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Develop Your Collection with Expert Recommendations for High School Readers
This selective list of books recommended for young people in grades 9 through 12 is invaluable for collection development and maintenance, readers' advisory and curriculum support in the high school library and the young adult section of the public library. With more than 29,000 recommended titles, Senior High Core Collection covers fiction and nonfiction works for high school readers.Created by Librarians, for Librarians
In addition to recommendations for young adult readers, Senior High Core Collection includes listings of review sources and other aids for librarians and school media specialists. Entries provide complete bibliographic data, price, subject headings, a descriptive annotation, evaluative quotations from a review and full-text reviews when available.
Selected and recommended by specialists in library service to young adults in high schools and public libraries across the United States, the books listed encompass a wide variety of topics for youth, with a special focus on contemporary literature and subjects covered in high school curricula.
Titles are searchable by subject, author, grade level, Dewey Decimal number and more.
Indispensable for librarians and school media specialists involved with collection development and user advisory services. Highly recommended.What are Core Collections.
For all of your collection development and maintenance, general reference and readers’ advisory needs, Core Collections —formerly H.W. Wilson's Standard Catalogs —are reliable guides to help librarians build and maintain well-rounded collections of the most highly recommended reference, non-fiction, and fiction books. Learn more about Core Collections .Available Packages:
H.W. Wilson Core Collections 3-pack :
H.W. Wilson Core Collections 5-pack (includes access to dedicated Core Collections Complete interface):
Ask your EBSCO sales representative for more information.Additional Materials: EBSCO Discovery Service Takes Research to the Next Level
EBSCO Discovery Service offers streamlined access to all of your library's resources from a single search. With superior relevance and value ranking, basic and advanced search tools, and open and flexible customization options, EDS is the ideal platform for all library users, including:
Learn more about EDS for your library at discovery.ebsco.com .Related Products:
Here you may download (for free) all of the Random House LLC High School print catalogs. These catalogs list new, forthcoming, and selected backlist titles appropriate for classroom use. Email us at email@example.com to request print copies, while supplies last.
You'll need Adobe Acrobat Reader. You can download this program for free here.
2017 High School Catalog
Highlighting new and recent books appropriate for use in language arts, science, social studies, and art classes, this catalog features: a free The Martian classroom poster; professional reading recommendations; and college/career guides. Also included are author essays, information on teacher's guides, and more.
Includes all imprints and client publishers of Random House LLC except for the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
2016 Summer Reading Brochure
This resource is designed to help teachers and school librarians select appropriate books for student summer reading lists. All the feature books have been integrated with themes and companion titles that support the Common Core State Standards.
Knopf Doubleday 2016 High School and Advanced Placement® Catalog
The 2016 Advanced Placement® (AP) catalog from the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group features a selection of new and backlist titles suitable for almost every Advanced Placement® course, from Literature to History, from Biology to Calculus and Statistics. We have also identified titles recommended by the Core Common State Standards (Appendix B) as part of their effort to better prepare American students for success in college and careers.
2015 Random House Advanced Placement® Brochure
This resource features a selection of new titles suitable for courses in English Literature & Composition, History & Social Science, Science, and U.S. Government & Politics. Includes titles from all publishers of Random House save for Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Featuring titles from leading graphic novel publishers such as DC Comics, Pantheon, Del Rey, Vertical and Titan, this resource is designed to help librarians build or expand substantial graphic novel collections in their school libraries.
2009 Homeschooling Brochure
For parents who are homeschooling their children—and for those who are considering it—our new Homeschooling Brochure offers an excellent resource and a great place to start. Featured in the brochure are books approved by Homeschooling Magazine that are ideal for both Preschool through Grade 12 curricula and for homeschooling teacher development. From contemporary fiction to classics, reference to test prep, and homeschooling guides to parent resources, there is something here for every parent, student, and home classroom.
2009 Sylvan Products Brochure
Sylvan has been a proven and trusted partner for parents and teachers for thirty years. Sylvan's line of educational products equip students with fun, effective, and grade-appropriate learning tools. Our workbooks and learning kits feature activities, stories, and games to reinforce the skills children need to develop and achieve their academic potential.
English as a Second Language (ESL) 2008
This catalog highlights books and packages ideal for use with ESL students. These products from Living Language, Princeton Review, and Random House Reference are recommended for language studies courses that help non-native speakers improve communication, build vocabulary, and enhance comprehension of the English language, as well as for school library collections that serve these students.
2007 Children's Catalog
This catalog highlights children's and young adult titles appropriate for use in K-12 classes and for school libraries. Also contains teacher's guides and materials to assist in planning lessons. Examination copy ordering information is included for teachers who would like to review books for classroom adoption.
Includes all children's and adult imprints and third-party publishers of Random House LLC except the adult imprints of Knopf, Vintage, Pantheon, Anchor, Everyman's Library and Schocken.
Classics in Literature Catalog
This catalog highlights titles appropriate for use in high school English and literature courses. Also contains examination copy ordering information for teachers who would like to review books for classroom adoption.
Includes all imprints and third-party publishers of Random House, Inc. except Knopf, Vintage, Pantheon, Anchor, Everyman's Library and Schocken.
Want a Hard Copy Instead?
You can also receive any of these catalogs via regular mail (supplies permitting). Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with your full name, school, mailing address, city, state and zip code. (sorry, U.S. only)
Minnie Earl Sears
Minnie Earl Sears (17 November 1873 – 28 November 1933) formulated the Sears Subject Headings. a simplification of the Library of Congress Subject Headings .Life and work
Sears was a native of Lafayette, Indiana. and was awarded a B.Sc. from Purdue University at age 18, the youngest graduate in her class. She received an M.Sc in 1893. In 1900 the University of Illinois awarded to her a Bachelor of Library Science degree.
Sears had a long career as a cataloguer and bibliographer at a variety of libraries (Bryn Mawr College. University of Minnesota. New York Public Library ), before she joined the publishing company H. W. Wilson Company in 1923 to publish her List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries. The book provides a list of subject headings for small libraries to use in lieu of Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress headings are often not as useful for small libraries because they are too detailed. Sears’ List of Subject Headings also offers small libraries guidance on how to create their own new subject headings consistently when necessary.
In order to create her subject headings, Sears consulted small and medium sized libraries throughout the country to discern patterns of usage. She then developed her own system, based in part on the Library of Congress Subject Headings, but with a simplified subject vocabulary. In Sears’ system, common terms are much preferred over scientific and technical terms. Her system also allowed individual libraries the authority to create their own subject headings. The Sears model is not meant to serve as a standardized bridge for union catalogs, but rather as a model “for the creation of headings as needed”.
Like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, Sears' system is a subject list arranged in alphabetical order, making use of overarching subject categories and hierarchical subject subdivisions. However, Sears’ headings favor natural language. Her headings make use of only four types of headings: topical, form, geographic, and proper names. She also tended to convert inverted headings into direct entries.
In the third edition of the book (1933), Ms. Sears added a section called, “Practical Suggestions for the Beginner in Subject Heading Work”. These “Principles of the Sears List” were eventually published as a separate document and became a widely used teaching tool for library schools. In subsequent editions of the List, Sears’ subject headings were also linked to appropriate Dewey Decimal numbers.
In addition to creating the List, Sears edited the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries of the American Library Association. and an edition of the Standard Catalog for High School Libraries. She eventually left H.W. Wilson to teach at Columbia University 's School of Library Science, where she started the first graduate course in cataloging. Sears also remained an active participant in the American Library Association and the New York Library Association. After her death in 1933 at age 60, the book was eventually renamed in her honor to The Sears List of Subject Headings. The List is currently in its 20th edition.External links Look at other dictionaries:
Minnie Earl Sears — (17 de noviembre de 1873 28 de noviembre de 1933) fue una bibliotecaria y editora estadounidense. Fue la creadora de los listados de encabezamientos de materia (LEM) más difundidos para bibliotecas medias, pequeñas y escolares. Contenido 1… … Wikipedia Español
Mémoires de Barry Lyndon — Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq. By Himself Pour les articles homonymes, voir Barry, Lyndon et Barry Lyndon. William Makepeace … Wikipédia en Français
Library of Congress Classification — The Library of Congress Classification (LCC) is a system of library classification developed by the Library of Congress. It is used by most research and academic libraries in the U.S. and several other countries; for example, Australia and… … Wikipedia
Charles Ammi Cutter — (14 de marzo de 1837 6 de septiembre de 1903) fue un bibliotecario estadounidense. Sus aportaciones a la Biblioteconomía lo sitúan como una figura clave del siglo XIX junto a su compatriota Melvil Dewey. Es el creador de los principios teórico… … Wikipedia Español
library — /luy brer ee, breuh ree, bree/, n. pl. libraries. 1. a place set apart to contain books, periodicals, and other material for reading, viewing, listening, study, or reference, as a room, set of rooms, or building where books may be read or… … Universalium
Liste der Persönlichkeiten aus London — London ist der Geburtsort zahlreicher prominenter Persönlichkeiten. Diese Liste zählt Personen auf, die im Großraum London geboren wurden. Es werden alle Gebiete berücksichtigt, die seit 1965 zum Verwaltungsgebiet Greater London gehören. Dazu… … Deutsch Wikipedia
performing arts — arts or skills that require public performance, as acting, singing, or dancing. [1945 50] * * * ▪ 2009 Introduction Music Classical. The last vestiges of the Cold War seemed to thaw for a moment on Feb. 26, 2008, when the unfamiliar strains … Universalium
Blanche-Neige et les 7 nains — Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains Titre original Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Réalisation David Hand … Wikipédia en Français
Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nains — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Blanche Neige (homonymie). Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains … Wikipédia en Français
Blanche-Neige et les Sept Nazes — Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains Blanche Neige et les Sept Nains Titre original Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Réalisation David Hand … Wikipédia en Français
Below is an article, entitled Library Works On Woodwork -- enclosed in a black box -- of 29 books on woodworking, published in theLethbridge Herald . on March 20, 1947, page 6.
