Ebooks for you

Im Tunnel: Metro 2033-Universum-Roman - Isbn:9783641101329

Category: Fiction

  • Book Title: Im Tunnel: Metro 2033-Universum-Roman
  • ISBN 13: 9783641101329
  • ISBN 10: 3641101328
  • Author: Sergej Antonow
  • Category: Fiction
  • Category (general): Fiction
  • Publisher: Heyne Verlag
  • Format & Number of pages: 384 pages, book
  • Synopsis: METRO 2033 ist für mich mehr als nur ein Roman. Es ist ein ganzes Universum, und nur einen kleinen Teil davon habe ich in meinem Buch beschrieben. METRO 2033 handelt von unserer Erde, wie sie im Jahre 2033 aussehen könnte,zwei ...

Another description

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034
AudioBook | 2014 | Genre: Science Fiction | English | ISBN-13: 978-1473204287 | MP3 64Kb | 792 MB

The basis of two bestselling computer games Metro 2033 and Metro Last Light, the Metro books have put Dmitry Glukhovsky in the vanguard of Russian speculative fiction alongside the creator of NIGHT WATCH, Sergei Lukyanenko.

A year after the events of METRO 2033, the last few survivors of the apocalypse, surrounded by mutants and monsters, face a terrifying new danger as they hang on for survival in the tunnels of the Moscow Metro.

Featuring blistering action, vivid and tough characters, claustrophobic tension and dark satire, the Metro books have become bestsellers across Europe.

Sponsored High Speed Downloads

5420 dl's @ 3735 KB/s

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034 [Full Version]

6381 dl's @ 2488 KB/s

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034 - Fast Download

8905 dl's @ 3460 KB/s

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034 - Direct Download

Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034

Related Archive Books

Archive Books related to "Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034":

Download this book

No active download links here?

Please check the description for download links if any or do a search to find alternative books.

  1. Ebooks list page. 26137
  2. 2013-04-14 Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034 (Re-Upload)
  3. 2011-02-17 Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034
  4. 2013-04-24 Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2033 (epub)
  5. 2011-02-10 Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2033
  6. 2014-04-06 Metro 2034 by Dmitry Glukhovsky
  7. 2014-03-03 Metro 2034 by Dmitry Glukhovsky
  8. 2013-11-14 Metro 2034 - Dmitry Glukhovsky epub,mobi
  9. 2012-02-25 [RS]Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  10. 2011-10-05 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  11. 2011-08-31 Metro 2033 by Dmitry Glukhovsky
  12. 2010-10-08 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  13. 2010-08-20 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  14. 2010-06-15 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  15. 2010-06-11 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  16. 2010-06-11 Metro 2033 book by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  17. 2010-05-21 [RS] Metro 2033 by Dmitry Glukhovsky (English-2010)
  18. 2014-05-16 Dmitry Glukhovsky - Future
  19. 2012-04-07 Metro Survive Vol.1-Vol.2
  20. 2012-01-01 Marine Ecological Geography: Theory and Experience (Environmental Science and Engineering) - Dmitry Ya Fashchuk

No comments for "Dmitry Glukhovsky - Metro 2034" .

Add Your Comments

  1. Download links and password may be in the description section. read description carefully!
  2. Do a search to find mirrors if no download links or dead links.

Source:

ebookee.org

Articles

Peter Arschinow

This is an excerpt from the article Peter Arschinow from the Wikipedia free encyclopedia. A list of authors is available at Wikipedia.

The article Peter Arschinow at en.wikipedia.org was accessed 2 times in the last 30 days. (as of: 12/17/2013)

Images on Peter Arschinow

No data available yet.

Search results from Google and Bing

Anarchisten im Freiheitskampf. Geschichte der Machno-Bewegung (1918-1921) [ Peter Arschinow ] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Ezra Jack Keats, 1998

Ezra Jack Keats's luminous paintings of city life and his unerring sense of the truly important dramas of childhood have been enchanting children for years. He began his career in children's books by illustrating other people's texts, but after a number of years decided to write his own. This decision gave him the freedom to circumve.

Peter Lösche, 1977

202 Peter Arschinow. Anarchisten im Freiheitskampf. Geschichte der Madino- Bewegung (1918 — 1921). Mit einem Vorwort von Volin. Hrsg. und mit einem Nachwort versehen von Felix Philipp Ingold. Zürich 1971 (1. Auflage Berlin 1923).

