wares add to the cacophony of street noises. Pick-pockets, prostitutes, drunks, beggars, and vagabonds of every description add to the colorful multitude.

Personal cleanliness is not a big priority, nor is clean laundry. In close, crowded rooms the smell of unwashed bodies is stifling. It is unbearably hot by the fire, numbingly cold away from it.

At night the major streets are lit with feeble gas lamps. Side and secondary streets may not be lit at all and link bearers are hired to guide the traveler to his destination. Inside, a candle or oil lamp struggles against the darkness and blacken the ceilings.

In Little Dorrit Dickens describes a London rain storm:

In the country, the rain would have developed a thousand fresh scents, and every drop would have had its bright association with some beautiful form of growth or life. In the city, it developed only foul stale smells, and was a sickly, lukewarm, dirt- stained, wretched addition to the gutters.

Sanitation and Disease

Until the second half of the 19th century London residents were still drinking water from the very same portions of the Thames that the open sewers were discharging into. Several outbreaks of Cholera in the mid 19th century, along with The Great Stink of 1858, when the stench of the Thames caused Parliament to recess, brought a cry for action. Until 1854 it was widely thought that disease was spread through foul air or miasma. It seemed obvious to the Victorians, even the learned ones, that if it stinks, it must be causing disease.

When cholera broke out in the Soho area in 1854 Dr. John Snow teamed with Rev. Henry Whitehead to prove that the disease was spread, not through foul odors and bad air, but by contaminated water. Cholera is spread simply by one human digesting the bacteria in the excrement of other infected humans. Snow and Whitehead solved this riddle, not by direct study of the bacteria, but by spatially projecting pedestrian patterns of where residents got their drinking water. By this method they were able to show that all of the cholera victims in the area drank from the same Broad Street pump. The well had been contaminated with raw sewage coming from the homes of cholera sufferers. The pump handle was removed, and the epidemic ended. Read more about this fascinating story in Steven Johnson's The Ghost Map .

Sir Joseph Bazalgette. chief engineer of the new Metropolitan Board of Works (1855), put into effect a plan, completed in 1875, which finally provided adequate sewers to serve the city. In addition, laws were put in effect which prevented companies supplying drinking water from drawing water from the most heavily tainted parts of the Thames and required them to provide some type of filtration.


This film (credit BFI ) made 33 years after Dickens' death still gives a good idea of what the London streets of Dickens' times would look like.

After the Stage Carriages Act of 1832 the hackney cab was gradually replaced by the omnibus as a means of moving about the city. By 1900, 3000 horse-drawn buses were carrying 500 million passengers a year. A traffic count in Cheapside and London Bridge in 1850 showed a thousand vehicles an hour passing through these areas during the day. All of this added up to an incredible amount of manure which had to be removed from the streets. In wet weather straw was scattered in walkways, storefronts, and in carriages to try to soak up the mud and wet.

Cattle were driven through the streets until the mid 19th century. In an article for Household Words in March 1851 Dickens, with characteristic sarcasm, describes the environmental impact of having live cattle markets and slaughterhouses in the city:

"In half a quarter of a mile's length of Whitechapel, at one time, there shall be six hundred newly slaughtered oxen hanging up, and seven hundred sheep but, the more the merrier proof of prosperity. Hard by Snow Hill and Warwick Lane, you shall see the little children, inured to sights of brutality from their birth, trotting along the alleys, mingled with troops of horribly busy pigs, up to their ankles in blood but it makes the young rascals hardy. Into the imperfect sewers of this overgrown city, you shall have the immense mass of corruption, engendered by these practices, lazily thrown out of sight, to rise, in poisonous gases, into your house at night, when your sleeping children will most readily absorb them, and to find its languid way, at last, into the river that you drink."

In Oliver Twist . Dickens describes the scene as Oliver and Bill Sikes travel through the Smithfield live-cattle market on their way to burglarize the Maylie home: "It was market-morning. The ground was covered, nearly ankle-deep, with filth and mire; a thick steam, perpetually rising from the reeking bodies of the cattle, and mingling with the fog, which seemed to rest upon the chimney-tops, hung heavily above. All the pens in the centre of the large area, and as many temporary pens as could be crowded into the vacant space, were filled with sheep; tied up to posts by the gutter side were long lines of beasts and oxen, three or four deep. Countrymen, butchers, drovers, hawkers, boys, thieves, idlers, and vagabonds of every low grade, were mingled together in a mass; the whistling of drovers, the barking dogs, the bellowing and plunging of the oxen, the bleating of sheep, the grunting and squeaking of pigs, the cries of hawkers, the shouts, oaths, and quarrelling on all sides; the ringing of bells and roar of voices, that issued from every public-house; the crowding, pushing, driving, beating, whooping and yelling; the hideous and discordant dim that resounded from every corner of the market; and the unwashed, unshaven, squalid, and dirty figures constantly running to and fro, and bursting in and out of the throng; rendered it a stunning and bewildering scene, which quite confounded the senses."