I found this list of woodworking books searching for articles on Arthur Wakeling's Things to Make in Your Homeworkshop on the newspaper database, www.NewspaperArchive.com. Upon further searching in the Lethbridge Herald, for Thursday, October 20, 1938, page 6, I found "NEW BOOKS AT LIBRARY: Recent books placed in the Lethbridge public library shelves follow:", and among those listed are De Vette, 100 Problems in Woodwork & Standard Catalog for Public Libraries .My Quest: "What Was the Impact of Arthur Wakeling's Things to Make in Your Homeworkshop
At the time, I was looking for reviews and/or simply mentions of Arthur Wakeling's 1930 or 1939 edition of Things to Make in Your Homeworkshop . because I wanted some evidence that would allow me to estimate the impact Wakeling's book had, especially whether it was widely purchased by members of the National Homeworkshop Guild. Further searches of the newspaperarchive.com for mention of the use in public libraries of the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries exposed articles in the Salmanca (NY) Republican-Press . April 12, 1947, page 12; Charleston (SC) Gazette Magazine Section, July 31, 1955, page 18m; Edwardsville (IL) Intelligencer . December 7, 1961, page 10.Brief background on Arthur Wakeling
From about 1920, Wakeling was an editor at Popular Science Monthly . responsible for a section dedicated to projects for the home-owner, including a wide-range woodworking interests: buying hand and power tools, creating workshop space in the home, building furniture, and so forth. In 1933, he had a major role in the formation of the National Homeworkshop Guild. [For background on the NHG. click here ; for more background on Things to Make in Your Homeworkshop . click here [under construction.]Below is a portion of the March 1947 article in the Lethbridge Herald:
In the gray-shaded below. scan my more-detailed listing of these woodworking books from the article above. When you look at it, I doubt that you will conclude that the books on the list has the look of books selected randomly by a worker in the Lethbridge Public Library simply to alert citizens of Lethbridge and the rural areas surrounding this foothills city, south of Calgary, Alberta. Mary Hazel Bletcher was librarian at LPL from 1920-1953, strongly suggesting that she is responsible for the events of 1938 and 1947, reported on below.Lethbridge in 1947:
The jpg below with the description of the Alberta foothill city of Lethbridge below comes from the 1962 edition of the single-volume Columbia Encyclopedia . I picked it as a source on Lethbridge in the 1940s, primarily because of its proximity in the den here at home where I work. And although 1962 is not 1947, the 1962 account -- in truth, probably late 1950s -- gives a close enough description of this smallish Canadian city to allow you to form a mental image about it.
[Personal note: I was 11 years old in 1947, and lived in the next province to the east, Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan's geographical terrain is flatter, perhaps, but the demographics of Western Canada are basically the same. A mosaic of peoples from a wide range of nations, mostly northern and eastern Europe, and at the time (1947) mostly engaged in agriculture, or other similar jobs, none of which yet required special education. In general, the level of education of most of the population did not yet reflect the rapid increase in higher education, starting in the 1950s -- but especially the 1960s and later -- that took place on both sides of the 49th parallel. Thus, from my perspective, in that era, woodworking as a hobby was a luxury, not engaged in by anybody except a privileged few.]
An extended list of the 29 Carpentry and woodworking books available at the Lethbridge Public Library follow in gray-shaded box -- (As time allows I will link most of these titles to their respective entries in the woodworker's manuals section)
[Ontario Library Review by Ontario Provincial Library Service, Ontario. Public Libraries Branch - 1928, Page 415; Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . an Annotated List of. by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages Page 187. No preview available on google print because this book is sold as a reprint by the Canada-based woodwork and garden tools distributor, Lee Valley Tools.]
2. Griffith, Ira Samuel, 1874-1924. Carpentry Peoria, Ill. The Manual arts press, 1935
[click on link for full text. Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . an Annotated List of. by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pagesPage 178]
3. Edwin T Hamilton Home carpentry. New York. Dodd, Mead & Co. 1945 466 pages.
[ A Basic Book Collection for High Schools by American Library Association - 1924 page 48]
4. Hodgson, Fred. T. Carpentry and Joinery Construction. New York. Industrial Publication Co. 1898, ©1897
[Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . an Annotated List of. by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages Page 178; this book recommended in the Popular Homecraft Library Book Dpartment, in PH 's January-february 1931 issue, page 472, as well as other pages; puzzling to include this book in a 1947 list; it is a classic work, but dates from a pre-electrification era]
5. Saylor, Henry H. b. 1880.Tinkering with tools New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1942
[Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages, Page 170; The Booklist . by American Library Association – 1969, Page 186]
6. Wakeling, Arthur, ed. Home workshop manual . 1930, 1939.
[Listed in Standard Catalog for Public Libraries; an Annotated List of . by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages, Page 170; Leisure Time Education: A Handbook of Creative Activities for Teachers and Group Leaders, by Anna May Jones - 1946 - 235 pages, Page 21, Ontario Library Review - Page 27]
7. Fred H Colvin, Running an Engine Lathe. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1941.
[ Standard Catalog for Public Libraries, by H.W. Wilson Company - 1967, Page 452 ]
8. A S Milton. A Course in Wood Turning ;
[Listed in Standard Catalog for Public Libraries: an Annotated List of. by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages
9. SHERWOOD, MALCOLM H. From forest to furniture; the romance of wood. Norton, 1936.
[Listed in The Booklist -- by American Library Association - 1969 Page 316; listed in Bulletin of the Public Affairs Information Service . by Public Affairs Information Service, H.W. Wilson Company - 1920; Page 429; A Library Book List for Elementary and Secondary Schools in Nebraska: A Guide to Basic School . by Nebraska Dept. of Public Instruction, Ivae Walker, Nebraska Library Association State Planning Committee, National Council of Teachers of English - 1945 - 201 pages, Page 110; A Basic Book Collection for High Schools. by American Library Association – 1924, Page 48]
10. FAULKNER, HERBERT WALDRON. Wood-carving as a hobby . Harper, 1934. 140 p.;
[Book Review Digest, by H.W. Wilson Company - 1935, Page 304; The Booklist; by American Library Association, Page 148; Bulletin of the New York Public Library - Page 346; by New York Public Library – 1939]
11. HELLUM, AMANDA WALKINS, and GOTTSHALL, FRANKLIN H. You Can Whittle and Carve. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company,1942. 82 pp.
[Toronto Public Libraries. Books for Boys and Girls 1954- Page 134; Leisure Time Education: A Handbook of Creative Activities for Teachers and Group Leaders . by Anna May Jones - 1946 - 235 pages Page 212; University of Chicago Round Table (Radio program), University of Chicago - Page 16; Gordon Owen Wilber, Industrial Arts in General Education, 1954 - Page 389
12. Harris Winfield Moore Chip Carving: Twenty-five Projects with Instructions and Full-size Patterns 1935, 32 pages
[listed in School Arts 1935- Page 640; Handcrafts for Elementary Schools: A Handbook of Practical Suggestions for Teachers - Page 6, by Frank C. Moore - 1953 - 324 pages]
13. Edward Gordon Craig Woodcuts, and Some Words 1925 - 122 pages
14. Doust, Len. A manual on wood engraving; with thirty-six illus. Warne, 1934.
[The Booklist - Page 259, by American Library Association ]
15. Ashcroft, CC and Easton, JAG General shop work ; a manual forshop work ]. (Toronto, Macmillan Co. of Canada, xii, 239pp. $1.00).
[Basic Books for Junior College Libraries;20,000 Vital Titles by Charles L. Trinkner - 1963; Page 424; The University of Toronto Quarterly - Page 369 by University of Toronto - 1931
16. COLLINS, ARCHIE FREDERICK. Working with tools for fun and profit. Appleton-Century, 1937. 228 p. $2.00. SC: "A simple book on home carpentry. Several chapters are devoted to tools and their use, and the value of the. "
[Book Review Digest - Page 212, by H.W. Wilson Company – 1938; Books for Boys and Girls - Page 166,by Toronto Public Libraries Boys and Girls Services, Lillian Helena Smith - 1940 - 367 pages; Bulletin of the New York Public Library - Page 33, by New York Public Library – 1939; The Publishers Weekly - Page 587 by R.R. Bowker Company, 1949]
17. A. Frederick Collins, Working With Tools for Fun and Profit
[The Booklist . by American Library Association – 1969, Page 50]
18. William A. De Vette, 100 problems in woodwork The Bruce Publishing Co. 1924
[Industrial Education - Page 132, ; Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages, Page 172; Bulletin of the New York Public Library - Page 347; by New York Public Library - 1939; Boy Scouts of America, 1931. 16 p. 20*. (Merit badge series.); Branch Library Book News. - Page 133; by New York Public Library - 1924]
19. Popular Science Monthly, Complete Home Workshop Cyclopedia;
[The Booklist - Page 228, by American Library Association – 1969; Canadian Library (Canadian Library Association – 1968) - Page 16;Recommended Reference Books for the Elementary School Library . by Ruby Ethel Cundiff - 1949 - 33 pages, Page 13]
20. Louis M. Roehl, The Farmer's Shop Book; Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1939.
[Peabody Journal of Education, by George Peabody College for Teachers – 1923; Page 211: “A practical book for upper grade children who are interested in making. ”; Industrial Education Magazine - Page 86: “This volume brings together under one. ”]
21. Johnson, William, and Newkirk, Louis V. General Woodworking . (Industrial Arts Education Series). New York: Macmillan Co. 1946.
[recommended in the Elementary School Journal . 1947 - Page 58]
22.Practical Delta Projects Numbers 2-14;
23. GEORGE A RAETH, Master Homecraft Projects . Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1942.
[The Booklist . by American Library Association, 1969, Page 211; The American School Board Journal - Page 68, by National School Boards Association, William Conrad Bruce, Susanna Cocroft - 1944' $2.75 "In this unusual woodworking project book, the author offers a great variety of delightful furniture ideas. "; Recreation - Page 651, by National Recreation Association - 1965."Majority of the pieces of furniture described in book are of the modern. "; Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . by H.W. Wilson Company – 1967, Page 446]
24. Paul V.CHAMPION, Creative crate craft . Bruce, 1942, $2."
[Books for Boys and Girls - Page 134, by Toronto Public Libraries. Boys and Girls Services, Thomson, Jean - 1954 - 297 pages: “Detailed diagrams and careful instructions for making useful articles such as shelves. "]
25. Ken F. Sheperdson, Furnishing the Home Grounds New York: Bruce, 1936
[Kansas Library Bulletin - Page 14, by Kansas Traveling Libraries Commission, Kansas State Library - 1972; Books of Today Selected by the Staff of the Toronto Public Libraries
by Toronto Public Library - 1938 - 70 pages]
26. Morris Williams, Stair Building New York. D. Williams Co. 1914.
[Standard Catalog for Public Libraries: by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears – 1931, Page 178]
27. Willoughby, General Shop Handbook;
[The Booklist - General shop handbook . Page 294 -- Willoughby. 265.
28. Hodgson, Practical Treatise on the Steel Square ;
[Standard Catalog for Public Libraries; an Annotated List of . by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages, Page 178; Monthly Bulletin of Books Added to the Public Library of the City of Boston - Page 352, by Boston Public Library - 1903: "A practical treatise on the steel square and its application to every-day use."]
29. Stoddard, Steel Square Pocketbook
[Standard Catalog for Public Libraries; an Annotated List of . by H.W. Wilson Company, Minnie Earl Sears - 1931 - 242 pages, Page 178; The Booklist . by American Library Association, 1969 Page 86]
The article, " Library Works On Woodwork ", lists 29 books on a range of woodworking activities, but includes only each book's title and the author's last name, which, taken together, is not very much information to go on, especially if you are only just starting out in woodworking. Instead, what is intended by Lethbridge Public Library is to merely "wet the appetite" of interested Lethbridge-ites.
As explained above, most of these titles are recommended in the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries . and for those readers curious enough about why I am concerned about this, using material gleaned from the Internet, I have prepared a "quick-and-dirty" account:What is meant by the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries?