Dave Barry, Ridley Pearson and Greg Call, 2006

Humorist Dave Barry and suspense writer Ridley Pearson have clearly taken great delight in writing a 400-plus page prequel of sorts to Scottish dramatist J.M. Barrie's beloved Peter Pan stories. The result is a fast-paced and fluffy pirate adventure, complete with talking porpoises, stinky rogues, possible cannibals, a flying crocodile, biting.

Pennsylvania State University, 1966

Literature Cited (1 ) Arschinow, W. Petrographical Institute Lithogaea, Moscow, Publ. G 50 (1914). ( 2 ) Behre, C. Discussion Peter H. Given: In your view, how did metamorphism of the carbonaceous material occur? Was it incorporated in the.

Antonow, Sergej and Dondl, Matthias, 2013

Der Kampf ums Überleben geht weiterDie Welt ist am Ende. Nach einem katastrophalen Krieg liegt der Großteil der Erde in Schutt und Asche. Die Menschen haben sich in die U-Bahn-Tunnel der Städte zurückgezogen. Denn die unterirdischen Tunnel sind der einzige Ort, an dem es möglich ist, zu überleben. Doch die Tunnel sind auch der Ort, an dem die tödli.

Source:

www.cyclopaedia.info

Dziedzictwo przodków

Dziedzictwo przodków. Tod mit uns.

Moskwa i Kaliningrad. Wspaniałe stołeczne metro i zbudowane przez faszystów w podziemiach Königsberga bunkry oraz tajne bazy. Intrygujące zestawienie. Choć ci, którzy o moskiewskim metrze wiedzą wszystko, żyją pośród nas, milczą ze względu naMore Moskwa i Kaliningrad. Wspaniałe stołeczne metro i zbudowane przez faszystów w podziemiach Königsberga bunkry oraz tajne bazy. Intrygujące zestawienie. Choć ci, którzy o moskiewskim metrze wiedzą wszystko, żyją pośród nas, milczą ze względu na podpisane zobowiązania. Tymczasem tajemnice podziemnego Königa jego budowniczowie zabrali do grobu. A jeśli z tego grobu powstaną? To książka, której na pewno nie zapomnicie. – Dmitry Glukhovsky „Po niebie niczym strzały przemknęły rzadkie obłoki, pędzone przez nieznaną siłę. Huk narastał, aż nagle do lasu wdarł się huragan. Potężna fala pyłu wyrywająca z korzeniami młode drzewa i łamiąca stare. Fruwające krzaki zamieniły się w niekończącą się ulewę. Ściana kurzu, kamieni, ziemi i roślin porwała stojące na skraju lasu samochody i ludzi”. Miasto twierdza Königsberg. Jej upadek pieczętował los Trzeciej Rzeszy i kończył niemiecką obecność w Prusach Wschodnich. Ale nawet teraz, kiedy wybrzmiały echa ostatniej globalnej wojny, która zapędziła resztki ludzkości pod ziemię, są tacy, którzy w imię dziedzictwa przodków są gotowi zabijać i ginąć. Najnowsza powieść w Uniwersum Metro 2033, międzynarodowym projekcie Dmitrija Glukhovsky’ego. Less

Get a copy Friends’ Reviews

To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up .

Community Reviews

Nickolai rated it really liked it

almost 3 years ago

Mateusz Tomczak rated it really liked it

about 2 years ago

Source:

www.goodreads.com

Metro 2033 deutsch ebook

metro 2033 deutsch ebook

Hallo habe mir gestern das Spiel Metro 2033 für 10 Euro gekauft. 2 für 5,00 - Salt Blu-ray für 14,99 - Microsoft verschenkt Ebook - The Big. counter strike knife maps Book Name: Metro 2033 Ebook Download Deutsch Book Size: 3. 7MB Downloads: 79844 Added: Mar 28th, 2013 Free download Metro 2033 metro 2033 book Start reading Piter: METRO 2033-Universum-Roman (German Edition) on your Kindle in under a minute. Don't have a Kindle? Get your Kindle here or start METRO 2033. Page 2. METRO 2033. Table of. The Moscow metro is a form of transportation which involves a heightened level of danger. - A notice in the You never know, maybe something useful will grow from it - a German. Shepherd

12 Mar 2012 Download Metro 2033 - Dimitry Glukhovsky E-book ITA torrent or any other torrent from Other Books category. Direct download via HTTP Download Metro 2033 ENGLISH AUDIOBOOK TheCaptain torrent or any other 291 ebook and audio just in online of 5 in waheguru metro the file for best up; ebook is Rar for free or with letitbit password Language: Dansk Danish, Deutsch

Moskau liegt in Schutt und Asche Es ist das Jahr 2033. Nach einem verheerenden Krieg liegen weite Teile der Welt in Schutt und Asche. Moskau ist eine samsung mobile message tone

metro 2033 deutsch ebook metro 2033 deutsch ebook metro 2033 deutsch ebook

Source:

stroi-tehnik.ru

Anna Metro Last Light Hentia

Anna Metro Last Light Hentia

Anna Metro Last Light Hentia from rapidshare mediafire megaupload hotfile, Anna Metro Last Light Hentia via torrent or emule, full free Anna Metro Last Light Hentia, Anna Metro Last Light Hentia rar zip password or anything related.