The Smithfield live-cattle market was finally moved out of the city to slaughterhouses in Islington in 1855.

Henry Mayhew estimated that in the 1850s there were 12,000 costermongers (street sellers) making their living in the London streets. These sellers sold fruits, vegetables, flowers, fish, pies, muffins, and a variety of other goods. Generally the costers would go out early in the morning and buy their goods from the London markets such as Billingsgate fish market, Covent Garden, or Borough Market, bartering for the cheapest price with what they called their "stock money". These goods were then pushed through the streets in rented barrows. Mayhew detailed the lives of these street sellers in his London Labour and the London Poor (1851). Read Mayhew's description of Covent Garden Market.

The Metropolitan Police, London's first police force, was created by Home Secretary Sir Robert Peel (hence the name Peelers and, eventually, Bobbies) in 1829 with headquarters in what would become known as Scotland Yard. The old London watch system, in effect since Elizabethan times, was eventually abolished.

The Victorian answer to dealing with the poor and indigent was the New Poor Law, enacted in 1834. Previously it had been the burden of the parishes to take care of the poor. The new law required parishes to band together and create regional workhouses where aid could be applied for. The workhouse was little more than a prison for the poor. Civil liberties were denied, families were separated, and human dignity was destroyed. The true poor often went to great lengths to avoid this relief.

Dickens, because of the childhood trauma caused by his father's imprisonment for debt and his consignment to Warren's Blacking Factory to help support his family, was a true champion to the poor. He repeatedly pointed out the atrocities of the system through his novels.

Journalist Henry Mayhew chronicled the plight of the London poor in articles originally written for the Morning Chronicle and later collected in London Labour and the London Poor (1851).

With the turn of the century and Queen Victoria's death in 1901 the Victorian period came to a close. Many of the ills of the 19th century were remedied through education, technology and social reform. and by the social consciousness raised by the immensely popular novels of Dickens.

Ever wonder why the subjects of all those portraits taken in the early days of photography sport such grim expressions? It had more to do with the limits of the technology than of the somber nature of the subject. Smiles are more spontaneous, and harder to hold naturally for the long exposure times required by the photographic equipment of the day.

Source:

charlesdickenspage.com

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London by Andrea Warren

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London – Andrea Warren
4 stars
There is a long tradition of biography as morality tale in children’s literature. Frequently there is little factual basis for the lesson; George Washington did not, in fact, chop down the cherry tree. However, with Charles Dickens, the lesson is implicit in the life of the man. Andrea Warren has presented the life of Charles Dickens in sixteen easy chapters with the clear intent of showcasing him as a social activist. The text is augmented with period illustrations and actual photographs. Following the last chapter are several brief selections that give additional information concerning Victorian England, workhouses and poorhouses in England and America, child labor laws and current charitable or activist organizations benefitting children worldwide. The book has an index, bibliography and a list of suggested websites.
The publisher recommends this book for ages 12 or above. I judge the reading level to be upper elementary; although some of the subject matter might be a bit mature. The text is informative and historically accurate, but is selected with a clear social agenda in mind.
( )

My VOYA ratings:
4Q, 2P

This book provides a history of Charles Dickens and London street children in a way that is easy to digest. It is engaging for young readers who are interested in the subject and includes helpful and entertaining pictures. It explains the connection between Charles Dickens' works and improvement of the conditions of the poor in London, as well as his personal reasons for sympathizing with street children. ( )

Excellent insight into how Dickens's own experiences influenced his depictions of the poor and working class in his novels. Warren also offers an insightful look at the wretched lives of the poor, particularly children, in Victorian England. ( )

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London is an eye-opening account of how the poverty of Dicken's early life led him to champion England's poor, particularly the children in both his writing and his actions. This is a carefully researched and well-written story that goes beyond simple biography in re-creating Dickens and the world he lived in. Although much of the information in the book is interesting and not well-known to most American young adults, I do think the non-fiction format with blocks of text and drawn photographs will remind many teens (unhappily)of school textbooks, and it will take some extra effort to convince them to read it, but it will be worth it. ( )

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London is a biography with a goal. The book does not just tell a straightforward story of Dickens’s life from birth to death, but instead looks at the famed author’s relationship with childhood labor and poverty. To that end, the author does indeed begin at the beginning, to paraphrase Dickens’s introduction to his novel David Copperfield. The reader sees Dickens grow up in a middle-income family, only to be brought down by family debt. With his father in debtors’ prison, Dickens is forced to become a child laborer, spending 10 hours a day, six days a week pasting labels onto bottles at a blacking factory. Andrea Warren shows how these early experiences provided a trajectory for Dickens’s adult life. As an author, he wrote about the problems he saw in the country – including the treatment of children as laborers, in workhouses, and on the streets. When his books made him famous, he used his clout to push for social reforms, advocating for things like compulsory education for children, stricter child labor laws, sanitary improvements in the slums, and affordable housing.