From a variety of sources available on the Web I gleaned the testimony posted below about the use of Standard Catalog for Public Libraries and other similar publications as a "tool" for selecting books for a Library's shelves. A key assumption is that when books on woodworking are critically evaluated and subsequently described in publications such as the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries. public libraries throughout North America seek to purchase as many of these recommended books as their budgets allow.
A. M E Ahern Libraries 1931 Page 136 [". Social Science Supplement the second supplement to the Social sciences of the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries has just been published by HW Wilson. "] B. Harold Garfield Russell, Raymond Howard Shove, Blanche E. Moen The Use of Books and Libraries - Page 77 - 1933 - 128 pages [". selection of the best guidebooks to the various countries and principal cities of the world, see the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries. 1949. ] C. Lester Asheim, Humanities & the Library: Problems in the Interpretation, Evaluation and Use of Library Materials - Page 90 1957 ["Such tools as the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries. the Shaw List of Books for College Libraries. and similar publications will serve to identify the. "] D. Ralph Robert Shaw Libraries of Metropolitan Toronto: A Study of Library Service Prepared for the Library Trustees. - Page 36 - 1960 - 98 pages [". books for checking was taken from the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries for recent starred and double starred items in these subject categories. ] E. Jerrold Orne Report of a Survey of the Kirkwood Public Library for the Library Board of the Kirkwood Missouri. - Page 20 by - 1951 ["The fundamental took used by all public libraries is the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries published by the H,W. Wilson Company, now in a new edition. '] F. Lydia Margaret Barrette, There is No End - Page 95 - 1961 - 167 pages [HW Wilson Co. also publishers of Standard Catalog for Public Libraries, has published "Basic Books," chosen for various groups as a guide to core collections. "]
G. Cecil John McHale The Lansing Public Library: A Survey of Its Public and School Services - Page 52 by - 1943 - 74 pages ["In doing this I used as basis for comparison the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries. 1940 edition. In addition, I selected at random the library's. "]
H. Edward Allen Wight, Leroy Charles Merritt Public Library Service in Pacific Grove: A Report of a Study of the Organization, Services and. - Page 22 1957 ["Standard Catalog for Public Libraries. lists only those titles which a large panel of public libraries agree are not only. "]
I. William Arthur Munford Three Thousand Books for a Public Library - Page 17, 1939 - 188 pages ["A carefully chosen selection of about 15000 items is the Standard Catalog for public libraries. NY, HW Wilson, 1940. "]
Minnie Earl Sears (17 November 1873 – 28 November 1933) [ 1 ] formulated the Sears Subject Headings. a simplification of the Library of Congress Subject Headings. In 1999, American Libraries named her one of the "100 Most Important Leaders We Had in the 20th Century". [ 2 ]Life and work
Sears had a long career as a cataloguer and bibliographer at a variety of libraries (Bryn Mawr College. University of Minnesota. New York Public Library ), before she joined the publishing company H. W. Wilson Company in 1923 to publish her List of Subject Headings for Small Libraries. The book provides a list of subject headings for small libraries to use in lieu of Library of Congress Subject Headings. Library of Congress headings are often not as useful for small libraries because they are too detailed. Sears’ List of Subject Headings also offers small libraries guidance on how to create their own new subject headings consistently when necessary.
In order to create her subject headings, Sears consulted small and medium-sized libraries throughout the country to discern patterns of usage. She then developed her own system, based in part on the Library of Congress Subject Headings, but with a simplified subject vocabulary. In Sears’ system, common terms are much preferred over scientific and technical terms. Her system also allowed individual libraries the authority to create their own subject headings. The Sears model is not meant to serve as a standardized bridge for union catalogs, but rather as a model “for the creation of headings as needed”.
Like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, Sears' system is a subject list arranged in alphabetical order, making use of overarching subject categories and hierarchical subject subdivisions. However, Sears’ headings favor natural language. Her headings make use of only four types of headings: topical, form, geographic, and proper names. She also tended to convert inverted headings into direct entries.
In the third edition of the book (1933), Ms. Sears added a section called, “Practical Suggestions for the Beginner in Subject Heading Work”. These “Principles of the Sears List” were eventually published as a separate document and became a widely used teaching tool for library schools. In subsequent editions of the List, Sears’ subject headings were also linked to appropriate Dewey Decimal Classification numbers.
In addition to creating the List, Sears edited the Standard Catalog for Public Libraries of the American Library Association. and an edition of the Standard Catalog for High School Libraries. She eventually left H.W. Wilson to teach at Columbia University 's School of Library Science, where she started the first graduate degree course in cataloging. Sears also remained an active participant in the American Library Association and the New York Library Association. American Libraries names one contribution she is best known for as co-editor of the Essay and General Literature Index from 1931-1933. [ 3 ] After her death in 1933 at age 60, the book was eventually renamed in her honor to The Sears List of Subject Headings. The List is currently in its 21st edition.References
FOR SCHOOL LIBRARY PROGRAMS
by The American Association of School Librarians
A Division of the American Library Association
in cooperation with the
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
American Association of School Administrators
American Personnel and Guidance Association
Association for Childhood Education International
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
Catholic Library Association
Department of Elementary School Principals, N.E.A..
Department of Audio-Visual Instruction, N.E.A.
Department of Classroom Teachers, N.E.A.
Department of Rural Education, N.E.A.
General Federation of Women's Clubs
National Association of Secondary-School Principals
National Citizens Council for Better Schools
National Council for the Social Studies
National Council of Teachers of English
National School Boards Association
National Science Teachers Association
Public Library Association, A.L.A
Secondary Education Board
American Library Association
Copyright 1960 by the American Library Association
Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 60-7349
Several years ago there came to the executive office of the American Association of School Librarians. a division of the American Library Association, a steadily increasing number of requests from school administrators and librarians that the national standards for school libraries be revised. Although the 1945 standards published in School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow presented objectives and activities of the school library program that still held true, many new developments had occurred that affected the use of library resources and services in the education of youth. It was also quite apparent that for many schools the then current quantitative standards were far out-of-date and most inadequate. For these and other reasons, the revision of the national standards was undertaken.
The first major step was the appointment by the American Association of School Librarians of a School Library Standards Committee that would represent many groups interested in and responsible for libraries in schools. Since the principles governing the programs and resources of school libraries are not the exclusive domain of school librarians, the counsel of others concerned was sought. The executive boards of twenty professional organizations appointed their representatives to the Committee in response to the invitation of the American Association of School Librarians. These representatives participated in several all-day meetings and gave invaluable assistance and direction in planning the procedures for revising the standards, in formulating the philosophy of
school library service today, and in carefully appraising the three preliminary drafts of this publication submitted to them. The standards were thus prepared in cooperation with the organizations listed on the title page, and in most instances have been reviewed by their executive boards; but these organizations have not necessarily given complete endorsement to all aspects of the standards.
From the beginning of the Committee's work, the policy was followed of utilizing the judgments and experience of a large number of administrators, teachers, and librarians in the schools, so that the standards would be not just a committee project, but, in a very real sense, the enterprise of many individuals throughout the country. This objective was realized through many avenues-the advisory services received from a panel of consultants; a two-day session held at the Kansas City A.L.A. Conference in 1957, in which forty persons participated; an afternoon work session at the San Francisco A.L.A. Conference in 1958 involving some 600 participants; and the material obtained from scores of librarians (frequently prepared in cooperation with their administrators and classroom teachers) in response to requests for information about their library programs. These requests consisted of ( I ) brief questionnaires directed to librarians in special situations, such as technical and vocational schools, demonstration schools, very small schools, and offices of school library supervision; (2) letters asking librarians to describe particular parts of their library programs, such as reading guidance with average, below average, and superior readers; activities with teachers and guidance counselors; teaching the use of the library and its resources; and many other aspects of school library service. The identification of these school libraries in itself constituted a special part of the standards project, and involved the cooperation of state, city, town, and county school library supervisors and administrative officials.
From all these sources-plus the advice, suggestions, and criticism obtained from consultants in special areas and innumerable conferences with individuals and small groups-have evolved the general plan, coverage, and content for those principles and policies that represent the qualitative standards for school library progress presented in this publication.
Various procedures were used for the compilation of the quantitative standards: the judgments of a panel of experts consisting of
vi members of the Committee and the advisory consultants; information obtained from questionnaires sent to schools characterized as having very good school library facilities and resources; and the subsequent appraisal of the standards in conferences with specialists in the field. In the questionnaires that were sent to established school libraries, the respondents were asked for facts about the library budget, staff, materials collections, and quarters. They were also requested to make estimates about what their libraries needed if the current provisions for funds, staff, and collections were inadequate. This last request was made in order to avoid perpetuating in the standards a status quo that reflected any prevailing conditions which failed to provide for the facilities and resources known to be essential for very good school library programs.
The quantitative standards may be characterized as reflecting the best judgment of the panel, supported by evidence to the effect that (1) the standards presented in this publication are now being met and sometimes exceeded in a small number of schools representing very good school library situations, and (2) a considerably larger number of school libraries reported that they could profitably use collections, funds, and staff of the size recommended in the standards.
It would be untrue to state that very many schools now meet or exceed all the quantitative standards noted for school libraries in this publication. It would be equally untrue to state that in those schools that do meet the standards the library facilities are superabundant or in excess of the needs of students and faculty. These are the schools that fully recognize the importance of books and other materials in the education of youth in a democratic society, and they demonstrate clearly that forward-looking schools in this country can attain the standards recommended for the programs and resources of school libraries.
The Committee extends its sincere gratitude to the presidents and executive secretaries of the organizations represented on the Committee for their interest and assistance; to the members of the 1958-59 Board of Directors of the American Association of School Librarians for their invaluable contributions; to the school administrators who made many helpful suggestions; to the hundreds of school librarians who answered questionnaires, participated in conferences and meetings in which the standards were discussed, appraised the preliminary drafts of this text, and helped in the work
vii on the standards in other ways too numerous to mention; to the American Library Association and the Carnegie Corporation of New York for funds granted for the work of the Committee; to the School of Library Service of Columbia University for many kinds of assistance and facilities made available in providing headquarters for the project; to the Executive Secretary of the American Association of School Librarians for guidance, helpfulness, and good will given in measure far exceeding any requirement of office or committee membership; to the Director of the Publishing Department of the American Library Association, and to her staff, for their editorial assistance; and to the staff of the office of the School of Library Service of Columbia University who devoted innumerable overtime hours to the standards project.
viii School Library Standards
American Association of School Librarians
(American Library Association)
Dr. Frances Henne, Associate Professor, School of Library Service, Columbia University, Cochairman of the Standards Committee.
Ruth Ersted, Supervisor, School Libraries, Minnesota State Department of Education, Cochairman of the Standards Committee.
Eleanor E. Ahlers, Executive Secretary, American Association of School Librarians.
Dr. Lillian Batchelor, Supervisor, Secondary School Libraries, Philadelphia.
