"Remember The Prisoners" is a brave and undiluted transparency chronicling the events in the life of a man, like so many others, who's fears and insecurities lead him far from home. Alone and imprisoned, he ultimately finds freedom in the very placeMore "Remember The Prisoners" is a brave and undiluted transparency chronicling the events in the life of a man, like so many others, who's fears and insecurities lead him far from home. Alone and imprisoned, he ultimately finds freedom in the very place designed to represent its forfeiture. There, The Holy Spirit would lead him on a courageous journey of redemption and reveal to him the true identity of The Son of God.
This book has the ability to bridge the gap between the incarcerated and the loved one(s) left behind by affording a glimpse into the heart of a rescued soul. There is hope for the prisoner and this book shares that hope through good old-fashioned story telling and a scholarly approach to scripture. Revelatory insight brings a fresh interpretation to the Christian world view in a time such as this. LessGet a copy Friends’ Reviews
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Caitlin rated it it was amazing
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I won this book from a giveaway promoted on Good Reads. Once I received it I gave to a friend :)
Janine rated it it was amazing
A powerful, intuitive, and thought provoking book. Amazing story and inspiring testimony that will touch your heart and soul - worth reading!
Shattered In rated it it was amazing
This book is profound, yet written in a way that someone who is totally terrified of their situation could easily grasp. I believe all jails should be equipped with this booklet so that new offenders will have hope for freedom instead of becoming institutionalized. This b. Read full review
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Paperback. 316 pages
Published May 24th 2016 by WestBow Press
ISBN 1512743437 (ISBN13: 9781512743432 )About this Author
Rev. Joaquin R. Larriba was born in Prescott, AZ, on July 21 1967. His early life was tumultuous and he found himself bitterly embroiled with insecurities. Determined to show the world that he was capable of brave things he set his sights on the prestigious 82nd Airborne Division, but his demons followed close behind. Loss and relational failures sent him spiraling into the murky waters of.
Hebrews 13:3 - Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; [and] them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.
Matthew 25:35-46 - For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: (Read More. )
Psalms 69:33 - For the LORD heareth the poor, and despiseth not his prisoners.
Isaiah 61:1 - The Spirit of the Lord GOD [is] upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to [them that are] bound;
Psalms 102:20 - To hear the groaning of the prisoner; to loose those that are appointed to death;
Genesis 39:20-23 - And Joseph's master took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners [were] bound: and he was there in the prison. (Read More. )
Isaiah 42:7 - To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, [and] them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.
Psalms 79:11 - Let the sighing of the prisoner come before thee; according to the greatness of thy power preserve thou those that are appointed to die;
Luke 4:18 - The Spirit of the Lord [is] upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,
Topics and verses are auto-generated from user searches. If a verse or topic does not belong, please contact us. Some scripture references/categories courtesy of Open Bible .info under CC BY 3.0
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Search the King James Version (KJV) for more references about Prisoners .
New Living Translation Bible used with permission Tyndale House Publishers.
29 Nov 2009 .He Came…To Set the Captives Free. Luke 4:16-30. Wonders to Behold… n We see a powerful.
Setting the Captives Free by Bill Scheidler Jesus came for the grieving and downcast (Is. 61:2). He came to set us free.
Rebecca Brown Ø HecametosettheCaptivesFree Ø Prepare for War Ø Becoming a Vessel of Honour Ø Unbroken Curses 20. Boeke deur William.
Title: He Came To Set The Captives Free Author: Rebecca Brown. Publisher: Whitaker House Pages: 288 Published: 1992-07-01 ISBN-10: 0883683237 ISBN-13.
Rebecca Brown had a particularly close relationship with a woman called Elaine, whom she wrote about in her book HeCametoSettheCaptivesFree. and.
He Came to Set the Captives Free by Rebecca Brown The Book Does Not Play Around For seventeen years, Elaine served her master, Satan, with total commitment.
The fIrst, He Came to Set the Captives. Free (1986), chronicles Elaine's involve- ment in Satan worship and Rebecca's.
A word in advance. • John 4:1-6. • The apostle reminds us to test what we hear. • This applies to what we read on the.
He came to set the captives free. To set us free. Big Picture Jubilee. http://heavenonearth-missionpossible.com/documents/Jubilee_Carol-Goble.doc
He came to deliver us from these marks and their effects. He knows what we go through. Only His truth can bring us the.
An artificial-intelligence program called the Electronic Judge is dispensing justice on the streets of Brazilian cities. The program is installed on a laptop carried by a human judge and helps to assess swiftly and methodically witness reports and forensic evidence at the scene of an incident. It then issues on- the-spot fines and can even recommend jail sentences. It is part of a scheme called l Justice-on
Wheels\ which is designed to speed up Brazil's overloaded legal system by dealing immediately with straightforward cases.
Most people are happy to have the matters sorted out on the spot, says the program's creator, who sits in the state's Supreme Court of Appeals. He adds that the idea is not to replace judges but to make them more efficient
After police alert the rapid justice team to minor accidents, they can be on the scene within 10 minutes. Most cases require only simple questions and no interpretation of the law — the decision-making process is purely logical The program presents the judge with multiple choice questions, such as "Did the driver stop at the red light?" or "Had the driver been drinking alcohol above the acceptable limit of the law?" These sorts of questions
need only yes or no answers. The program gives more than a simple judgement: it also prints out its reasoning. If the human judge disagrees with the decision it can simply be overruled. Some people who have been judged by the program do not realise that they have been tried by software.