Metro Redux Bundle 2033 Last Light Multi10 RU UA EN Steam-Rip by R.G Origins
Category: Game

Metro Redux Bundle 2033 Last Light Multi10 RU UA EN Steam-Rip by R.G Origins
English | PC | 2014 | 13.539 GB
Genre: Action

Metro Last Light Redux RePack By R.G Freedom PC ENG 2014
Category: Game

Metro Last Light Redux RePack By R.G Freedom (PC/ENG/2014)
English | PC | 2014 | 6.09 GB
Genre: Action / 3D / 1st Person


Metro: Last Light Redux - the best and most complete version of the classic game Metro: Last Light, updated with the latest, most advanced version of the graphics core 4A Engine for video game systems of the latest generation.
Players who are not familiar with the series, will receive one of the best storylines of shooters in the history of the genre - an epic adventure that combines breathtaking "Survayvl horror", the study area, tactical combat and stealth. This edition also includes all previously released downloadable content, which adds an extra 10 hours by the game in single player mode.

Metro Mobile Premium Themeforest WP Mobile Template
Category: Other


Metro Mobile - Premium Themeforest WP Mobile Template | 12 MiB
Metro is just limited with your imagination. Create your own metro tiles and own style. I was created my Metro Style on www.webbu.com Let抯 create your Metro style?/div>

Source:

www.neurime.com

Dmitry Glukhovsky

Dmitry Glukhovsky

From United Kingdom to U.S.A.

Item Description: Orion Publishing Co, United Kingdom, 2011. Paperback. Book Condition: New. 196 x 128 mm. Language: English. Brand New Book. The year is 2033. The world has been reduced to rubble. Humanity is nearly extinct. The half-destroyed cities have become uninhabitable through radiation. Beyond their boundaries, they say, lie endless burned-out deserts and the remains of splintered forests. Survivors still remember the past greatness of humankind. But the last remains of civilisation have already become a distant memory, the stuff of myth and legend. More than 20 years have passed since the last plane took off from the earth. Rusted railways lead into emptiness. The ether is void and the airwaves echo to a soulless howling where previously the frequencies were full of news from Tokyo, New York, Buenos Aires. Man has handed over stewardship of the earth to new life-forms. Mutated by radiation, they are better adapted to the new world. Man s time is over. A few score thousand survivors live on, not knowing whether they are the only ones left on earth. They live in the Moscow Metro - the biggest air-raid shelter ever built. It is humanity s last refuge. Stations have become mini-statelets, their people uniting around ideas, religions, water-filters - or the simple need to repulse an enemy incursion. It is a world without a tomorrow, with no room for dreams, plans, hopes. Feelings have given way to instinct - the most important of which is survival. Survival at any price. VDNKh is the northernmost inhabited station on its line. It was one of the Metro s best stations and still remains secure. But now a new and terrible threat has appeared. Artyom, a young man living in VDNKh, is given the task of penetrating to the heart of the Metro, to the legendary Polis, to alert everyone to the awful danger and to get help. He holds the future of his native station in his hands, the whole Metro - and maybe the whole of humanity. Bookseller Inventory # AA29780575086258

Dmitry Glukhovsky, M. David Drevs

Published by Heyne Verlag 12/11/2012 (2012)

Quantity Available: 1

From: AwesomeBooks (Wallingford, United Kingdom)

Shipping: US$ 1.52

From United Kingdom to U.S.A.