Mrs. Rachael DeAngelo, Coordinator, Library), Education Program, Queens
Mrs. Mary Peacock Douglas, Supervisor, Public School Libraries, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Helen Sattley, Director, School Library Services, New York City Board of Education.
Elenora Alexander, Director of Library Services, Houston Independent School
District, Houston, Texas (ex officio).
Esther V. Burrin, Librarian, Westlane junior High School Metropolitan School District, Washington Township, Indianapolis (ex officio).
Mary V. Gaver, Professor, Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers University (ex officio).
Mrs. Dilla MacBean, Stone Lake, Wisconsin (ex officio).
American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education
Dr. Laurence C. Boylan, Chairman, Graduate Division, Kansas State College.
Dr. Edward S. Evenden, Professor Emeritus of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University (deceased).
American Association of School Administrators (National Education Association)
Dr. J. Harry Adams, Superintendent of Schools, Elizabeth, New Jersey.
American Institute of Architects
Carl W. Clark, Syracuse, New York.
American Personnel and Guidance Association
Dr. Gertrude Forrester, Head Counselor, West Side I-Egh School, Newark, New Jersey.
Association for Childhood Education International
Erna Christensen, Bronxville Public Schools, Bronxville, New York.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (National Education Association)
Dr. Doris Holmes, Professor of Education, Queens College.
Catholic Library Association
Rev. Andrew L. Bouwhuis, Director, Johnson Library, St. Peter's College.
Department of Audio-Visual Instruction (National Education Association)
Dr. Paul Witt, Professor of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University,
Department of Classroom Teachers (National Education Association)
Mrs. Mary F. Kolender, Munsey Park School, Manhasset, New York.
Department of Elementary School Principals (National Education Association)
William J. Helm, Principal, Belmont School, Philadelphia.
Department of Rural Education (National Education Association)
Dr. Robert Isenberg, Assistant Director, Department of Rural Education, National Education Association.
General Federation of Women's Clubs
Mrs. Robert F. Herrig, Librarian, Lincoln County Free Library, Libby, Montana.
National Association of Secondary-School Principals (National Education Association)
Robert L. Amsden, Principal, Columbia High School, Maplewood, New Jersey.
National Citizens Council for Better Schools
James Cass, Research Director, National Citizens Council for Better Schools.
National Council for the Social Studies (National Education Association)
Alice Flickinger, Laboratory School, University of Chicago.
Dr. Helen Carpenter, New jersey State Teachers College, Trenton.
x National Council of Teachers of English
Henry I. Christ, Andrew Jackson High School, St. Albans, New York.
National School Boards Association
Clifton B. Smith, Board of Education, Freeport, New York.
National Science Teachers Association (National Education Association)
Dr. Abraham Raskin, Professor of Physiology, Hunter College.
Public Library Association (American Library Association)
Margaret Scoggin, Coordinator of Young Adult Services, New York City Public Library.
Secondary Education Board
John Park, Librarian, Kent School, Kent, Connecticut.
Mrs. Elizabeth Clarke Blodgett, Elementary School Librarian, Farmingdale
School District, Massapequa Park, New York.
Mary Phyllis Brine, Librarian, junior High School, Manhasset, New York.
E. Ben Evans, Director of Instructional Materials, Kem County Union High School and junior College District, Bakersfield, California.
Sue Hefley, Supervisor, Webster Parish Schools Materials Center, Minden, Louisiana.
Elizabeth D. Hodges, Supervisor of Library Services, Baltimore County Board of Education, Towson, Maryland.
Dr. Anna L. Hyer, Executive Secretary, Department of Audio-Visual Instruction, National Education Association.
Alice Lohrer, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Library Science, University of Illinois.
Mary Helen Mahar, Specialist for School and Children's Libraries, Library Services Branch, U.S. Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Mrs. Mariana McAllister, Russellville, Arkansas.
Dr. Alice Brooks McGuire, Librarian, Casis Elementary School, Austin, Texas.
Virginia Mcjenkin, Director, Fulton County School Libraries, Atlanta, Georgia.
Mildred Nickel, Coordinator of Libraries for the Dependent Schools, U.S. Air Force in Europe.
Dr. Charles F. Schuller, Director, Audio-Visual Center, Michigan State University.
Mrs. Lillian L. Shapiro, Head Librarian, Woodrow Wilson Vocational High School, Jamaica, New York.
Mabel A. Tumer, Assistant Professor, School of Librarianship, University
Dorothy Wagner, Coordinator of Unified Studies, Public Schools, Elizabeth,New Jersey.
Bernice Wiese, Director, School Libraries, Baltimore Public Schools.
Jane Wright, Assistant Professor, Library Science Department, Winthrop College.
Elinor Yungmeyer, School Library Consultant, State Library, Lansing, Michigan.
The following members of the 1958-59 Board of Directors of the American Association of School Librarians served in a consultative and advisory capacity:
President: Elenora Alexander, Director of Library Services, Houston Independent School District, Houston, Texas.
Vice-President: Esther V. Burrin, Librarian, Westlane junior High School, Metropolitan School District, Washington Township, Indianapolis.
Treasurer: Kenneth Vance, Bureau of School Services, University of Michigan. Recording Secretary: Dorotha Dawson, Director, Department of School Libraries, Board of Education, Detroit.
Past-President: Mary V. Gaver, Professor, Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers University.
Executive Secretary: Eleanor E. Ahlers, American Library Association, 50 E. Huron Street, Chicago.
Cora Paul Bomar, School Library Adviser, State Department of Public Instruction, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Rheta A. Clark, School Library Consultant, State Department of Education, Hartford, Connecticut.
Mrs. Rachael W. DeAngelo, Coordinator, Library Education Program, Queens College.
Lyle E. Evans, Provincial Supervisor of School Libraries, Department of Education, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Gladys Lees, Director of School Libraries, Tacoma Public Schools, Tacoma, Washington.
Dr. Alice Brooks McGuire, Librarian, Casis Elementary School, Austin, Texas. Elinor Yungmeyer, School Library Consultant, State Library, Lansing, Michigan.
Edna Ziebold, Director, Library Service, San Diego County Schools, San Diego, California.
Marylyn Davis, Librarian, Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Connecticut.
Sara Fenwick, Assistant Professor, Graduate Library School, University of
Margaret Moss, Director of School Libraries, Board of Education, Madison,
Dr. Miriam E. Peterson, Director, Division of Libraries, Chicago Public
Carolyn Whitenack, Assistant Professor, Library and Audio-Visual Education,
Part I The School library as an educational force 1
1 Of Importance to All Citizens. 3
2 The Objectives and Scope of the Library Program in the School 8
3 The School Library Program for Children and Young People 14
General Principles 14
Reading and Reading Guidance 15
Guidance in Listening and Viewing 17
Reference Services and Research 18
Instruction in the Use of Materials 18
Personal and Social Guidance 20
Student Assistants 20
4 Materials, Funds, and Staff Needed
for School Library Programs (Summary) 22
Part II Planning and implementingschool library programs 27
5 School Boards, School Administrators, and School Libraries 29
The State 30
The School System 33
6 School Library Supervisors 37
State School Library Supervision 37
School Library Supervision for City, County,
or Multi-District School Systems 42
Qualifications for School Library Supervisors 45
7 The School Library Staff 47
Activities of School Librarians 47
Size of the Library Staff 51
Status of School Librarians 56
Status of Other Workers in the Library 57
General Qualifications of School Librarians 58
The Professional Education of School Librarians 59
8 Curriculum Coordinators, Teachers, and School Libraries 63
Curriculum Coordinators and School Library Programs 63
Classroom and Special Teachers and School Libraries 65
School Library Programs and Resources in the Professional
Education of Teachers 67
Part III Resources for teaching and learning 71
9 The Materials Collections: Selection and Scope 73
The Selection of Materials 74
School Library Resources in Schools
Having 200 or More Students 76
The Collection of Supplementary, Materials 84
Professional Materials for the Faculty 85
10 Making Materials Easily Accessible in the School 87
School Library Policies and Services
That Make Materials Easily Accessible 87
Organization of Materials 90
School Library Quarters 91
11 The Library in the New School 95
General Principles 95
The Materials Collections 99
12 Library Resources and Services in Schools
Having Fewer than 200 Students 101
The Library Program 101
The Central Agency for Library Services and Resources
in Small Schools 104
13 Co-operative Planning for School Libraries 106
The District Materials Center 106
Regional Planning 112
Selected Bibliography 114
Appendix: Policies and Specifications
for Library Quarters and Equipment for
Schools Having 200 or More Students 119
The school library as an educational force
1 This page blank in the original
Of importance to all citizens.
. that our schools have the resources needed for teaching and learning
Whatever form the soul-searching regarding the education of youth may take, sooner or later it has to reckon with the adequacy of the library resources in the schools. Any of the recommendations for the improvement of schools, currently receiving so much stress and attention, can be fully achieved only when the school has the full complement of library resources, personnel, and services. This fact holds true for the multitrack curriculum, ability groupings in subject areas, the expanded and intensified science program, the toughening of the intellectual content in all courses, advanced placement and accelerated programs, the development of the disciplines of critical thinking, the teaching of reading, the provision of a challenging education for superior students, the meeting of needs of all students no matter what their abilities may be, ungraded elementary school classes, and similar practices and proposals.
In the education of all youth, from the slowest learner in kindergarten to the most intelligent senior in high school, an abundance of printed and audio-visual materials is essential. These resources are the basic tools needed for the purposes of effective teaching and Teaming. That the achievement of the objectives of a good school program requires the resources and services of a school library has been recognized and demonstrated for many years by school board members, administrators, teachers, parents, and other people in communities having such schools. These individuals, too, have long
3 realized that the school library program contributes something more to the over-all education of youth than materials and services geared to curricular needs. The scope of knowledge has become too vast to be covered extensively within the boundaries of classroom instruction, superior though that instruction may be. Through the school library, these boundaries can be extended immeasurably in all areas of knowledge and in all forms of creative expression. and the means provided to meet and to stimulate the many interests, appreciations, and curiosities of youth.
The school library thus stands as a symbol for the truthful expression of man's knowledge and experiences. The extent to which many children and young people of today will be creative, informed, knowledgeable, and within their own years, wise, will be shaped by the boundaries of the content of the library resources available within their schools.
that all schools have functional programs of library service
Merely stocking schools with materials is not enough. There must also be arrangements that make these materials easily accessible to students and teachers and that assure their optimum use. All schools having two hundred or more students need well organized school libraries with functional programs of service directed by qualified personnel. Other provisions must be made for those smaller schools that cannot afford a library, so that the thousands of students in these schools are not deprived of a wide range of printed and audio-visual materials and library services.
Educational leaders stress the point that the school library is one of the basic requirements for quality education. Through the school library, the many materials needed by teachers and students can be supplied efficiently and economically, and their quality and suitability assured. Equal), important, the school library program, embracing teaching, guidance, and advisory services, forms a unique and vital part of quality education.