It could be some time before a similar system takes the place of an English court. "It would have to satisfy the authorities that it was absolutely foolproof first," says a spokesman for the Lord Chancellor's office, which oversees courts in England and Wales. But it could be put to use in the IIS. where the discussion is under way to set up a mobile system to resolve disputes over traffic accidents.Imprisonment: retribution or rehabilitation?
UNIT 1. PENAL AND CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTIONS THROUGHOUT HISTORY
What role do correctional institutions play in the modem society?
Which of the following words refer to:7V1sk 1. Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions given in bold type:
Development of the Prison System
A prison is an institution for the confinement of persons convicted of major crimes or felonies. In the 19 th and the 20 lh centuries, imprisonment replaced corporal punishment, execution, and banishment as the chief means of punishing serious offenders.
Historically exile, execution, and various forms of corporal punishment were the most common penalties for criminal acts.
In the 12 th century England jails were widely used as places for the confinement of accused persons until their cases could be tried by the king's court. Imprisonment gradually came to be accepted not only as a device for holding persons awaiting trial but also as a means of punishing convicted criminals.
During the 16 th century a number of houses of correction were established in England and on the continent for the reform of minor of fenders. In these institutions there was little segregation by age, sex, or other condition The main emphasis was on strict discipline and hard labour.
Although reformation of offenders was intended in the houses of correction, the unsanitary conditions and lack of provisions for the welfare of the inmates soon produced widespread agitation for further changes in methods of handling criminals. Solitary confinement of criminals became an ideal among the rationalist reformers of the 18 th century, who believed that solitude would help the offender to become penitent and that penitence would result in reformation.
Meanwhile, strenuous opposition to the prolonged isolation of prisoners developed very early, especially in the United States. A competing philosophy of prison management, known as the 'silent system' was developed The main distinguishing feature of the silent system was that prisoners were allowed to work together in the daytime. Silence was strictly enforced at all times, however, and at night the prisoners were confined in individual cells-
Further refinements were developed in Irish prisons in the mid- 1800s. Irish inmates progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was served in isolation. Then the prisoners were allowed to associate with other inmates in various kinds of work projects. Finally, for six months or more before release, the prisoners were transferred to 'intermediate prisons', where inmates were supervised by unarmed guards and given sufficient freedom and responsibility to permit them to demonstrate their fitness for release. Release was also conditional upon the continued good conduct of the offender, who could be returned to prison if necessary.
These were the steps made to fit the severity of the punishment to the severity of the crime, in the belief that the existence of clearly articulated and just penalties would act as a deterrent to crime. Since then, deterrence, rather than retribution, has become a leading principle of European penology.
TASK 2. Answer the following questions:
L What is a prison?
2. What were the means of punishing offenders before the 19 th century?
3> What was the purpose of jails in the 12 th century England?
What were the main features of houses of correction in the 16 th century?
Why did the rationalist reformers of the 18 th century seek to establish solitary confinement of criminals?
What is the 'silent system'?
What were Irish prisons like in the mid-1800s?
What are the purposes of incarceration?
How are these purposes obtained?
What three categories of prisons are described in the text?
What is the general principle of confining offenders into different kinds of prisons?
Present-day Penal Institutions
Modern prisons are quite diverse, but it is possible to make some generalisations about them In all but minimum-security prisons, the task of maintaining physical custody of the prisoners is usually given the highest priority and is likely to dominate all other concerns. Barred cells and locked doors, periodic checking of cells, searches for contraband, and detailed regulation of inmates' movements about the piison are all undertaken to prevent escapes. In order ;o forestall thievery, drug and alcohol use, violent assaults, rapes, and other types of prison crime» the inmates are subjected to rules governing every aspect of life; these do much to give the social structure of the prison its authoritarian character.
The need to maintain security within prisons has prompted many countries to separate their penal institutions into categories of maximum, medium, and minimum security. Convicted offenders are assigned to a particular category on the basis of the seriousness or violent nature of their offence, the length of their sentence, their proneness to escape, and other considerations. Within a prison, the inmates are often classified into several categories and housed in corresponding cellblocks according to the security risk posed by each individual. Younger offenders are usually held in separate penal institutions that provide a stronger emphasis on treatment and correction
Prisons generally succeed in the twin purposes of isolating the criminal from society and punishing him for his crime, but the higher goal of rehabilitation is not as easily attained. An offender's time in prison is usually reduced as a reward for good behaviour and conscientious performance at work. The privilege of receiving visits from family members and friends from the outside world exists in almost ail penal systems.
TASK 4, Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
The Tower of London
Founded nearly a millennium ago and expanded upon over the centuries since, the Tower of London has protected, housed, imprisoned and been for many the last sight they saw on Earth.
It has been the seat of British government and the living quarters of monarchs, the site of renowned political intrigue, and the repository of the Crown Jewels. It has housed lions, bears, and (to this day) flightless ravens, not to mention notorious traitors and framed members of court, lords and ministers, clergymen and knights.