Item Description: Heyne Verlag 12/11/2012, 2012. Book Condition: used-good. - GREAT BOOK IN GOOD OR BETTER CONDITION, NORMALLY SENT SAME DAY FROM WAREHOUSE. Bookseller Inventory # 7719-9783453529687

Item Description: 2014. Paperback. Book Condition: New. 129mm x 198mm x 31mm. Paperback. The basis of two bestselling computer games Metro 2033 and Metro Last Light, the Metro books have put Dmitry Glukhovsky in the vanguard of Russian speculative fiction alongside the creator.Shipping may be from multiple locations in the US or from the UK, depending on stock availability. 320 pages. 0.200. Bookseller Inventory # 9781473204300

Published by Gollancz (2011)

Quantity Available: 1

Item Description: Gollancz, 2011. Book Condition: New. Brand New, Unread Copy in Perfect Condition. A+ Customer Service! Summary: European cult bestseller, 15,000 sold in trade in UK. After the nuclear holocaust a new fear is born - underground. Bookseller Inventory # ABE_book_new_0575086254

Published by Gollancz

Quantity Available: > 20

From Ireland to U.S.A.

Item Description: Gollancz. Book Condition: New. 2011. Paperback. European cult bestseller, 15,000 sold in trade in UK. After the nuclear holocaust a new fear is born - underground. Num Pages: 464 pages. BIC Classification: FL. Category: (G) General (US: Trade). Dimension: 131 x 199 x 34. Weight in Grams: 312. Bookseller Inventory # V9780575086258

Quantity Available: > 20

Shipping: US$ 3.99

Item Description: MP3 CD. Book Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory # 7576845

Published by Gollancz 2011-06-09 (2011)

Quantity Available: 5

From: Chiron Media (Wallingford, United Kingdom)

Shipping: US$ 3.64

From United Kingdom to U.S.A.

Item Description: Gollancz 2011-06-09, 2011. Book Condition: New. Brand new book, sourced directly from publisher. Dispatch time is 24-48 hours from our warehouse. Book will be sent in robust, secure packaging to ensure it reaches you securely. Bookseller Inventory # NU-GRD-04722026

Source:

www.abebooks.com

Frederic Delaitre s Lost Subways

Location:
Under downtown Chicago, Illinois, USA

Description:
Two foot gauge subterranean electric railroad, dedicated to the freight transportation in downtown Chicago


A test train around a junction. It is said this picture was taken for promotional purposes.

Timeline:
  • 1898 - A franchise is granted to the Illinois Telephone Cy. for the development of an automatic telephone system, provided the cables are buried beneath the streets.
  • 1903 (July 3rd) - Amendment to the above franchise for freight transportation in the cable tunnels.

  • 1904 (February 10th) - Start of limited train operation.

  • 1906 - Full system goes operational.

  • 1937 (March) - Strike of CTCo tunnel workers to protest against more and more freight given to road trucks.

  • 1943 - Chicago Transit Authority's State & Dearborn Street subway tunnel cuts in two separate parts the CTCo network of tunnels.

  • 1954 - Stillborn attempt to revive CTCo operation by contracting with Post Office for mail transportation.

  • 1956 - Chicago Tunnel Company went bankrupt.

  • 1959 (May, 13th) - Complete closure of the system.

  • 1992 (April 13th) - "Great Flood" of downtown Chicago occurred when 124 million gallons of Chicago River water poured through a crack in CTCo tunnels under the central business district. After filling the tunnels, the river water rose into the basements of many downtown buildings, knocking out electric power and natural-gas service. The flood occurred because in September of 1991 new wooden pilings had been driven into the riverbed next to the Kinzie Street drawbridge to protect the bridge from passing barges and other traffic on the north branch of the Chicago River. The pilings had been placed in the wrong spot and punctured the ceiling of the freight tunnel below. Governor declared situation as a "State and Federal disaster". On August 11, 1995, the city agreed to pay up to $36 million in damages to settle lawsuits brought by the owners of buildings damaged by the flood. (see also Brain Candy's Chicago Trivia page).

  • 1996 - Volunteers from the Illinois Railway Museum salvaged locomotive n�503 and ash cars stranded in a tunnel near the Field Museum of Natural History.
  • Bibliography:
    • Forty feet below - The story of Chicago's Freight Tunnels - Bruce Moffat - Interurban Press - 1982 - ISBN 0-916374-54-8

    *The* reference book about the CTCo, unfortunately out of print. However, copies may be found at some railroad museum bookshops (I had mine in 1998 from the Maine Trolley Museum in Kennebunkport, MA), or you can just wait a new edition I've been told is under way.

    • Forty feet below - The Video - Pentrex Video - 1992. 30 minutes B&W and color.

