One of the most important and influential philosophers of the last 30 years, John Searle has been concerned throughout his career with a single overarching question: how can we have a unified and theoretically satisfactory account of ourselves and of our relations to other people and to the natural world? In other words, how can we reconcile our common-sense conception of ourselves as conscious, free, mindful, rational agents in a world that we believe includes brute, unconscious, mindless, meaningless, mute physical particles in fields of force? The essays in this collection are related to this broad overarching issue that unites the diverse strands of Searle's work. As many as these essays have previously only been available in relatively obscure books and journals, this collection will be of particular interest to philosophers and those in psychology and linguistics. Since 1959, John R. Searle has been Professor of Philosophy at the University of California at Berkeley, where he is now the Mills Professor of the Philosophy of Mind and Language. His many books include Mind Language and Society, (Basic, 1998). The Construction of Social Reality, (Free Press, 1997), and Speech Acts, (Cambridge, 1969). His works have been translated in 21 languages. Seale has received many prizes, awards and honors, including the Fulbright Award (twice), the Guggenheim, and ACLS Fellowships.
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John R. Searle. Consciousness and Language?
Cambridge University Press | ISBN: 0521597447 | 2002-07-15 | File type: PDF | 278 pages | 11.82 mb
One of the most important and influential philosophers of the last 30 years, John Searle has been concerned throughout his career with a single overarching question: how can we have a unified and theoretically satisfactory account of ourselves and of our relations to other people and to the natural world? In other words, how can we reconcile our common-sense conception of ourselves as conscious, free, mindful, rational agents in a world that we believe includes brute, unconscious, mindless, meaningless, mute physical particles in fields of force? The essays in this collection are related to this broad overarching issue that unites the diverse strands of Searle's work.
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Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007. — 403 p. — ISBN-026210119X, 9780262101196; ISSN 1264-479X.
The Nicod Lectures.
Locating the Study of Mental Structure in Cognitive Neuroscience.
Mental ‘‘Structure’’ versus Mental ‘‘Representation’’.
The Mental Structures of a Simple Sentence.
Relevance to Neuroscience.
An Overall Vision of Mental Architecture.
A Caution, and What Modularity Means.
Reintegrating Generative Grammar.
Three Founding Themes of Generative Grammar.
The Broken Promise: Deep Structure Would Be the Key to the Mind.
A Scientific Mistake: Syntactocentrism.
Phonology as an Exemplar of the Parallel Architecture.
The Syntax-Semantics Interface.
The Outcome: Parallel Architecture.
Another Fundamental Mistake: The Lexicon/Grammar Distinction.
The Words-and-Rules Controversy.
Four Ways the Parallel Architecture Helps Integrate Linguistics with Cognitive Neuroscience.
Conscious and Unconscious Aspects of Language Structure.
The State of the Art.
What Parts of Linguistic Structure Are Conscious?
A Second Dimension of Consciousness: Valuation.
The Role of Attention in Consciousness.
How Language Enhances Thought.
Concluding Remarks, including Evolution of Language Again.
Shaking Hands and Making Coffee: The Structure of Complex Actions.
Cognition of Society and Culture.
Social Cognition as a Cognitive Capacity.
Parallels with Linguistics.
Objections from Social Science.
A Role for Linguistics.
The Physical and the Social/Personal Domains.
Affiliations: Kinship, Alliances, Dominance.
Cooperation and Competition.
Rules and Other Normative Principles.
What Grounds Morality? Where Science Bumps Up against Politics.
The Structure of Social Cognition and Theory of Mind.
Perception Verbs and Theory of Mind.
Introduction to Part II: Overview of Conceptual Structure.
Actors and Patients/Undergoers.
Experiencers and Stimuli.
AFF, EXP, and Theory of Mind.
The Mapping of EXP to Syntax.
Experiencer Verbs without Overt Experiencers.
Objective and Subjective Psychological and Evaluative Predicates.
Classes of Affective/Evaluative Psychological Predicates.
Experiencer-Subject Adjectives and Verbs.
Adding the Macrorole Tier.