In the Middle Ages the Tower of London became a prison and place of execution for politically related crimes, with most captives being put to death (murdered or executed). Among those killed there were the humanist Sir Thomas More (1535); the second wife of Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn (1536). Other notable inmates included Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I), who was briefly imprisoned by Mary I for suspicion of conspiracy; the infamous conspirator Guy Fawkes (1606) and the adventurer Sir Walter Raleigh (1613). Even in the 20 th century during World War I several spies were executed there by firing squad.
TASK 7.Explain the meaning of the folloumig words and expressions:
a framed member of court 9 the repository
a notable inmate of the Crown Jewels
a notorious traitor * the seat of British government » a politically related crime 9 the site of renowned
TASK 8.Complete the following table with the appropriate verb or noun forms:
TASK 9. Matchthe namesof the renowned prisonersfrom the boa- with the stories given below;
Catherine Howard; Sir Walter Raleigh; Anne Boleyn;
Guy Fawkes; Sir Thomas More
Here are some of the unfortunates held within the Tower walls.
_. the Lord Chancellor and scholar who
served Henry VIII until the break with Rome, refused to acknowledge Henry VIII as supreme head of the English Church, and continued adamant when the king's subjects were required to subscribe to the oath imposed. He also protested against the divorce of Catherine of Aragon, who had given Henry only one living child, the Princess Mary.
j Henry VIIPs second wife, was taken to
the Tower on a charge of adultery Before her crowning she had stayed in what is now called the "Queen's House", built below the Bell Tower in 1530. As a prisoner she returned there. Her trial took place in the medieval great hall where she was sentenced to death,
was Henry VIIPs fifth wife and according
to him his "very jewel of womanhood". He adored her and showered her with gifts and favours and pampered her in every way. She appointed a former admirer as her private secretary and soon rumours were being whispered at court about the Queen's misconduct Henry's immediate reaction was one of total disbelief. However, he ordered-an investigation and found that she had really been flirting behind his back. For this he could show no mercy. She went the way of her cousin Anne Boleyn; she was tried> condemned and beheaded at the Tower of London.
_ was a leading conspirator in the
Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament. He was a Catholic convert who had served in the Spanish army before becoming involved in the plot He and his fellow conspirators were taken to the Tower and interrogated in the Queen's House. In January 1606 with three others, he was drawn on a hurdle from the Tower to the Houses of Parliament and there hanged^beheaded and quartered.
_ was an explorer known for his expeditions
to the Americas, and for allegedly bringing tobacco and the potato from the New World to the British Isles. A favourite of Elizabeth I, he fell thoroughly out of favour and spent 12 years in the Tower on a charge of plotting against King James I. He was released in 1610, only to find himself back there in 1618 after his fruitless expedition to look for gold mines in Guyana. This time he was kept in one of the most cold and direful dungeons before being beheaded six weeks later. In his speech from the scaffold he thanked God that he died in the light, and not in the dark prison of the Tower.
TASK 10. Read the text and write down Russian equivalents for the words and expressions given in bold type:
The Bastille was a medieval fortress on the East side of Paris that became, in the 17 lh and 18 th centuries, a French state prison and a place of detention for important persons charged with miscellaneous offences. The Bastille, stormed by an armed mob of Parisians in the opening days of the French Revolution, was a symbol of the despotism of the Bourbons and held an important place in the ideology of the Revolution,
With its eight towers, 100 feet high, linked by walls of equal height and surrounded by a moat more than 80 feet wide, the Bastille dominated Paris. The first stone was laid on April 22, 1370, on the orders of Charles V of France, who had it built as a bastide, or fortification (the name Bastille is a corruption of bastide), to protect this wall around Paris against English attack.
The Cardinal de Richelieu was the first to use the Bastille as a state prison in the 17 th century. Prisoners included political troublemakers and individuals held at the request of their families, often to coerce a young member into obedience or to prevent a disreputable member from marring the family's name. Under Louis XIV, the Bastille became a place of judicial detention; and later persons being tried by the Parliament were also detained there. It is noteworthy that prohibited books were also placed in the Bastille, The high cost of maintaining the building prompted talk of demolition in 1784.
On July 14, 1789, when only seven prisoners were confined in the building, a mob advanced on the Bastille with the intention of asking the prison governor to release the arms and munitions stored there. Angered by the governor's refusal, the people stormed and captured the place. This dramatic action came to symbolise the end of the ancient regime. The Bastille was subsequently demolished by order of the Revolutionary government.
TASK 11. Answer the following questions:
1. When and why was the Bastille built?
2- Who was the first to use the Bastille as a state prison?
What was the Bastille lilce in the 17 lh and 18 th centuries? Who was confined there?
How was the Bastille demolished?
Find more information about the research into the treatment of criminals carried out by the 18 tU century humanists:
It's Interesting to Know
John Howard, 1726—1790
There is in England today a society called The Howard League of Penal Reform. It is named after one of the greatest figures in the history of law in the eighteenth century, Howard was High Sheriff of Bedfordshire when, in 1773 he started to investigate prison conditions. The thing that drew his interest was the discovery that innocent people were often held in gaol until they had paid the gaoler's fees even though the court had found them not guilty. In the next three years he visited every prison in Great Britain and Ireland as well as many in Europe and wrote a book based on his experiences called The State of Prisons. He died in Russia on his way to find out about sanitary conditions in the Russian army. Through his work and that of Elizabeth Fry prisons were at last improved and prisoners treated more like human beings than animals.