    With Bruce Moffat as technical advisor, includes rare footage of CTCo tunnel operation. You may order this item directly from Phil O'Keefe CTCo site. see his "Freighthouse" mail order section. On-line resources:

    • Chicago Tunnel Company Railroad Homepage - check the wonderful site of Phil O'Keefe, probably the most comprehensive on the Net about the CTCo.
    • IRM goes Underground - an interesting article from issue 162 (12/96) of Rail & Wire, the Illinois Railway Museum gazette, depicting how IRM members salvaged Chicago Tunnel rolling stock near Chicago's Field Natural History Museum.
    CTCo at the movies:
    The Chicago Tunnel Company was featured in (at least) two films:
    • "Union Station" - 1950 - By Rudolph Maté, based on a script by Sidney Boehm from a novel by Thomas Walsh. Starring William Holden, Nancy Olson, Barry Fitzgerald, Lyle Bettger. B&W - 80 minutes. Prod. Paramount.

      CTCo tunnels were obviously re-created in Paramount studios, authorizing considerable licence from the prototype. The trolley locomotive featured seems to be definitely standard gauge, while the tunnels themselves have a generous loading gauge.

      Note for french readers: Le film est distribué en France sous le titre "Midi, Gare centrale". Il a fait déjà l'objet de plusieurs diffusions sur les chaînes fran�aises.

    • "The Blues Brothers" - 1980. By John Landis, based on a script by John Landis and Dan Aykroyd. Starring: John Belushi, Dan Aykroyd, Carrie Fisher, Cab Calloway, Ray Charles, James Brown. Color/Panavision. 130 minutes.

      Once again, the CTCo tunnels featured are studio mock-ups, despite the fact that the freight subway has been out of service for twenty years. However, due to potential hazards and confined space within the tunnels, it is understandable that filming crews prefer the comfort of fully equiped studios.

    A contemporary description of the system:
    The following text comes from an English book, "Engineering Wonders of the World" - Volume I edited by Archibald Williams and published by Thomas Nelson & Sons circa. 1910. Excerpt of this article is quoted page 36 in Bruce Moffat's book (see Bibliography above).

    The Underground Freight Railways of Chicago

    This article describes how the City of Chicago has relieved its Street Traffic by the construction of Subterranean Railways for carrying Goods and Mails.

    While London, New York, and other large cities have been busy building and extending their subterranean railway tracks to accommodate the ever increasing travelling public, Chicago has quietly constructing an underground railway for the express purpose of carrying its freight. On this unique system not a single passenger is transported, only goods and mails. Far below the surface of the street electric locomotives are busy day and night hauling thousands of tons of merchandise, mails, coal, ashes, garbage, and debris, without noise, without dirt, doing the work well and expeditiously. When it is stated that there are now some 60 miles of track in operation, covering the whole of the business district of the city and the greater portion of the principal residential quarter, it will be understood that this is no ordinary railway enterprise, but one designed to meet some special need, and for that reason it is well worthy of notice.
    Open cut work for subway incline to surface at Grant Park

    The Need of the System:
    Chicago, owing to its topographical formation, found its freight traffic congested more than its passenger. With no fewer than twenty-five trunk lines running into the city, Chicago's freight tonnage traffic is enormous, and this is confined within a comparatively small area-not more than a mile and a half square. In this district teamsters' trucks and wagons constantly block the way-or rather did so before the advent of the underground railway, and caused such congestion of traffic that business was often paralyzed for hours at a time. The city authorities were at a loss to know what to do. It was impossible to change the termini of the trunk lines, and the trafic was doubling itself every decade. For two years or more, the municipality discussed ways of relieving the condition of the streets, but, as often happens, it was left to private enterprise to find a solution-in the construction of a freight subway.

    Imagine for a moment what such a railway would mean to London, or to any other city, and you may grasp how it has revolutionized the street traffic of this American city. All the goods and parcels for a great warehouse would be right into its basements by the underground railway having connections with the leading railway depots. In the same way the various post offices would send their mails from one office to another by this route. The great stores would deliver a large portion their goods by the subterranean road ; while all coals for the hotels on the line of the route would be conveyed by rail, and the ashes and garbage removed in the same expeditious manner.

    The construction of a network of lines far below the surface of a city's streets is in itself a difficult feat, but in the case of Chicago the engineering problems to be overcome were of the most perplexing character. The city is built on a vast deposit of soft clay, of a consistency resembling that of cheese. Heavy buildings havo to be supported on piles or concrete piers, which pierce this clay until they finally reach bedrock, from 80 to 120 feet below the street level. The weight of many of these buildings is enormous ; and while it was not contemplated that the tunnels should go under them, but under the middle of the streets on which they are abutted, there was a possibility of the removal of the amount of material necessary for the bores through the centre of the street, and the tremendous weight resting on each side, might lead to settling and straining of the buildings, or even total collapse. How real this danger was the construction of the New York Subway demonstrated at a later date, when several buildings were entirely wrecked because of the excavations in the street which they faced.