Amazon.com Amazon.com Review (ISBN 0547395744. Hardcover)

A Note from the Author

Dear Amazon Readers:

You know me as the author of nonfiction books for young readers about remarkable children living through dramatic historical events. I’ve written about orphan train riders, pioneer children, orphans escaping the Vietnam War, young people enduring the horrors of the Civil War, and a boy who survived the Nazi death camps. All were ordinary children who became extraordinary when events in their lives demanded it. Why would I write about someone as famous as Charles Dickens?

He too faced difficult odds as a child. When his father was imprisoned for debt, twelve-year-old Dickens had to work in a factory and care for himself. He knew he could become one of the hungry street children he saw every day in London. He had been taught that the poor deserved their miserable fate, but as one of them, he realized that they were held down by the upper classes, who exploited them for their cheap labor.

As an adult, Dickens used his literary gifts to become a champion of the poor. He wrote vividly and feelingly about the lower classes, including poor children like Oliver Twist. With calculated skill, Dickens engaged readers’ emotions, inspiring them to work for changes to better the lives of the lower classes.

Charles Dickens was one of history’s great social reformers. Once you understand how he accomplished this, you’ll read his books in a whole new way.

I hope you find his story as inspiring as I did.

Yours in good reading,

(retrieved from Amazon Thu, 12 Mar 2015 18:16:22 -0400)

Source:

www.librarything.com

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London by Andrea Warren

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Provoked by the horrors he saw every day, Charles Dickens wrote novels that were originally intended as instruments for social change - to save his country's children.
Charles Dickens is best known for his contributions to the world of literature, but during his young life, Dickens witnessed terrible things that stayed with him: families starving in doorways, babies being "dropped" on streets by mothers too poor to care for them, and a stunning lack of compassion from the upper class. After his family went into debt and he found himself working at a shoe-polish factory, Dickens soon realized that the members of the lower class were no different than he, and, even worse, they were given no chance to better themselves. It was then that he decided to use his greatest talent, his writing ability, to tell the stories of those who had no voice.

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Source:

www.fantasticfiction.com

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Title: Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London
Author: Andrea Warren
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Books for Children
ISBN: 978-0-547-39574-6
Year: 2011

Concepts: child schooling and work, economic role of government, inequality, poverty, scarcity, social justice

Review: Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London is a biography with a goal. The book does not just tell a straightforward story of Dickens’s life from birth to death, but instead looks at the famed author’s relationship with childhood labor and poverty. To that end, the author does indeed begin at the beginning, to paraphrase Dickens’s introduction to his novel David Copperfield. The reader sees Dickens grow up in a middle-income family, only to be brought down by family debt. With his father in debtors’ prison, Dickens is forced to become a child laborer, spending 10 hours a day, six days a week pasting labels onto bottles at a blacking factory. Andrea Warren shows how these early experiences provided a trajectory for Dickens’s adult life. As an author, he wrote about the problems he saw in the country – including the treatment of children as laborers, in workhouses, and on the streets. When his books made him famous, he used his clout to push for social reforms, advocating for things like compulsory education for children, stricter child labor laws, sanitary improvements in the slums, and affordable housing. The book ends with additional background information on Queen Victoria and England’s workhouses (and their American counterpart, the poor farms). It also gives a brief glimpse at street children and child labor issues that remain today while providing readers with tools for how to make a difference in their world, including ideas like sponsoring a child or volunteering at a local soup kitchen. Finally, the book concludes with a bibliography and webliography regarding Charles Dickens and his times in addition to an index. Throughout the book, there are many, many lessons on economics for children to glean. Warren does not just point out the obvious consequences of poverty such as lack of spending money for wants but also the far-reaching effects, including poor living conditions, sickness, pollution, and low life expectancy rates. To illustrate certain points, she often includes Dickens’s own words about his life or quotes from his books, bringing to life his many creations, including Oliver Twist. A Christmas Carol. Hard Times. and Bleak House. by describing the real-life conditions that these works sought to expose. By concluding the book with sections describing the issues of child labor and street children today, Warren lets young readers know that this isn’t just a story about something that happened long ago – and she may help set many future reformers on their own path toward justice. Review by: Rutgers University Project on Economics and Children

Source:

econkids.rutgers.edu

Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London - ISBN:9780547677286


Charles Dickens and the Street Children of London

Provoked by the horrors he saw every day, Charles Dickens wrote novels that were originally intended as instruments for social change to save his countrys children.Charles Dickens is best known for his contributions to the world of literature, but during his young life, Dickens witnessed terrible things that stayed with him: families starving in doorways, babies being dropped on streets by mothers too poor to care for them, and a stunning lack of compassion from the upper class. After his family went into debt and he found himself working at a shoe-polish factory, Dickens soon realized that the members of the lower class were no different than he, and, even worse, they were given no chance to better themselves. It was then that he decided to use his greatest talent, his writing ability, to tell the stories of those who had no voice.

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