Providing the schools of our country with good school libraries is of importance to all citizens, not just school board members, administrators, teachers, and librarians. In the community, parents of school-age children and young people can be extremely effective in implementing measures that bring library programs into schools where none now exists, or that improve library resources and services in schools with established library programs. By consulting
4 with school administrators, by lending support to plans of the school board for the development and improvement of school libraries, and by many other means, parents can be instrumental in obtaining for their schools the resources of teaching and learning and the library programs that facilitate and motivate their use.
All citizens, whether or not they have children in school, have an interest and pride in their schools and in making every effort to provide the best education possible for the youth in their community. As individuals, they endorse plans submitted by the board of education for establishing and supporting good school libraries. As members of civic, professional, church, or other groups, they lend their endeavors collectively to this cause. On many occasions, the concerted action of some civic group or other organization has been largely responsible for establishing libraries in schools.
On the national scene, it is of great importance that school library programs and library resources of all types be included in legislation pertaining to schools. Federal support is needed for the acquisition of materials and equipment in the schools, for research and demonstration, for scholarships, and for other purposes relating to instructional resources and the individuals working with them. National professional and civic groups also have an opportunity and responsibility to contribute their support and efforts to the development and improvement of school libraries.
Although the school library has been recognized as an essential part of a good school for many years, many schools in the country are without school libraries or have inadequate library resources and services. According to the United States Office of Education, in 1953-54, "about 47 percent of the schools in the United States received service from classroom collections only; about 37 percent received service from centralized libraries; and 11 percent of the schools in the United States received service designated as 'any other type of library service.' Only 5 percent of all schools reported no library service." From this report, which still reflects the current picture, it can be seen that much remains to be done in providing our schools with libraries, particularly in elementary schools since at least 75 per cent of the elementary schools are without school libraries. Inasmuch as classroom collections and "other
1. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, "Statistics of Public-School Libraries, 1953-54," Biennial Survey of Education in the U.S., 195254 (Washington, D.C. Govt. Print. Off. 1957), Chapter 6, pp. 19-20.
5 types of library service" indicate limited resources and in no sense are the equivalent of school libraries, it can be stated that millions of elementary school children are being deprived of the full complement of library resources and services which they need and to which they are entitled; this unfortunate fact also holds true for thousands of young people in high schools and combined elementary-high schools. In many of the schools reporting that they have libraries, the facilities for the school libraries are far below standard and in dire need of improvement.
. that we work toward excellence in providing school libraries for the youth of our country
In this book, the basic requirements for truly functional school library programs are stated in the form of qualitative and quantitative standards. These standards are presented for the use of school board members, school administrators, teachers, librarians, and all other citizens interested in schools. The standards are designed to serve as guides in appraising existing situations and in formulating immediate or long-range plans for library programs in the schools.
The standards apply to all types of schools (public, independent, and parochial) and, unless noted otherwise in the text, to all levels of elementary and secondary education (elementary, junior high, senior high, and twelve-grade schools and schools having other combinations of grades). Standards are presented for new schools having an enrollment of 200 or more students, for schools that have been in operation for four years or longer and that have 200 or more students, and for schools having fewer than 200 students. Recommendations are presented for school library services in school buildings, in district or regional materials centers, and in state agencies. The scope of the school library collections, as interpreted in this book, is described in Chapter 2.
The standards consist of three main types: (1) principles of policy and practice that make the library program an educational force in the school; (2) principles of administration and organiz-
2. lbid., p. 21.
3. This book is not intended to serve as a textbook or manual covering all aspectsand details of school library services and practices. These kinds of information can be obtained from the abundant literature that exists in the field of school librarianship, and the reader is urged to consult the items listed in the Selected Bibliography (pp. 114 ff.) and other sources for further information.
6 ation that make the school library an efficient tool; and (3) specifications for the staff, materials collections, funds, quarters, and equipment required for the translation of principles into action.
The quantitative standards recommended in this book are those that provide for very good school library programs. (Good is interpreted as being average, and it is assumed that communities want to have schools that provide something more than just average for their children and young people.) The standards are not maximum ones, and superior schools will want to go beyond them, as some already have. These standards have been based primarily on judgments of educators and librarians that represent long experience with school library programs. The findings of a survey of the conditions and needs existing in a selected sample of very good and excellent school libraries have also been taken into consideration.
The most important part of the library program is the work with students and teachers, those activities and services that make the library an educational force in the school. The objectives of very good schools require that the library program be in full operation, which can be done only when the school meets standards for the personnel, materials, funds, and quarters of the school library.
In some schools, those that now have excellent school library programs and services, the quantitative standards have already been surpassed. In many other schools, the means are at band to reach these standards quickly, once it is recognized that a very good school library is essential for quality education. For many other schools, the quantitative standards, in whole or in part, will constitute goals to work toward, and the realization of these goals may take several years of careful planning and constant effort.
To work continuously toward excellence in providing students and teachers with the resources of teaching and learning that they need, is a good investment for the community. Today, more than ever before, it is the concern and responsibility of citizens to lend their support to a program of action that leads to the development of library programs in the schools that now have none, and that hastens the improvement of existing school libraries that have not yet met recognized standards or their fullest potential. It is the right of every child and young person in a democratic society to have the resources of teaming easily accessible, primarily because these resources and the school library program that implements their use constitute a fundamental part of the education of youth.
The objectives and scope
of the library program
in the school
Throughout this book, specific objectives of school library programs are stated or implied. This chapter presents a concise summary of the general objectives of school libraries and a commentary on the scope of the collections and the services of school library programs. Every school library has the primary objective of contributing to the achievement of the objectives formulated by the school, of which it is an integral part.
The general objectives of dynamic school library service are common to all schools. They apply to elementary and secondary schools alike, to independent and parochial schools as well as to public schools, to small and large schools, to rural schools and to urban. They are in harmony with the over-all objectives of education which they serve.
For many years, school administrators, librarians, and others have endorsed the statement of objectives of the school library that appeared in the first compilation of national school library standards. These objectives, which have pertinency for school libraries today and still serve as basic guides in planning and implementing school library programs, are stated in School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow as follows:
The purposes of the school library are to
1. Participate effectively in the school program as it strives to meet
the needs of pupils, teachers, parents, and other community members.
2. Provide boys and girls with the library materials and services most appropriate and most meaningful in their growth and development as individuals.
3. Stimulate and guide pupils in all phases of their reading so that they may find increasing enjoyment and satisfaction and may grow in critical judgment and appreciation.
4. Provide an opportunity through library experiences for boys and girls to develop helpful interests, to make satisfactory personal adjustments, and to acquire desirable social attitudes.
5. Help children and young people to become skillful and discriminating users of libraries and of printed and audio-visual materials.
6. Introduce pupils to community libraries as early as possible and co-operate with those libraries in their efforts to encourage continuing education and cultural growth.
7. Work with teachers in the selection and use of all types of library materials which contribute to the teaching program.
8. Participate with teachers and administrators in programs for continuing professional and cultural growth of the school staff.
9. Co-operate with other librarians and community leaders in planning and developing an over-all library program for the community or area.1
Each of the above objectives can be spelled out in many particulars, and each embraces a range of library services, instruction, and activities. (See Chapter 3.) The objectives quite rightly focus upon the most important function of the library in the school-the work with teachers and students; and they are based on the assumption that this work can be carried on successfully only when certain conditions prevail-the services of qualified personnel in sufficient number, an abundance of well-selected printed and audio-visual materials, and arrangements that make materials easily accessible within the school.
The scope of the school library program
Although the over-all objectives of the school library program today are substantially the same as those in the statement on pages
1. American Library Association, Committee on Post-War Planning, School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow (Chicago: American Library Association, 1945), pp. 9-10.
9 8 and 9, it would be unrealistic to maintain that changes affecting the interpretation or activation of the objectives have not taken place during recent years. Most of these changes have been in the methods used to achieve the objectives rather than in the objectives themselves, and they reflect the ongoing changes in the schools' programs of instruction and in society.
One major development, however, must be mentioned in some detail. Although there is one specific reference to audio-visual materials in the objectives and although implications regarding these materials can be found in other parts of the statement, this aspect of the school library program has had considerable expansion within recent years.
A variety of arrangements exist for the organization and administration of audio-visual materials in the schools. Many school systems have a central office for audio-visual materials and programs; in some systems this central office is an independent department with its own director, and in other systems it is a unit in the department of school libraries and is directed by the school library supervisor. In many situations these departments are part of the curriculum or instruction division. Whatever the administrative arrangements, a depository of audio-visual materials for systemwide use is usually maintained in the central office and kept readily accessible.
In the school building, the audio-visual materials owned by the school may be part of the school library collection and administered by the school librarian, or they may be a separate collection administered by the audio-visual coordinator. In either arrangement, the person in charge works closely with the teachers in planning the audio-visual program for the school; directs the selection, organization, and use of materials acquired by the school; has the responsibility for borrowing supplementary audio-visual materials from the central depository or from other agencies; and performs other services. Variations of these two basic administrative patterns exist (see footnote 9, page 54), but they are essentially ones of degree rather than of direction.
In view of these developments, policy decisions have had to be made regarding the functions of the school library in relation to audio-visual materials and services. On the national level, the American Association of School Librarians has officially adopted the statement on pages 11-12.
School libraries as instructional materials centers2
The American Association of School Librarians believes that the school library, in addition to doing its vital work of individual reading guidance development of the school curriculum, should serve the school as a cent instructional materials. Instructional materials include books-the literature of children, young people and adults-other printed materials, films, recordings, and newer media developed to aid teaming.
Teaching methods advocated by leaders in the field of curriculum development and now used in elementary and secondary education call for extensive and frequently combined use of traditional along with many new and different kinds of materials. Since these methods depend for their success upon a cross-media approach to teaming, a convenient way of approaching instructional materials on a subject or problem basis must be immediately at hand in each school. Historically, libraries of all types have been established to provide convenient centers for books and reading and for locating ideas and information important to the communities they serve. The interest a modem school now has in finding and using good motion pictures, sound recordings, filmstrips and other newer materials simply challenges and gives increased dimension to established library roles.
The school librarian has always encouraged development of appreciation for and ability to make good and continuing use of printed materials and library services. Taking into account individual differences of children and young people, the school library stimulates and guides each child in the selection and use of materials for the building of taste on appropriate levels of
(continued on p. 12 of original)
maturity. Now in good library practice, the school library also helps both pupils and teachers to discover new materials of interest and to determine their values. It may provide these materials and the equipment needed for their use for both individual and classroom study and teaching.
The function of an instructional materials center is to locate, gather, provide and coordinate a school's materials for learning and the equipment required for use of these materials. Primary responsibility for administering such a center, producing new instructional materials, and supervising regular programs of in-service training for use of materials may be the province of librarians, or, it may be shared. In any case, trained school librarians must be ready to cooperate with others and themselves serve as coordinators, consultants, and supervisors of instructional materials service on each level of school administration-in the individual school building, for the city or county unit, for the state.