    It is one of the most astonishing facts in the history of the Chicago Tunnel construction that, though the work lasted seven years, though every street in the business section of the city has been tunnelled, and some 60 miles have been constructed, there has been not a single claim for damages on the part of any property owner.

    No Settlement of Ground reported:
    There certainly have been settlements, or supposed settlements, along the route, but experts competent to judge have declared that these subsidences were not due in any way to the construction of the tunnels. Again, it is gratifying to record that in the erection of the subways no lives were lost. In a report recently issued by Mr. George W. Jackson, the general manager and chief engineer, reference is made to these points as follows. " So, many misleading, malicious, and vicious reports have been circulated about damages being done by this Company's work, that I feel it my duty to state emphatically that the construction of the entire system has been accomplished without the Company being called upon to defend or pay any claim for damages of any kind. No deaths have occurred that can be attributed to tunnel construction, and not one employee has been disabled to such an extent as to prevent him from following his usual vocation." Another interesting fact about this unique undertaking is that the capital of �10,000,000 required to build the subterranean freight road, was subscribed privately, no stocks or bonds being offered to the public.

    As a matter of fact, the work was done so quietly that very few people in Chicago itself realized what had happened until the newspapers announced that a wonderfully complete and up-to-date underground railway system had been built under its streets, and would shortly be opened for trafic. This was not because the engineers went about their task in secret and purposely avoided publicity.

    Telephones and Tunnels:
    The original promoters of the scheme were the owners of a telephone company, known as the Automatic. The most striking feature of this telephone are that it does away with operators at the central station, that a subscriber calling up another subscriber is able to make his own connection and that when two persons are talking together over the wires it is impossible for a third to " butt in " or listen to the conversation. Mr. Albert G. Wheeler, the engineer for this particular Company, who reallr planned and carried to a successful issue the tunnel subways, when making an application to the City Council for a franchise, made it for the Illinois Tunnel and Telegraph Company, now known as the Illinois Tunnel Company. If anything was said before the City Committee about the subject of handling freight in the tunnels it was merely incidental, and excited no particular interest. The franchise as granted eventually, specified that tunnels were to be constructed and used for the transmission of "sound, signals, and intelligence by means of electricity or otherwise". The distribution of newspapers or letters, for instance, comes under the head of "intelligence," but one would not expend millions in building a tunnel system for the purpose of handling one paper or one letter. Papers and letters must be treated in bulk and as freight. All that the authorities stated at the time was that the tunnels were high and wide enough for a man to work in comfortably, with ample space for for the suspension of the telephone wires from the roof and side walls, and planned to meet the future growth of the system. They also stipulated that the subways were to be some 40 feet underground. This was an exceedingly wise condition, as it permits the construction. should it ever be needed, of a tunnel for passenger trains between the street level and the subways, the floor of the latter feet being 46 feet below the surface.

    Surveying the streets:
    Having obtained permission, the engineers commenced operations. The first thing was to survey the line of route. Every street in the business section of the city was surveyed thoroughly, the engineers refusing to accept the existing maps, many of which were found to be faulty. As observations could not be made on week-days, streets were choked with traffic of every description, the work had to be done on Sundays. For the sake of speed and economy, it was necessary to operate from serveral widely separated points simultaneously. At each of the points selected a shaft was sunk at tunnel level, and drifted out to of the street, whence excavation in both directions on the axis of the tunnel. Most of these shafts were sunk in the basements of buildings rented by the Tunnel Company, and fitted up as workshops. Here concrete was mixed and lowered to the tunnels, and air-compressing machinery was installed.

    The tunnels are of two distinct types - trunk tunnels and lateral conduits. The former follow the main routes of freight traffic. The latter run out to the less important parts of the city, and in time will reach the suburbs, and end in small conduits adapted only to accommodate telephone and other wires. The main or trunk line tunnels are 14 feet 6 inches from crown to floor, and 12 feet 9 inches wide at the base ; while the laterals are 7.1/2 feet high and 6 feet wide. The trunk subways have 18-inch cement walls and 21-inch cement floors ; the smaller tunnels 10-inch walls and 13-inch floors. At the top and sides of these subways are strong cables containing telephone wires, while the floors are left free for freight traffic.