Valence in the Macrorole Tier: More Theory of Mind.
Why Subjective and Objective Systems?
Intending and Volitional Action.
Animate Actions as a Special Class of Situations.
Situational and Actional Attitudes.
The Folk Metaphysics of Actional Attitudes.
The Conceptual Structure of Believe and Intend.
Doing Something Intentionally, the Volitionality of Action, and Imperatives.
Fulfilling versus Voiding an Intention; Purposes.
The Logic of Value.
Getting Into and Out Of the System.
Resource Value, Quality, and Prowess.
Normative Value and Personal Normative Value.
Some Inferences Involving Normative Value.
Fairness, Reciprocity, and Exchange.
Fairness and Selfishness.
Reciprocation, Retaliation, and Restitution.
Honoring, Shaming, and Apologizing.
Linguistic Expression of Exchange of Objects and Actions.
Rights and Obligations.
The Argument Structure of Rights and Obligations.
What One Can Do with Rights and Obligations.
Rights and Obligations Are Not Understood Metaphorically.
Existentially versus Universally Quantified Rights and Obligations.
The Fundamental Principles of Rights and Obligations: Consequences of Noncompliance.
Reciprocal Rights and Obligations.
Where Does It Come From?
Trumpets and Drums.
Methodology in Studying Social Cognition and Theory of Mind.
Theory of Mind and Social Cognition: What’s Innate, and What’s Special to Humans?
How do people learn non-native languages? Is there one part or function of our brains solely dedicated to language processing, or do we apply our general information-processing abilities when learning a new language? In this book, an interdisciplinary collaboration of scholars and researchers presents an overview of the latter approach to adult second language acquisition and brings together, for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the latest research on this subject.
Clearly organized into four distinct but integrated parts, Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition first provides an introduction to information-processing approaches and the tools for students to understand the data. The next sections explain factors that affect language learning, both internal (attention and awareness, individual differences, and the neural bases of language acquisition) and external (input, interaction, and pedagogical interventions). It concludes by looking at two pedagogical applications: processing instruction and content based instruction.
This important and timely volume is a must-read for students of language learning, second language acquisition, and linguists who want to better understand the information-processing approaches to learning a non-primary language. This book will also be of immense interest to language scholars, program directors, teachers, and administrators in both second language acquisition and cognitive psychology.
Paperback: 344 pages
Publisher: Georgetown University Press (November 2, 2005)
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Ray Jackendoff's Language, Consciousness, Culture represents a breakthrough in developing an integrated theory of human cognition. It will be of interest to a broad spectrum of cognitive scientists, including linguists, philosophers, psycholinguists, neuroscientists, cognitive anthropologists, and evolutionary psychologists.
Jackendoff argues that linguistics has become isolated from the other cognitive sciences at least partly because of the syntax-based architecture assumed by mainstream generative grammar. He proposes an alternative parallel architecture for the language faculty that permits a greater internal integration of the components of language and connects far more naturally to such larger issues in cognitive neuroscience as language processing, the connection of language to vision, and the evolution of language.
Extending this approach beyond the language capacity, Jackendoff proposes sharper criteria for a satisfactory theory of consciousness, examines the structure of complex everyday actions, and investigates the concepts involved in an individual's grasp of society and culture. Each of these domains is used to reflect back on the question of what is unique about human language and what follows from more general properties of the mind.
Language, Consciousness, Culture extends Jackendoff's pioneering theory of conceptual semantics to two of the most important domains of human thought: social cognition and theory of mind. Jackendoff's formal framework allows him to draw new connections among a large variety of literatures and to uncover new distinctions and generalizations not previously recognized. The breadth of the approach will foster cross-disciplinary conversation; the vision is to develop a richer understanding of human nature.About the Author
Ray Jackendoff is Seth Merrin Professor of Philosophy and Codirector of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University. He is the author of many books, including Foundations of Language.Reviews
“I wish that other linguists, both generative and cognitive, had [Jackendoff's] scope and intellectual ambition.”—George Lakoff. American ScientistEndorsements
“Ray Jackendoff may be the deepest and widest-ranging scholar writing on language and mind today. From the technicalities of syntactic theory to the emotional resonance of music, from the logic of social relationships to the nature of consciousness, Ray has consistently offered original, insightful, and substantive analyses of the mysteries of the mind. These essays present his latest illuminations of these fascinating topics, and I recommend them to anyone interested in how the mind works.”