School librarians are normally educated as teachers and meet state requirements for regular teaching certificates. They must also receive special training in analysis, educational evaluation, selection, organization, systematic distribution and use of instructional materials. The professional education of school librarians should contribute this basic knowledge as well as provide understanding of fundamental learning processes, teaching methods, and the psychology of children and adolescents. Also, school librarians must be familiar with the history and current trends in development of school curricula.
In summary, the well-trained professional school librarian should anticipate service as both a teacher and as an instructional materials specialist. Where adequate funds and staff are available, the school library can serve as an efficient and economical means of coordinating the instructional materials and equipment needed for a given school program. It should always stand ready to provide informed guidance conceding selection and use of both printed and newer media.
In this book, the interpretation of the scope of the school library program is in agreement with the statement of philosophy quoted above,3 and the content is presented accordingly. Standards are given for audio-visual materials and services for school libraries where the librarian is in charge of these materials for the school. it is recognized, however, that many schools have adopted other administrative policies, and provisions for the school libraries in these situations are made in the standards. Many schools have long-established and successful arrangements for the separate adminis-
3. See also the official statement quoted on pp. 59-62.
11 tration of printed and audio-visual materials, and there is no evidence that these schools will change their policies in the immediate future. For libraries in schools that now have the dual administrative control of printed and audio-visual materials, the standards include, where necessary, a separate set of quantitative standards (as in the case of staff ), and factors affecting policy are interpolated in the text. Elsewhere, the content is so organized that the reader can quickly identify what does or does not apply to his situation. The point should be stressed that the standards advocate that good school library programs make audio-visual materials easily accessible for use in the library, regardless of the prevailing administrative pattern for these materials.
The word library is rich in tradition, meaning, and usage, and for at least sixty years, if not longer, the definition of school library has reflected this heritage. A school library has always been, and will continue to be, flexible in its program of services and in the scope of the materials of communication contained in its collections, as it meets the changing needs of the school that it serves. A school library does not have to change its name to embrace new materials and new uses of all types of materials any more than a school has to call itself by some other name to indicate that it is a continuously growing social institution. Services, not words, portray the image of the school library. The school library is a materials center, an instructional materials center, an instructional resource center, or any of the equivalent terms now springing into existence. In like manner, the school librarian is a materials specialist or an instructional resources consultant. School library and school li brarian have been used in these connotations throughout this book, but in a richer sense as well. For the school library, through books, films, recordings, and other materials, goes beyond the requirements of the instructional program, and unfolds for the many private quests of children and young people the imagination of mankind.
The school library program for children and young people
The school library program contains many areas of instruction, service, and activities for children and young people. Those relating to the provision and accessibility of materials are described in the chapters in Part Three. This chapter deals with those parts of the library's program for students that are concerned with reading and reading guidance, guidance in listening and viewing, reference services and research, instruction in the use of materials, personal and social guidance, and student assistants.1 Chapters 7 and 8 also contain content of this nature.
In planning and developing the library program for children and young people, the librarian is guided by the following general principles:
1 The school library program reflects the philosophy of the school and enriches all parts of its educational program.
2. For the individual student, the library program offers valuable experiences and instruction that start with kindergarten and, expanding in breadth and depth, continue through the secondary school. This continuity of the library program provides for the student a cumulative growth in library skills and in the development of reading, listening, and viewing abilities and tastes.
3. The true concept of a school library program means instruction,
1. For special aspects of a school library program that apply only to demonstration schools, see pp. 69-70.
service, and activity throughout the school rather than merely within the four walls of the library quarters. All phases of the school program are enriched by means of library materials and services. The degree to which teachers and pupils can and do depend on the services, materials, and staff of the library measures the extent to which the library program is successful.
4. Every boy and girl within the school is reached by the library program according to his individual needs.
5. Through varied types of materials, the collections of the library provide for the many kinds of interests that its users have, for the different levels of maturity and ability of the student population, and for the wide range of demands evoked by the curriculum and the services of the modern school.
6. The library is a laboratory for research and study where students learn to work alone and in groups under the guidance of librarians and teachers. Thus it contributes to the growth and development of youth in independent thinking, in abilities to study effectively, and in desirable attitudes toward reading, toward other media of communication, and toward learning and research.
7. The library program forms one facet of an over-all guidance program in the school by making important contributions through its teaching, materials, and services to the personal, social, and vocational guidance of students.
8. School library experiences serve as steppingstones to the use of other library resources in the community and to the formation of a lifetime habit of library usage, as well as to pride in the ownership of books.
Reading and reading guidance
1 The pupil's growth in reading ability and interest is a joint responsibility of the teachers, the librarians, and the parents.
The individualized reading program, starting in the kindergarten and continuing through each successive grade level, stimulates and motivates the development of good reading habits. This program rests upon and makes extensive use of a rich and varied school library collection that meets the interests and abilities of every student.
2 The warm and friendly atmosphere, the range of reading materials, and the expert reading guidance of the staff encourage
15 every boy and girl to pursue his reading interests in the school library.
By the provision of rich materials in attractive and stimulating surroundings, boys and girls are invited to satisfy their many reading interests. A varied and effective program of reading guidance makes pupils feel at home as readers and contributes to their growth in discernment in the selection of their reading fare and in the appreciation of their reading experiences. The library thus becomes closely identified with their recreational activities as well as their academic pursuits. Through a reading program geared to individual needs, all students are encouraged to continue their reading interests when formal education ceases.
3 The combined efforts of librarians and teachers are necessary for an effective reading guidance program. This implies an exchange of information regarding the interests, needs, and abilities of students and the materials to satisfy these demands.
4 The librarian works with all teachers responsible for the developmental, corrective, and individualized reading programs in the school, by making suggestions about materials, by guiding the reading of students in the library in line with the recommendations of the teachers, and by scheduling library periods and activities to meet the needs of students.
5 The librarian contributes to the accelerated learning program by co-operating with the teachers in providing challenging reading experiences for the maximum development of gifted students.
6 Reading guidance in the library can be more meaningful when the librarian has access to and makes use of reading scores, intelligence quotients, and other pertinent information about the characteristics of individual students.
7 Information reported by the librarian concerning the reading behavior, library use, and attitudes of students, especially those having reading difficulties and high school students trying for scholarships and other awards, make useful additions to the reports of classroom teachers in the school records.
8 Reading guidance is implicit in almost every contact the student has with the librarian whether it be in the classroom, the corridor, or the library. The initiative and creative ability of the librarian shape the approaches used.
9 Reading guidance in the school library embraces a variety of approaches which make reading meaningful and attractive and also a voluntary activity for boys and girls. It involves the use of recordings, television and radio programs, films, and the theater. It includes book displays, book reviews by students in school publications, assembly programs, book talks, storytelling, reading aloud, and many other techniques that are also effective.
10 Reading guidance in reference services and research and in instruction in the use of materials is also an important aspect of the program.
Guidance in listening and viewing
1 The school library program shares the school's responsibility for teaching students to become intelligent users of recordings, radio, films, filmstrips, television, and other audio-visual materials, both in the school and in the home.
2 The school library program provides students with the opportunities to integrate and to correlate audio-visual materials with printed materials, as well as to make use of each medium for its own particular value.
3 Since one medium of communication may serve best for the transmission of certain knowledge and understanding, the librarian seeks to provide for each student the most appropriate means for the communication of this knowledge and understanding.
4 Appropriate equipment and facilities enable individuals to use audio-visual materials within the library, and arrangements are also made for the circulation of these materials for classroom and home use (see page 90, point 6).
5 The library staff assists students in the evaluation and use of audio-visual materials for research purposes.
6 The library staff, in co-operation with other teachers, guides students in acquiring an artistic and cultural appreciation of these media. Students are encouraged to explore and to enjoy films, recordings, and other audio-visual materials. Class and group discussions before and after listening and viewing experiences and the study of the development of various media broaden the students' understanding and appreciation of these media as art forms.
17 Reference services and research
1 Students use the school library as a laboratory for reference and research in which they locate specific information and expand their knowledge by using a wide variety of printed and audio-visual materials.
2 Research or reference work, whether done individually by students or in groups under the guidance of teacher and librarian, forms an important element in that part of the instructional program that is concerned with teaching students to analyze, evaluate, and interpret.
3 An integrated program of library instruction taught throughout their school career enables children and young people to acquire independence and competency in their search for information and their use of materials. (See the section immediately following.) Nevertheless, the mere processes of locating materials or of finding information are not always profitable uses of a student's time, and thus, whenever appropriate, the library staff performs services of this nature for the student.
Instruction in the use of materials
1 The program of teaching the use of the library and its resources is a co-operative endeavor which involves the principal, the chairman or head of department, the classroom teacher, and the librarian. (See also pages 66-67, point 7.)
a. There is an over-all plan of instruction in the use of materials for the school as a whole, in which the areas of knowledge and the types of skills to be acquired by the students are defined and allocated to the various subjects and grade levels of the curriculum. This plan presents in some detail the material to be covered regarding reference tools and resources, organization of the library and guides to its contents, study and work skills involved in using materials accurately and efficiently, and bibliographic form.
b. The faculty develops the program so that it is fully integrated with classroom work, evolving, naturally, not artificially or arbitrarily, from the purposes and requirements of classroom instruction. Using a library and its resources is an important means, but still a means, to some ultimate goal the synthesis of information, the extension of knowledge,
18 the analysis and solution of problems, thinking, reflection, the satisfaction of curiosity, the development of taste, or the derivation of pleasure.
c. The bead librarian has a major responsibility in planning the design and content of the program of instruction in the use of materials and makes arrangements for its implementation.
d. The librarian teaches the library orientation lessons, and, as a specialist in the use of materials, the librarian introduces appropriate materials and suggests avenues of approach to classes starting work on special projects or assignments. The rest of the program of group instruction may be taught by either the teacher or the librarian, or by both, as needed. Guidance of the individual student is important at all times.
2 Instruction begins in the elementary school grades as soon as there is evidence that library skills are needed, and continues, expanding in breadth and depth, as the student progresses through the various grades.
3 Since the use of the library by a class group is an extension of classroom work, the teacher accompanies his class to the school library and, for maximum effectiveness of the time available, works with the librarian in assisting the students.
4 The school's program of library instruction includes acquainting all students with the services of the public library in their community and making them aware of the role of the public library as a major social institution. The child beginning school needs to learn about the children's room of the public library and how to get a library card, if he is not already a public library patron. The child who has just moved to the community also needs this information. It is desirable for the student entering junior high school and the one entering senior high school to understand the broader use they can now make of the public library, including an introduction to the adult departments. The senior leaving high school must know how his public library can serve him the rest of his lifetime. He must also be able to make effective use of his college or university library. The ways in which students acquire these experiences and understandings are planned by the school and public librarians. They may include class visits to the public library, motion pictures or slides of the public library and its services shown to classes in school, closed circuit television programs in the class-
19 room that present the public library in action, and other methods.
Personal and social guidance
1 The library has a place in the guidance program of the school and makes a distinct contribution through its materials, instructional program, and services. (See also the section following on student assistants.) The librarian works closely with all counselors and guidance personnel in supplying materials and services.