Cesare Beccaria, 1738—1794
Punishment of criminals in the eighteenth century was savage, from torture to death or imprisonment, One of the first people to raise a voice against the inhumanity was Beccaria, who wrote a famous book called Concerning Crimes and Punishment He called for merey and his pleas were heard by such people as Frederick the Great of Prussia, who was in a position to do something about unjust laws. The book was soon translated into several languages. He was one of the first people to say that the law should consider the person being tried as well ps the crime he or she has committed.
Elizabeth Fry, 1780—1845
Until the great reforms in law, which took place in the nineteenth century, criminals were treated with great brutality. Thieves were hanged or deported, while floggings were very common and prisons were dirty and terribly overcrowded. Elizabeth Fry was one of the very few people who devoted their lives to improving the life of prisoners. She was a Norfolk Quaker who went among the criminals to understand them better and to improve the conditions in which they lived. In 1817 she formed a society for the improvement of prison conditions and started to take an interest in prisons in other countries. She was so successful in her work that she was thanked by the House of Commons for her efforts.
Sum up the information from the Unit. Add the facts and data that you have obtained during your classes of law. Make reports and present them in class. Use the patterns and the vocabulary from the Unit.
UNIT 2. PRISON POPULATION
TASK 1. Readthe text below andanswer the following questions:
L, What are the main categories of inmates?
Where are long-term prisoners usually held?
What is the purpose of reformatories?
What are open prisons?
Nowadays prisoners are kept in separate institutions according to the severity of crime committed, as well as to the age, sex and other conditions. Consequently, the inmates include unconvicted prisoners, juvenile delinquents, women prisoners, recidivists and life- sentence prisoners.
Most prisoners serving longer sentences are held in correctional institutions, which are usually large maximum-security buildings holding offenders in conditions of strict security Young offenders
are usually detained in reformatories, often designated under names that imply that their purpose is treatment or correction rather than punishment, Women are normally held in separate prisons. Prisoners who are not considered a danger to the community may be confined in low-security or open prisons,
TASK 2. Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions;
m life-sentence prisoner
TASK 3.Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents:
TASK 4. Read the follounng text and write down Russian equivalents for sentences given in bold type:
Prison Inmates Unconvicted Prisoners
Some of the prison population consists of unconvicted prisoners' held in custody and awaiting trial These prisoners are presumed to be innocent and are treated accordingly. They are allowed all reasonable facilities to seek release on bail, prepare for trial, maintain contact with relatives and friends, and pursue legitimate business and social interests. They also have the right to wear their own clothes and can write and receive unlimited number of letters.
Women are usually held in smaller prisons with special programmes and recreational opportunities offered to reflect stereotyped female roles, with emphasis on housekeeping, sewing and typing skills, Women prisoners do not wear prison uniform and there is a clothing allowance to help pay for clothes while in prison. Some prisons provide mother and baby units, which enable babies to remain with their mothers where that is found to be in the best interests of the child. In addition to the usual visiting arrangement, several prisons allow extended visits to enable women to spend the whole day with their children in an informal atmosphere.
Criminals who have frequently been apprehended and convicted, who have manifested a settled practice in crime, and who are presumed to be a danger to the society in which they live are referred to as habitual offenders. Studies of the yearly intake of prisons, reformatories, and jails in the United States and Europe show that from one-half to two-thirds of those imprisoned have served previous sentences in the same or in other institutions. The conclusion is that the criminal population is made up largely of those for whom criminal behaviour has become habitual; moreover, penal institutions appear to do little to change their basic behaviour patterns.
Though the percentage of recidivists runs high for all offenders, it is greatest among those convicted of such minor charges as vagrancy, drunkenness, prostitution, and disturbing the peace. These are more likely than serious criminal charges to result from an entire way of life. Accordingly, their root causes are rarely susceptible to cure by jailing.
Since capital punishment has been abolished in Britain, the severest penalty for the most atrocious crimes, such as murder, is life imprisonment. Those serving life sentences for the murder nf police and prison officers, terrorist murders, murder by firearms in the cause of robbery and the sexual or sadistic murder of children are normally detained for at least twenty years. Life sentences for offences other than murder can be reduced up to nine years.
On release, all life-sentence prisoners remain on licencc for the rest of their lives and are subject to recall should their behaviour suggest that they might again he a danger to the public.
TASK 5.Find in the text above the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
TASK S. Read the article below and write down the criminal record of the convict:
A Lifer Keen on Canaries
Robert Franklin is an American criminal, a convicted murderer who became a self-taught ornithologist during his 54 years in prison, forty-two of them in solitary confinement He became known for his contribution to the study of birds.