    Building the Subways:
    Active excavation began on September 1, 1901, and by November 1904 twenty miles of track had been laid and made ready for use. An ingenious system of excavation was adapted as affording a safeguard against labour troubles. In the system, there is no possibility of "caving in" or collapse should a strike occur and workmen be unobtainable. A description of the plan followed on the 6-by-71/2 foot conduits will give an idea of how the excavations were made and the concrete subway installed.

    The bore in the clay was dug considerably larger than the dimensions of the finished subway. The mining was done by men with hand tools, the material being removed subsequently by mule teams. After the excavators had finished their labours the cementing gang appeared. Their first task was to place in the bottom of the tunnel the required concrete, tamp it thouroughly, and lay on top of it a lagging of boards. This done, they placed at intervals of three feet steel ribs of the size and shape of the inside of the tunnel. When these ribs were in place, a lagging of 2-inch planks was placed between them and concrete packed in behind the lagging in layers of six inches, so as to fill up the entire space between the wood and the walls of the excavation.
    Steel ribs and lagging used in forming concrete lining of a 12-by-13 foot tunnel.

    In this way, subsidence of the ground was avoided, because no matter how irregular was the mining, every void was filled. This method was followed to the top or key of the arch, where to ensure absolute accuracy, the key-blocks were formed of two lagging boards only three feet long, the use of short sections ensuring better work. After the ribs and lagging had been removed, the concrete was given a facing of cement to seal all crevices.

    In the larger, or trunk, lines a somewhat different process was followed steel lagging plates being used instead of planks, and 5-inch instead of 3-inch channel for ribs. The work was done in sections only three feet long, the steel lagging plates being of just sufficient length to span the 3-foot section of the ribs. How the Works progressed:
    The tunnelling was effected by three shifts of men working eight hours each, the first two shifts doing mining work and the third shift concreting. About 850 men were engaged in the three shifts. In this way the tunnel was mined and cemented at the rate of more than 300 feet per working day, or considerably over a mile a month. More than 300,000 cubic feet of material was excavated in a period of three years, and about half the quantity of stone, gravel and cement was put in place. As many as thirty-eight connections had to be made between different tunnels, and so accurately was the surveying done that in no instance was a junction an inch out of truth. An air pressure of about 8lbs. to the square foot was maintained throughout the tunnel during the construction period, this being found sufficient to prevent the water from encroaching as the work progressed.
    Plan of typical intersections.

    The excavated material was removed in a novel manner. At various points along the street "head houses" were erected. Here the loaded the cars from the tunnele beneath were brought up through vertical shafts, and their contents were dumped into wagons to be transported to the lake front. This carting of material through the city was done at night only. The dirt was utilized for reclaiming nineteen acres from the lake and adding them to the city's park, without one cent of expense to the park authorities. The Tunnel Company now run cars to the surface at the "dump" by means of an inclined railway connecting with their system.

    Removing excavated material:
    Wherever a big building has been erected in Chicago during the past two years the subway has been employed to haul away the material excavated from the foundations. This is accomplished by simply running up from the tunnel to the excavation shaft about three feet in diameter. The workmen wheel their barrows of soil into the yawning mouth and empty them into it. As these shafts make an angle of about 45 degrees with the horizontal, gravity carries the débris to the bottom where it falls into a waiting car. One car filled, another is moved under the mouth of the chute, and when a train has been made up an electric locomotive hauls it away to the lake front. By this method the subway has moved from the basement of one building alone 2,100 cubic yards of material in twenty-four hours. The best record by teams in the same time is 420 cubic yards, and to do this even it was necessary for the contractors to stop their overhead work entirely.

    Direct Connection with Warehouses:
    As already stated, when the system was declared open in November 1904, 20 miles of lines had been laid. By September last the mileage had increased to just over 60. Naturally, the greatest revenue from the operation of the tunnels comes from the transportation of freight. There is more freight hauled through the streets of Chicago than through any other city of America. New York hauls about 75,000 tons of freight daily, Philadelphia and Boston about 65,000 tons each, Chicago 100,000 tons. The underground railways do not expect to move all this freight, but are prepared to take one-third or more of it if they can get it. This branch of the business is now being pushed forward energetically, but the authorities had to educate the merchants and manufacturers to the advantages of the subways. First of all they offered to install, free of charge, in any of the large warehouses and stores along their route special shafts and elevators, to connect these establishments with the subterraneans railways. The first fifty installed cost 200,000 pounds. But these houses find them invaluable. The cars of the underground system bring goods direct from the railway depôts to the basement of the buildings, whence elevators raise them to the desired floor.Of course, this direct connection between tunnel and warehouse is not always possible, so the railway authorities have built central depôts at various places throughout the city, so that a shipper is not obliged to haul his merchandise more than a few hundred yards.
    Mail bags being transferred from the Chicago Post Office to the subway.