2 The school library environment provides boys and girls with experiences in democratic living. The sharing of facilities, the care of school property, the need to assume personal responsibility and to recognize appropriate individual behavior in a group situation-all give boys and girls opportunities to learn how to work together and to respect the rights and wishes of each other.
3 Materials are provided for students to use in connection with their special interests and hobbies and to assist them in their club or cocurricular activities.
4 The librarian is frequently in a very favorable position to help boys and girls in the solution of personal, social, and ethical problems and does so by means of informal guidance and by recommending appropriate reading materials.
5 The librarian contributes to the vocational guidance of young people by supplying adequate and up-to-date materials and resource files on occupations, colleges, and further schooling.
1 Under favorable circumstances (see page 58, point 3), organized student participation in the school library program yields educational and other values for the students involved. It heightens a sense of belonging, provides opportunities for leadership and co-operation, fosters the abilities to assume responsibility and to work satisfactorily with others, expands the knowledge and appreciation of libraries and their resources, and for some students leads to an interest in librarianship as a profession.
2 Volunteer student help in the library should never be exploited, and under no circumstances should it be used as a substitute for
20 paid clerical assistance or janitorial work. (See pages 57-58.)
3 All students who can profit by the experience and who are capable of contributing to the work of the library should have the opportunity to serve the school in this manner.
4 Counselors and other faculty members co-operate with the librarian in the selection of students who win profit from membership on the staff of student assistants.
5 Student library assistants are given the same recognition and awards which are given to students belonging to other service clubs.
Materials, funds, and staff needed for
school library programs (summary)
So that students can:
Derive the fullest benefit from their classroom instruction.
Extend the boundaries of their knowledge and experience.
Pursue self-directed learning of all kinds.
Explore and satisfy their many curiosities and interests.
Find enjoyment in the rich stores of the imaginative expressions of creative artists.
Learn how to use libraries and to evaluate the materials of communication.
Obtain materials that meet their individual needs and abilities.
Establish desirable intellectual habits that last for life.
So that teachers and counselors can:
Achieve their instructional objectives to the fullest degree.
Enrich course content.
Prepare assignments that provide for the needs and abilities of individual students.
Motivate students to use materials for curricular and noncurricular purposes.
Have the materials needed in counseling students in many aspects of guidance
Use materials directly with students in the classroom.
Teach students how to use materials and libraries.
Have materials easily accessible and efficiently organized so that time is not wasted in locating materials f or examination and use. Keep abreast with the best ideas and practices in education.
Use materials to broaden their own knowledge and to derive personal enjoyment.
The forward-looking school:
Provides, in sufficient abundance and variety, the many resources needed for teaching and learning.
Has these materials easily accessible and available for students to use in the school and in the home.
Supports a well-planned school library program that provides for the careful evaluation and selection of materials, for the efficient organization of materials, and, for the guidance and assistance desired by faculty members and students in selecting and using materials.
In order to have the school library program that meets the needs of teachers and students satisfactorily and efficiently, the school must have the personnel, materials, funds, quarters, and equipment that are necessary for its successful performance. These essential elements for a dynamic library program are interlocking and interdependent, and this relationship must be kept in mind in interpreting the quantitative standards recommended in this chapter and throughout the book. For example, recommendations for personnel take into consideration the number of staff members needed to implement the use of the materials collection of the recommended size, to spend wisely the recommended budget, and to provide instruction and services in quarters having the recommended space. Standards for funds take into consideration the size recommended for the basic materials collections, the space available in the area recommended for quarters, and the time and talent available for the careful selection of materials when standards for size and qualifications of staff are met.
All the standards have been based primarily on what the school library program must have to give very good service to teachers and students, to provide the printed and audio-visual resources necessary for effective teaching and learning, and to function as an educational force within the school.
Pages 24-25 contain a summary of the major quantitative standards for the school library. Explanations, additional details, and
23 A summary* of the major quantitative standards for school library programs a
Type of collection: b
The collections of printed materials
The collection in the school library
Delegated administrative responsibility. Head school librarian
Location in the school :
1 School library area or areas, with seating space for at least 45-55 in schools with 200-550 students, or fewer and for 10 per cent of the student enrollment in schools having 551 or more students.
2 Classroom collections on short- or long-term loans from the school library.
1 Funds for regular library books: In schools having 200-249 students. at least $1,000 - $1,500. In schools having 250 or more students. at least $4.00-$6.00 per student.
2 Additional funds as required for: Encyclopedias, unabridged dictionaries, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets. Rebinding. Supplies and equipmentd
Size of the collections:d
1 Minimum size of the collections in schools having 200-999 students. 6,000-10,000 books. 1,000 or more students. 10 books per student.
a. At least the following number of titles in the general magazine collection in
schools having Grades K-6. 25
schools having Grades K-8. 50
Junior high schools. 70
Senior high schools. 120
b. Plus at least 5 titles in the areas of librarianship and instructional materials.
3 At least 3-6 newspapers.
4 An extensive collection of pamphlets covering a wide range of subjects.
1 Librarians: For the first 900 studentse or fraction thereof: 1 librarian for each 300 students or major fraction thereof. For each additional 400 students or major fraction thereof: 1 librarian.
2 Clerks: 1 clerk for each 600 students or major fraction thereof.
The collection of professional materials for the school faculty
Delegated administrative responsibility. Head school librarian
Location in the school. A separate room, ieht as part of the school library suite or in another part of the school.
Annual expenditure :
1For materials, a minimum of $200-$800, depending on the needs and size of the faculty and the availability of other collections of professional materials in the community.
2Funds for supplies and equipment.c
Size of the collectionsd
1Books: At least 200-1,000 titles, the number depending on the needs and size of the faculty and the availabilty of other collections of professional materials in the community.
2At least 25-50 professional magazine titles.
3Other instructional materials as needed.
The collection of supplementary materials (sets of supplementary texts; classroom reference materials)
Delegated administrative responsibility. Head school librarian
Location in the school :
1May be housed in a separate area, in the textbook room, or in storage-stack space of the school library.
2Classroom collections on short- or long-term loans.
Annual expenditures :
1Funds allocated as needed. These funds are in addition to those recommended above for the school library and for the faculty collection.
2Funds for supplies and equipment.c
Size of the collection:
1The size of the collection depends on the needs and enrollment of the school. (Extensive use of school library materials and individualized reading and instructional programs tend to reduce the size of these collections considerably.)
2The type and number of reference materials purchased for classroom use depend on local school policy.
Library clerks as needed in addition to those provided for the school library and audiovisual collections. A discussion of these standards are presented in the appropriate chapters (see the Contents and the Index). It is essential that this descriptive context be read for a full understanding of the quantitative standards, which must be interpreted in relation to a complete and active school library program.
The collection of audio-visual materials
Delegated administrative responsibility. Head School Librarian or Co-ordinator of Audio-visual Materials, depending on local school policy and organization.
Location in the school:
1The audio-visual center (may be part of the school libary suite or a separage center near the library).
2Classroom collections on short-or long-term loans.
1Not less than 1 per cent of the total per pupil instructional cost (2.00-$6.00) for the acquisition of audio-visual materials.
2Funds for supplies and equipment.c
Size of the collection:
1A sufficient number of all types of audiovisual materials for use in the classrooms, in the school library, and for home use.
2Films used six or more times a year are purchased.
3Filmstrips and recordings used more than once a year are purchased.
1When the head school librarian has partial administrative responsibility for audio-visual materails, the nubmer of librarians and the nubmer of clerks are each increased by 25 per cent.
2When the head school librarian has full administrative responsibility for audio-visual materials, the number of librarians and the number of clerks are each increased by 50 per cent.
a For schools having 200 or more students. For standards for library programs in schools having fewer than 200 students, see Chapter 12; for libraries in new school buildings, see Chapter 11.
B In the case of some schools, these collections may be supplemented by materials received from district or central depositories of materials.
D Funds for supplies and equipment are provided in amounts sufficient for the needs of the school.
E The school having 200 students has a full-time librarian and a half-time clerk.
* This summary table is to be used after the complete text of the book has been read. These quantitative standards must be interpreted in relation to a complete and active school library program.
24 and 25 (double page spread in the original)
discussion of these standards are presented in the appropriate chapters (see the Contents and the Index). It is essential that this descriptive context be read for a full understanding of the quantitative standards, which must be interpreted in relation to a complete and active school library program.
Planning and implementing school library programs
27 Blank page in the original
School boards, school administrators, and school libraries
Successful school library programs represent co-operative enterprises involving the efforts of many people: the interest and support of citizens in having very good schools for their communities (Chapter 1), the many activities of teachers that motivate students to use a wide range of library resources (Chapter 8), and the leadership and services of school librarians (Chapters 6 and 7). School board members and school administrators, however, have the greatest responsibility and opportunity for making certain that the schools have libraries with functional programs and excellent resources. These educational leaders are not only primarily responsible but also ultimately accountable for the presence or absence, success or failure of libraries in the schools; and no individuals are more influential than they in determining the status and nature of school library programs. Since these statements apply to school boards and administrative officers at both the state and local levels, this chapter outlines the major activities relating to school libraries that are performed by state school board members, chief state school officers, local school board members, superintendents of schools, and school principals.1 Although the state and local school agencies perform distinct and separate functions, the support of both groups is essential for the success of the library programs in the schools of the state.
1. Although the terminology used in this chapter relates primarily to public school instruction, the general principles are applicable to the governing bodies of independent and parochial schools.
The history of school libraries shows that the state education and library agencies have had key roles in the establishment and improvement of school libraries. Much of this work has been carried on through the state office of school library supervision, and it is "generally true, on a state-wide basis, that school libraries have reached a higher state of development in those states that have had school library supervisors.
Through state agencies many significant and unique services are provided that assist the school library movement. The functions of state school boards and officers of state instruction are listed in this section; those of state school library supervisors are described in Chapter 6.
The state school board
Recognizing the importance of books and other materials in the education of youth and the necessity for having school library programs, members of the state school board:
1 Are familiar with current standards for programs, resources, personnel, and facilities of libraries in schools having 200 or more students, and with the standards for library resources and services in smaller schools that cannot afford a school library.
2 Keep informed about the extent to which schools in their state meet recognized standards for school libraries, and about the measures for providing library resources and services in schools that are too small to have libraries.
3 Support the chief state school officer in his policies, provisions, and plans for school library programs and, if such be lacking or inadequate, urge him to assume the appropriate leadership in these matters.
4 Throughout the state, interpret and support the values of having libraries in the schools.
The chief state school officer
Although the chief state school officer delegates to members of this department the authority for translating the program into action, he has the responsibility for making certain that the following basic policies and practices concerning school libraries are in operation within his department:
1 The chief state school officer, as part of his over-all objective to provide the best possible schools for children and young People in his state, works steadily toward the goal of having in each school a library program that meets recognized standards. He is keenly aware that all children and young people, as members of a democratic society, have the right to free and equal access to libraries, since good school library resources and services form basic elements in the total educational program.