At the age of 13 Franklin ran away from home and, by the age of 18, was in Alaska, working as a pimp and living with a dance- hall girl. An argument over the girl led to his fighting and killing a man. Pleading guilty to manslaughter in 1909, he was sentenced to 12 years in a federal prison. After stabbing a fellow prisoner and proving generally troublesome, he was transferred to Kansas, where he continued to be a loner but began to educate himself, taking
university extension courses. In 1916 he stabbed and killed a guard and was tried, convictcd and sentenced to hanging, but in 1920 President Woodrow Wilson commuted his sentence to life imprisonment in solitary confinement.
Thereafter, mostly in solitary confinement, he hegan raising canaries and other birds, collecting laboratory equipment, and studying the diseases of birds and their breeding and care- Some of his research writings were smuggled out of prison and published in 1943. Later, however, he was allowed to continue his research but denied further right of publication. His research was considered an important work in the field of ornithology.
Using the vocabulary and facts from the Unit discuss the following:
9 There are groups of inmates who should have additional rights.
Kids brought up in prison are likely to become criminals.
Penal institutions appear to do little to cure a habitual offender by jailing.
UNIT 3. PRISON LIFE
TASK 1. Read the following text and write down Russian equivalents for sentences given in bold type:
Among the 'pains of imprisonment' that both male and female inmates face are, in the first place, the deprivation of liberty and the loneliness and boredom of imprisonment Second, prisoners are deprived of all goods and services from the outside world. Stripped of possessions, they often equate their material lasses with personal inadequacy. The third deprivation for the majority is the absence of heterosexual relationships. Fourth, prisoners are subjected to vast body of institutional regulations designed to control every aspect of behaviour.
In part this control forms the deprivation of freedom that is the essence of imprisonment, and in part it is necessary adjunct as a means of maintaining security, controlling the introduction of weapons, contraband substances and preventing escapes.
Most prisons limit the number of visits that a prisoner may receive from his family or friends. Visits normally take place within the sight of an officer, and in some cases within his hearing. In many prisons, visits are conducted with the prisoner sitting on one side of the table and his visitor on the other, with a wire mesh partition between them; the visitor may be searched for contraband.
Prisoners may write and receive letters and may make telephone calls. Correspondence of prisoners is usually subject to censorship by the prison authorities, and prisoners may not write more than one letter each week. Privileges include a personal radio, books, periodicals and newspapers. They also have an opportunity to watch television (in many prisons each prisoner has a TV-set), and to make purchases from the prison shop with money earned in prison.
Control of the prison is maintained by a number of disciplinary sanctions, which may include forfeiture of privileges, confinement within a punishment block or cell, or the loss of remission or good time (time deducted fromthe sentence as a reward for good behaviour). Typically, the prohibited offences include mutiny and violence to officers; escaping, or being absent from a place where the prisoner is required to be and possessing unauthorised articles.
TASK 2. Explain the meaningof the following wards and expressions and reproduce the context in which they were used:
body of institutional regulations
« forfeiture of privileges a personal inadequacy « to be stripped of possessions « to control the introduction of weapons e to possess unauthorised articles
TASK 3. Find in the text above the English equivalents for the. following words and expressions:
TASK 7.Explain the meaning of the following words and expressions:
No State shall make or enforce any law which, shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
TASK Read the articles below and point out the opposite views on prison facilities:
Criticism of Jail TV
The UK Government has heen accused of going "soft on crime" for considering a proposal to allow thousands of prisoners to have televisions in their ceils.
The Home Office has asked the Prison Service to investigate the issue to try to defuse tensions in Britain's overcrowded jaiSs. Prison Service officials said no decisions had been made and said it was weighing up the 'pros and cons' of the scheme.
Home Affairs spokesman, James Clappison, saidt "We think prison conditions should be decent arid austere and prisons should be a punishment. We think televisions in cells are not consistent with that. We think it's soft on criminals."
The former Home Secretary, Michael Howard, said; "Televisions in ceils could provide a calming influence and a powerful incentive to good conduct. It could also be used for educational and communication purposes."
Deputy director of the Prison Reform Trust, Nick Flynn, said: "It's a delicate matter and it shouldn't be used for prisoners to sit around to watch football. But it could be a useful tool for the Prison Service to give information to prisoners/'
A Manicure for Jack the Kipper at the Killers' Health Club
Some of Britain's most notorious killers and rapists are being offered the luxury of beauty therapy. They can enjoy facials, manicures and pedicures at Ash worth maximum security hospital's new Health and Beauty Center club. The 650 male and female patients can also enjoy a sauna, solarium and massage ares, at the mental hospital near Liverpool,
These inmates have avoided prison because the courts decided th&y are either mentally ill or criminally insane,
Hospital authorities said that the facilities available to inmates ''especially benefited those with low self-esteem or who found it difficult to relax."
Among the 'clients of the Club is a knifeman who attacked 10 people and is now pleading for access to a fully equipped gym, and a sadistic rapist undergoing aromatherapy treatment.
» Prison conditions should be decent and austere and prisons
TASK 9, Readthe text below and write doiun alist of problems that prison inmates face:
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights declares that "all persons deprived of their liberty; shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person". However, in reality all over the world, hundreds of thousands of people are being held in prisons that are: squalid, overcrowded, dilapidated, insanitary, inhumane, unjust, very expensive and ineffective in tackling crime. In many countries, conditions are so bad that prisoners die from malnutrition, diseases, attacks from other prisoners or prison staff, or suicide. Under extremely overcrowded and insanitary conditions, diseases such as tuberculosis and dysentery spread very rapidly, and without medical treatment they may easily be fatal.