—Steven Pinker. Johnstone Professor, Harvard University, and author of The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window into Human Nature
“Jackendoff combines theoretical rigor with an extraordinary command over the rich complexities of language use and other social activities, yielding deep insights into the cognitive underpinnings of a sweeping range of human behaviors. This book is brimming with new ideas that will reward readers across the cognitive sciences—computer scientists, linguists, psychologists, social scientists, and philosophers alike.”
—Deb Roy. Director, Cognitive Machines, Associate Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, AT&T Career Development Professor, The Media Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
One of the most important and influential philosophers of the last 30 years, John Searle has been concerned throughout his career with a single overarching question: how can we have a unified and theoretically satisfactory account of ourselves and of our relations to other people and to the natural world? In other words, how can we reconcile our common-sense conception of ourselves as conscious, free, mindful, rational agents in a world that we believe comprises brute, unconscious, mindless, meaningless, mute physical particles in fields of force? The essays in this collection are all related to the broad overarching issue that unites the diverse strands of Searle's work. Gathering in an accessible manner essays available only in relatively obscure books and journals, this collection will be of particular value to professionals and upper-level students in philosophy as well as to Searle's more extended audience in such fields as psychology and linguistics.
1 The problem of consciousness
2 How to study consciousness scientifically
5 Intentionality and its place in nature
6 Collective intentions and actions
7 The explanation of cognition
8 Intentionalistic explanations in the social sciences
9 Individual intentionality and social phenomena in the theory of speech acts
10 How performatives work
12 Analytic philosophy and mental phenomena
13 Indeterminacy, empiricism and the first person
14 Skepticism about rules and intentionality
Author: John R. Searle
Date Released: 2002
Page Count: 275
Isbn10 Code: 0521597447
Isbn13 Code: 9780521597449
From Publishers Weekly Lucidly exploring the philosophically hot topics of consciousness, intentionality and language, this set of essays provides a useful overview of Searle's (Rationality in Action) recent work. All but one of the essays, written over the last two decades, have been previously published, yet they gain by being assembled not only in convenience but in seeing how the problems and proposed solutions connect. The overarching issue, which Searle, a philosophy professor at the University of California, Berkeley, says has "preoccupied" him throughout his professional life, is how to reconcile our commonsense view of ourselves as conscious, mindful beings with a world that supposedly "consists entirely of brute, unconscious, mindless. physical particles in fields of force." In the first group of essays, Searle rejects both dualist and materialist accounts of consciousness as traditionally construed, arguing instead that "the conscious mind is caused by brain processes and is itself a higher level feature of the brain" with an irreducible "first-person ontology" and the power to cause behavior. He goes on to apply this philosophy of mind to a number of related issues, including animal minds (notably that of his dog, Ludwig Wittgenstein Searle), intentionality (that feature which links mental states to something in the world), collective "we-intentions," social science explanations and speech acts. Throughout, he spars with rivals, particularly in the final essays, where he attacks Dennett's functionalism, Quine's indeterminacy thesis and Kripke's reading of Wittgenstein. This is not an introductory-level book: many of the issues are abstruse and technical. But Searle's prose is admirably clear and plain, and he is deft at cutting through jargon to defend a commonsense view of the reality of minds. (May 13) Forecast: Searle is a major philosopher, and university libraries are a lock. Searle's frequent contributions to the New York Review of Books may draw in some readers, but because most of this work has been previously published, expect few trade reviews. Copyright 2002 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title. Review "The scope and consistency of these views, which have now became classical, is truly impressing. Searle is doing some genuinely pioneering work here, suggesting some genuinely new research programs in philosophy of mind."- Alexandre Billon, Metapsychology Online Reviews
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