    Two years ago the subway officials secured from the postal authorities a contract for the transportation of mails. This contract was obtained only by convincing the powers that be against their will of the advantages by the new system. The main post office building in Chicago is the heaviest edifice in the city, and its enormous weight is supported by piles driven down to bderock. When the engineer first approached the postal officials with a proposition to connect the building with the tunnel system, so that the mails might be carried from one office to another undergound, they scouted the idea, saying that any such conection would undermine the building, cause a settlement and probably result in its entire collapse. To prove that they were wrong, the engineer constructed a subway right under the centre of the structure. In places this tunnel had to go through the piles on which the building rests and the result is that the subway actually rests on the bottom portion of these piles, and the top part of the piles on the crown of the tunnel. After this work had been completed, the engineer invited the postal officials to take a trip through the tunnels as his guests. They accepted the invitation, and one can imagine their surprise when the car was suddenly stopped, and they were informed that they were right under the post office building. For two days, it is said, the leading surveyors of Chicago were busy examining the edifice critically, but could not find a crack or a piece of plaster that had been disturbed. The post office stills rests as solidly on its foundation as does the rock of Gibraltar. Not long afterwards the tunnel people secured the contract spoken of.
    Belt conveyor discharging mail bags from the subway on to platform at the United States Powt Office Chicago.

    For this mail work the railway employs 66 electric motors and 115 cars. In 1907 the electric trains made 337,060 trips with mails through the subways to the various branch offices, railway stations, etc. transporting 10,659,567 bags, pouches, and packages of postal matter. The record for this tremendous services was "99.51 per cent perfect" - that is to say, in this proportion of cases the mail delivered was delivered at the proper station in time. Last Christmas Eve the Company handled without a hitch, 44,341 bags of mails, 5,911 pouches, and 195 packages - a total of 50,447.

    Extent of Subways and Equipment:
    In the construction of the tunnels the Company has burrowed under the river in fourteen places. Its lines now reach from Armour Avenue and Archer Avenue on the south to Chicago Avenue and Kingsbury Street on the north, and to Green Street on the west. The equipment consists of 250 motors and 2,500 cars ; but of course, these are added to as needed. Both engines and cars are of a special pattern. The locomotives are of the class used in the mines and have a wheel base of 241/2 inches. Two sizes of engines are employed - the smaller one boasting 75 horse-power motors and weighting about 3 tons ; the larger ones being 80 horse-power, and turning the scale about 5 tons. The cars, 4 feet wide and 101/2 feet long, reach 63 inches above the rail. Their individual capacity is 30,000 lbs. They are of iron and steel construction, with double trucks and eight wheels. The gauge of the line is 2 feet. The steepest grade in the subways is 1.75 per cent, and the gradients at the railway terminals do not exceed 12 per cent. The latter grades form the approaches to the tunnels. The largest intersections, known as a four way sections, where the track branches off in three directions, have curves of 20-foot radius. The curves on the main lines, however, are of 16-foot radius. There is a complete drainage system. A telephone station on every block enables the movements of the trains to be controlled entirely by telephone. The whole subway is lighted electrically, and has a twenty-four-hour service.
    How coal is transferred from a surface line to subway trucks.

    To-day the sybways are owned by a corporation in which railway interests are largely represented. High praise is undoubtedly due to Mr. Albert G. Wheeler, the engineer who conceived and carried to a successful completion this remakable and interesting underground freight road ; and also to his able lieutenant, Mr. George W. Jackson, the general manager. Recently Mr. J. Ogden Armour and Mr. E. H. Harriman joined the board of the Illinois Tunnel Company. The presence of Mr. Armour, whose interests and name are so intimately associated with all that makes Chicago a synonym for enterprise, is in itself a guarantee that the best interests of the city will be served by the Tunnel Company. Coupled with that of Mr. Harriman who is recognized in railway circles to-day as one of the greatest living constructive geniuses and financial managers on the American continent, the success of the subways seems to be assured.

    © 1998-2001 by Frédéric Delaitre
    Created: 98/02/25
    Last Modified: 01/06/24

    Source:

    fdelaitre.perso.sfr.fr

    Tags: universum metro 2033 ebook torrent