At the same time there is a small number of people who present such a danger to the community or to themselves that they need to be detained. However, for most offences, imprisonment is not an effective penalty. Many countries which may have very high prison populations have very high crime rates. This shows that prison is probably not deterring many people from crime. Whilst in prison, the attitudes of minor offenders may harden as they mix with those convicted of more serious crimes. This often leads to minor offenders committing more serious crime after they are released from prison
Large amounts of money are spent on locking people up, even when prison staff are poorly paid, buildings are not maintained and prisoners are treated inadequately.
In many countries, prison populations have been increasing substantially over recent years. Most prisoners are young, poor, urban men. Locking up this section of the general population for substantial periods has a destabilising effect on the whole uf society in the longer term.
TASK 10, Find in the text above the English equiralentu far tlw following words and expressions:
restraint; release date; recidivism; rehabilitate; preventive
Criticism of the present prison system of punishment has focused mainly on its rehabilitative and _______ functions-
Critics point out that _______ — the commission of another
crime after the offender has served a sentence for the first time — is high. Thus the system seems ineffective as a cure for, or a
upon, those factors in offenders which may lead to
criminal acts. Furthermore* because there is no way to predict the future behaviour of individuals, the length of sentence and the
may have no relationship to the prison time necessary
to effect a cure hi, ur _ __ an ufferider. Many criiiiinuJugLsls
insist that there is no adequate body to demonstrate that any punishment, capital punishment included, has a restraining effect on potential criminal behaviour.
Write doum a list of measures necessary to improve the present prison st/stem/Consider the information from the texts above.
Prisons: A Solution to Crime?
Using the vocabulary and facts from the Unit, discuss the following:
Hundreds of thousands of people are imprisoned in inhumane conditions.
Many countries with very high prison populations have very high crime rates.
There are people who present such a danger to the community that they need to be detained.
Prison does not deter many people from crime.
Whilst in prison, the attitudes of minor offenders harden as they mix with those convicted of more serious crimes.
All persons deprived of their Liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
UNIT 4. ALTERNATIVES TO PRISON
TASK J. Read the following text and wife down Russian equivalents for sentences given in bold type:
Prison Improvements and Alternatives
In most criminal justice systems the majority of offenders are dealt with by means other than custody — by fines and other financial penalties, by probation or supervision, or by orders to make reparation in some practical form to the community.
The most common penalty, fine, avoids the disadvantages of many other forms of sentence; it is inexpensive to administer and does not normally have the side effects, such as social stigma and loss of job that may follow imprisonment. However, there arc dangers that the imposition of financial penalties may result in more affluent offenders receiving penalties that they can easily discharge, while less affluent offenders are placed under burdens that they cannot sustain.
Related to the fine is an order to pay restitution (in some countries termed compensation). The principle of restitution is popular in some countries as an alternative to punitive sentencing,
but there are some drawbacks. One is the possibility, as in the case of the fine, that the more affluent offender' may receive favourable treatment from the court because he is able to pay restitution. The second drawback is that such schemes do not help all victims of crime. Only those who are the victims of crimes for which the offender is caught and convicted and has the funds to pay restitution are likely to be recompensed Victims of crimes of violence in some countries — such as England and Canada — are entitled to restitution from public funds, whether or not the offender is detected or has the resources necessary to compensate him.
There are many ways of dealing with offenders that do not involve the payment of money. One is probation, a system that takes many different forms in different jurisdictions. However, that essentially involves the suspension of sentence on the offender subject to the condition that he is supervised while living in the community by a probation officer and possibly agrees to comply with such other requirements as the court may think appropriate. Usually, if the offender complies with the probation order and commits no further offence while it is in force, no other penalty is imposed If he breaks the requirement of the order or commits another offence, he can be brought back before the court and punished for the original offence as well as for the later one.
Suspen ded Sentence
In many American states probation is combined with a suspended sentence, so that the sentence the offender will have to serve if he breaks the order is fixed in advance. In England the sentence is not fixed in advance, and the court has complete discretion if there is a breach of probation terms to sentence the offender for the original crime in light of his later behaviour.
The concept of reparation has gained in popularity in a number of jurisdictions. Under this method, the offender makes good the damage he has done through his crime, not by paying money but by providing services to the victim directly or indirectly through the community. In England this takes the form of the community service order, under which the court is empowered to order anyone who is convicted of an offence that could be punished with imprisonment to perform up to 240 hours of unpaid work for the community, usually over a period of not more than 12 months. The kind of work involved varies according to the area, the time of year, and the abilities of the offender; in some cases it may involve heavy physical labour, but in others it may require such work as the provision of help to handicapped people. If the offender completes the hours of work ordered by the court, he receives no further penalty, but if he fails to carry out the work without reasonable excuse, he can be re-sentenced for the original offence- This method is less expensive to administer than imprisonment less damaging to the offender and his family, and more useful to the community. There are some doubts about the extent to which the availability of community service as an alternative to prison weakens the deterrent effect of the criminal law, but there can be no doubt that community sex-vice has become an established sentencing alternative.
Other alternatives to prison are based on the idea of preventing an offender from committing further offences, without necessarily confining him or her in a prison. The most familiar power of this kind is that of disqualifying an offender from driving a motor vehicle or from holding a driver's license. Other forms of disqualification may be imposed on offenders convicted of particular types of crimcs: a fraudulent company director may be disqualified from being involved in the direction of a company, a corrupt politician may be disqualified from holding public office, or a parent who sexually abuses his children may be deprived of parental authority over them.
It appears, however, that imprisonment will still remain the major instrument of punishment. In light of the difficulties surrounding its use, prison ideally should be employed as a last resort for those offenders who cannot be handled in any other way,
TASK 2t Find in the text abom the English equivalents for the following words and expressions;
TASK 3- Read the text below and comment on the sentence given in bold type.
Tracking Humans; The Electronic Bracelet in the Modern World
Alternatives to incarceration such as the use of fines, community service, and restitution are products of the social movements of the 1960s. The rationalizations of these alternatives have been cost effectiveness, efficiency and humaneness. The same arguments have been associated with the newest community-based sanction, "electronic monitoring". It is clear that such an alternative may yield these benefits.
The electronic monitoring system generally requires the offender to wear an electronic bracelet around his or her ankle or wrist. The monitoring is usually of two types: passive or active. The passive system provides for random telephone monitoring by authorities in order to confirm that it is the specific offender who is present and responding. In contrast, an active system provides continuous information as to whether an individual is within the range, generally 150 to 200 feet, of a transmitter located within their residence. This is commonly referred to as continuous monitoring.
The overriding rationale in favour of electronic monitoring appears to centre on its potential to alleviate both prison overcrowding and the financial burden of incarceration.
The effects of imprisonment on an individual may be great, It is common knowledge that imprisonment returns a man to society with a scarred psyche» unpaid debts and financial losses, a highly disruptive if not irreparably broken family, children who lose respect for their parent, no job, and a gap in his life history that is hard to explain when he seeks a new job. In this respect, electronic monitoring allows the offender to remain at home where he or she can continue to hold employment and maintain any dependent children.
Consequently, society may benefit as well, since there will be no additional burden placed on the welfare system, as would be the case if an offender with dependent family members was imprisoned-
Violent crimes committed by electronically monitored offenders are rare. About one out of twenty- five electronically monitored effenders commit crimes, and the vast majority of these new offences are non-violent. Moreover, these figures compare favourably with other monitoring systems, including bail and probation.
4. Answer the following questions:
What is the electronic monitoring system? What is its purpose?
What is the difference between passive and active monitoring?
What are the advantages of electronic monitoring compared with incarceration? What are its drawbacks?
TASK 5, Study the texts above (Task 1 and Task 3>and write down the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative to imprisonment. Make up your own list of prison alternatives.
TASK 6, Read the following text and answer the questions:
What approach characterises the Dutch punitive system?
What penalties do the Dutch prefer to impose on their criminals?
What are the prisons in Holland like?
What rights do prisoners enjoy in the Netherlands?
What is the goal of humanitarian treatment of offenders in Holland?
The Netherlands: a Land without Prisons
Soaring crime rates and law-and-order backlash are hardly unique to the United States, but not all countries have taken the 4ock-'em
up-and-throw-away-the-key' approach. Many nations, in fact, have largely shelved the punitive psychology in dealing with criminals — and none more forthrightly than Holland- The Dutch have adopted an innovative and remarkably humane system of dealing with law breakers, with the result that the Netherlands is close to becoming a land without prisons. And the policy is apparently paying dividends: crime is certainly climbing much more slowly there than in all other countries.
The Dutch hold the view that harsh treatment and get-tough attitudes only aggravate the problems that lead a person to crime. "A prison sentence does little to 'resocialise a person', says vice- president of the Hague Court. "It more likely leads to rancour and bitterness. A mild sentence, possibly even just a fine, shows an offender that society cares about him." Because of this benevolent concept fewer and fewer people are serving time in Holland.
Whenever possible, the Dutch prefer to fine law breakers rather than clap them in jail. But even for those imprisoned, every effort is made to provide an environment that will rehabilitate the convicts. While, as one official put it, "Dutch prisons are not Hilton Hotels/ 1 neither are they ugly fortresses full of cellblocks and harassment. Several prisons in Holland are country villas with only a handful of prisoner In many institutions prisoners are allowed to wear their own clothes and keep personal possessions; they are given comfortably furnished rooms with such homey items as curtains, and they often are allowed to work outside the prison or leave from time to time to visit their families.
-Moreover, Holland has an extraordinary one-to-one ratio between prisoner staff members and inmates. "Our objective, 1 ' says the Deputy Prison Director, " is not to make life pleasant for prisoners, but to normalise it as much as possible to prepare the prisoners for a return to society."
Dutch officials maintain that their philosophy of short prison sentences and humanitarian treatment is essential if convicts are not to become repeaters. "A heavy sentence," they say, ''keeps a person out of possible mischief longer, but it merely postpones and aggravates the problem of recidivism/*
Given that kind of success, it is not surprising that Holland's liberal penal philosophy has won applause.
TASK 7.Explain the meaning of the following wards and expressions from the text above:
TASK 8, Render the following passage into English paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type:
UNIT 5- REHABILITATION
The word REHABILITATION has the following meanings in legal Russian:
Comment on the meanings of this concept,
TASK 1. Match the following English expressions with their Russian equivalents;
TASK 2. Read the text and translate the words and expressions given in bold type in writing ;
Preparation for Release
The Prison Services in England and Wales and in Scotland have a duty to prepare prisoners for release. Planning for safe release begins at the start of an offender's sentence and ties in with all training, education and work experience provided It is directed at equipping prisoners to fit back into society and to cope with life without re-offending.
Full time education of 15 hours a week is compulsory for young offenders below school leaving age. For older offenders it is voluntary. Some prisoners study for public examinations, including those of the Open University. Physical education is voluntary for adult offenders, but compulsory for young offenders. Practically all prisons have physical education facilities. Inmates sometimes compete against teams in local community.
Prison Industries aim to give wurk and experience which will assist prisoners when released. At the same time it reduces th« cost of the prison system. The main industries are: clothing and textile manufacture, engineering, woodwork, farming, etc,
Pre-release programmes enable selected long -term prisoners to spend their last six months before release in certain hostels attached to prisons, to help them re-adapt to society. Hostellers work in the outside community and return to the hostel each evening. Weekend leave allows hostellers to renew ties with their families. All this is designed to help the inmates make the transition from prison to community. In Northern Ireland prisoners serving fixed sentences may have short periods of leave near the end of their sentences and at Christmas, Life-sentence prisoners are given a nine-month pre-release programme, which includes employment outside the prison.
Attempts to aid the prisoner's return to society have led to the development of several innovative programmes. Furloughs provide home visits of 48—72 hours for a prisoner nearing his release date; they are intended to aid in restoring family ties and in job
seeking. The work release programme permits inmates to test their work skills and earn money outside the institution for the major part of the day.
Professional social work support is given to offenders following their release to help adjust on their return to society. All young offenders and all adult offenders sentenced to 12 months imprisonment and over are supervised on release by the probation service — or, in the case of certain young offenders, by local authority social services departments. Aftercare programmes are designed to protect public safety by monitoring inmates reintegration into the community while making sure they receive needed treatment and services. Existing aftercare programmes are effective in reducing juvenile recidivism.
TASK 3. Answer the following questions:
What are the main trends in preparing prisoners for
What is the aim of pre-release programmes?
What innovative programmes are established to prisoner's return to society?
What are aftercare programmes designed for?
TASK 4, Read the article below and comment on the statements given in bold type:
Prisoners Prior to Release
release? aid the
In the past local prisons were used as pre-release centres, and indeed some of them still retain hostels for that purpose. Being near the court in which offenders are sentenced, they are also near the community into which short-term prisoners will be released. Therefore it would seem sensible that as many of these prisoners as possible should serve their sentences as near to that community as possible, and that long-term prisoners should be returned there for the last part of their sentence, so that the community, including the prisoner's family, can be included in work done with them prior to release, as envisaged in Lord Woolf s vision of community prisons. Bearing in mind how many prisoners come from inner-city areas, adjacent to large local prisons, it is believed that hostels are a development, or a return to former practice, that could be examined with advantage.
TASK 5. Render the following passage into English paying special attention to the words and expressions in bold type.
TASK 6. Read the ex-convict's letter. What message does he want to get across?
An Ex-Prisoner's Testimony
My reason for testifying publicly about areas of my life where the scars have still not healed is that I would like to help in the search for more satisfactory and more caring responses to the problems of delinquency.
I come from what is euphemistically known as a working-class background, in other words from the underclass. I was one of seven children, and we were so poor that none of us was able to stay on at school beyond the minimum leaving age. In January 1993 I was arrested, with some of my childhood buddies, for a hold-up committed with a dummy weapon.
Prison came as a brutal shock. The appalling physical conditions made me feel I had stepped back into an age of barbarity. The grim universe within the prison walls not only seemed out of touch with the outside world but to be embedded in a punitive mentality bordering on bestiality. I felt utterly isolated from the prison officers and my fellow inmates, I also felt cut off from myself, and this was not the least of the dangers I was up against. I soon learned what life in the jungle is all about. If you want to survive you can't afford to trust another living soul
You start by withdrawing into a shell. Then, if you don't crack up, you get tougher, carefully concealing your slightest weaknesses. You have to think twice about every move you make. A misplaced word or glance could lead to all sorts of trouble. The pressure was so intense that whatever vague feelings of remorse I might have had gave way to a strong sense of injustice. When you're always on your guard you suffer physical and psychological harm that is impossible to measure. After serving four-and-a-half years of a six- year sentence, I came out broken and bent on revenge.
Reintegration is a term that should be added to the list of empty, meaningless words. Mysteriously, everyone I contacted with a view to a job shied away as if they had been tipped off about me, I wondered for a long time whether life was worth living but loving support from my relatives helped me get back on my feet
& to be bent on revenge
« to be on one's guard
» to be out of touch with smb./smth.
« to shy away from smb.
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