To this end, the chief state school officer designs a plan for the state as a whole that provides school library resources and services for every child and young person in the state. In the formulation of this state-wide plan he works with the state school library supervisor, members in the state education and library agencies, professional education and library associations in the state, and educational leaders in the state. In the implementation of his program he receives support and assistance from the individuals and groups already named, and, in addition, from members of the state school board, citizen groups, representatives from local school systems, and others. This program for the state in no way encroaches upon the authority and initiative of local school systems. (See also page 39, point 1.)
2 The chief state school officer promotes the state-wide attainment of those recommendations affecting school libraries that have been adopted by the state, frequently through legislation. These include:
a. State standards for the staff, materials collection, funds, and quarters for school libraries.
b. State certification requirements for school librarians that are consistent with those for other teachers.
c. State certification requirements for teachers that stipulate that teachers have received, as part of their professional preparation, instruction about printed and audio-visual materials appropriate for the age group that they will be teaching. (See also pages 67-68.)
d. Standards for school libraries recommended by the regional accrediting association for the state.
The chief state school officer realizes that state standards for school libraries tend to be minimum standards and that regional standards,l where they exist, generally tend to be only slightly higher than state standards. He therefore encourages school
authorities to go beyond the state and regional requirements whenever it is realistic and possible, and to work continuously toward achieving higher standards for school library resources and services.
In those states that have incomplete, outmoded, or no standards for school libraries, the chief state school officer puts into operation the machinery necessary for their revision or formulation. Many states, for example, are only now developing standards for elementary school libraries.
3 The chief state school officer recognizes that state school library supervision is essential for the successful development of school library programs in the state as a whole; for the performance of the many advisory services that the state is asked to give, at both state and local levels, regarding instructional materials and school library programs, and for many other purposes. He therefore has an office of school library supervision in the state department of education, and he upholds for this office the principles and procedures recommended in Chapter 6.
If the chief state school officer is in a state that has no school library supervisor, be has a distinct responsibility to see that this position is created as soon as possible in the state department of education and that provisions are made for this office in line with recommended practice (pages 37-42).
4 The chief state school officer upholds any policy for the selection of library materials that school librarians have helped to formulate for the state. He supports the principles stated in the School Library Bill of Rights of the American Association of School Librarians (page 75).
5 The chief state school officer establishes lines of co-operation and communication that lead to the promotion and utilization of school libraries by:
a. Interpreting the need for expanded school library programs to professional and civic groups in the state and to divisions in the state education agency.
b. Including librarians on state educational committees dealing with areas of the curriculum, special instructional services, and related fields.
6 The chief state school officer encourages a continuous reevaluation of the principles for school libraries endorsed by the state. This policy not only brings about improvements in exist-
ing standards and services, but also provides for exploration in new directions. The state, on occasion, provides such legislation and financial aid as may be needed for the development of experimental or demonstration programs of school library service.
7 The chief state school officer endorses a program of adequate state aid for school libraries in line with established policies and practices of the state in relation to school funds. He weighs existing needs carefully, and promotes any necessary measures for state financial support for school library resources and services in situations where there is insufficient or no state aid at the present time. This support is frequently necessary for very small schools and for intermediate school units. In some places, the maintenance of district materials centers (see Chapter 13) may require some state financial assistance.
The school system
The board of education
School board members are guided by the following principles pertaining to school libraries:
1 Since the school library is an essential part of the total school program, the provision of libraries in the schools is the responsibility of the board of education. The administrative authority and responsibility for school libraries belong to the board of education and not to the public library.
2 It is also the responsibility of the board of education to make certain that those schools having fewer than 200 students that are unable to have school libraries, have the printed and audiovisual materials and advisory library services that are needed; and to determine the most effective type of co-operative planning for these schools in this respect (see Chapter 12).
3 School board members are acquainted with state, regional, and national standards for school libraries, and use these standards as guides in assisting the local schools to have the best libraries possible.
4 Members of the school board are familiar with the principles and programs of good school library service so that they can interpret to citizens of the community the desirability of having good library programs in all schools.
5 School board members assist the superintendent of schools and
school principals in achieving their goals for very good school library programs.
6 Each school system has stated policies and procedures for selecting school library resources, adopted by the governing board of the district and mutually understood by administrators, faculty, and library staff (see also pages 74-76).
7 School board members are informed about co-operative plans for centralized technical processing of library resources and for district materials centers, and they explore the feasibility of participating in these plans (see Chapter 13).
The superintendent of schools 2
In assuming leadership for the development and improvement of school libraries in his school system, the superintendent of schools:
1 Is aware of the school library's contribution to the educational program at all grade levels and works toward bringing this contribution to its fullest potential in all schools.
2 Plans and vigorously supports the school library program, interpreting its services to and enlisting the aid of the board of education, principals, supervisors, coordinators, teachers, parent teacher groups, and other community members.
3 Formulates the policies for the scope of the school library program regarding audio-visual materials. The inclusion or exclusion of these materials as part of the school library program is determined for the individual school or for the school system on the basis of school needs and in relation to existing organizational patterns for handling such materials in the schools. If the head librarian in the school is to assume administrative responsibility for audio-visual materials, sufficient staff, funds, and space must be provided (see Chapters 2, 7, 9, and 10).
4 Plans and implements a program with the school library supervisor, principals, and school librarians, whereby libraries in the schools in the district having 200 or more students meet state, regional, or national standards, and whereby smaller schools are provided with library resources and advisory services. He works assiduously to remove any expedient measures that may be serving as substitutes for standard school library service, such as volunteer parent workers administering the school li-
2. See also pp. 96.
library, the use of clerical help for professional library work, exploitation of unpaid student library assistants, and library funds raised from teas, sales, and similar sources.
5 Employs librarians who have professional competencies and the qualities of co-operative leadership.
6 Realizes that a high quality of library service is dependent upon good financial support, and allocates the funds necessary for the library program and its growth. In co-operation with the principal, he holds the head librarian in the school responsible for the preparation of a budget and for the wise expenditure of funds, through a planned buying program.
7 Provides sufficient space in the schools for functional library quarters, and consults with the district school library supervisor and with the state school library supervisor as well as with an architect in the planning and remodeling of library quarters.
8 Appoints a supervisor of school libraries when the school system reaches a size where this is advisable (page 42), and makes arrangements for the funds, quarters, and staff needed for this office (pages 42-43).
9 Recognizes the need for all libraries in the school district to have a coordinated program of library services co-operatively developed by the school administration and the school librarians.
10 Supports those co-operative library measures on a system-wide basis that eliminate duplication of clerical effort and promote economical purchasing procedures; and that minimize the time professional librarians spend on technical and clerical tasks involved in the ordering and preparation of materials (see footnote 8 page 112).
11 Supports the program of the district materials center (pages 106-12) and, if there is no district materials center available for teachers and librarians in his schools, works toward the establishment of a center.
12 Establishes channels of communication and co-ordination between directors of instructional subjects and school librarians in the system-wide planning of curriculum development, and appoints librarians on committees involving inter-departmental co-operation at the system level.
13 Utilizes the services available from the office of the state school library supervisor.
The school principal
In carrying out his responsibilities for the library program in his school, the school principal:
1 Endorses a library program that broadens and improves the quality of education for all children and young people; interprets this program and its services to the superintendent of schools, teachers, parents, and others; and enlists their aid in its fulfillment.
2 Works with the head school librarian in designing the library program best suited to the needs of the school and all of its pupils, and makes it possible for the librarian to carry forward a library program that follows best policies and practices.
3 Encourages wide and effective use of library resources on the part of all students and teachers.
4 Plans with teachers and librarians for a systematic and integrated program of library instruction for all students.
5 Puts into operation any policies for school libraries established at the school system level.
6 Is familiar with school library standards and uses them as guides in evaluating the school library program and in providing staff, quarters, funds, and materials collections.
7 Appoints the bead librarian to the faculty council or advisory committee and includes librarians on general curriculum committees and other appropriate committees (see pages 48-49).
8 Has administrative authority over the school library budget, but plans the budget with the head school librarian and gives him authority for its expenditure.
9 Endorses a policy for the selection and purchase of all printed and audio-visual materials, and recognizes the competencies of the school library staff in this area (page 34, point 6; pages 74-76).
10 Helps to keep the professional library staff informed about major educational developments in general and about changing teaching procedures and new or expanded curricula within the school.
11 Looks to the bead librarian for creative and imaginative leadership, and makes certain that the lines of responsibility and authority from the school administrator to the bead librarian are clearly established.
School library supervisors
Supervision is an expert instructional service used by schools to improve the quality of the educational program. Advisers and other resource personnel charged with specific supervisory responsibilities have a variety of titles in this country: supervisor, consultant, coordinator, specialist, director, and similar names. The terms supervision and supervisor are used in this book, and supervision is interpreted to mean democratic leadership and guidance, as opposed to the older concept of authoritarian inspection and rating. School library supervision refers to the over-all direction of a planned program of developing and improving school library services and resources. The school library supervisor is one of many instructional specialists in a school system or state department of public instruction, all of whom share responsibility for the total educational program.
The term school library supervision is used throughout this book, but it should be understood that this title is sometimes interpreted to include those situations where the person has responsibility for both library and audio-visual services and may have the title of supervisor or director of instructional materials.
In the first two sections of this chapter supervision is considered at the state level and in city, county, and multi-district school systems; qualifications for personnel having supervisory responsibility are found in the third section.
State school library supervision
As already noted (page 30), state school library supervision furnishes unique and important services in the formation and im-
provement of school library programs within a state. The number of states with school library supervisors (now 26) steadily advances toward an immediate goal recommended for the nation by the school library profession-at least one state school library supervisor for every state.
Administration and organization
Basic principles for the administration and organization of state school library supervision include the following (see also pages 30-33):
1 The office of school library supervision is most appropriately located in the state department of education.
In general, the office of the school library supervisor functions best when it is a unit of the state department of education. Some states have a long-established administrative scheme where the office of school library supervision is located in a library division that is part of the state department of education and serves an types of libraries in the state.
Where the school library office forms part of an autonomous state library agency, the closest communication between the school library supervisor and members of the state department of education is imperative for an effective school library supervisory program. Even under the best of circumstances, however, this arrangement leaves much to be desired.
2 The number of staff members required to give the needed direction and service varies among different states.
a. A minimum program requires a full-time qualified supervisor, full-time secretarial assistance, and specific plans for adding professional and clerical staff members.
b. In addition, every state needs an assistant school library supervisor, and many states need two or more. The assistant supervisor may direct particular parts of the service program, or may serve as the specialist for one group of schools (elementary, secondary, or twelve-grade), or may have advisory responsibilities for libraries in schools in one region of the state. (See point 1 in the following section.)
3 The rank and salary of state school library supervisors are equivalent to that of other supervisors of equal education, experience, and responsibility in the department of education.
4 The supervisor's office requires up-to-date equipment and is
organized according to modern business methods.
5 Sufficient funds are provided for the operation of the office, for travel expenses of the supervisors to visit schools and to attend professional meetings within the state, and for travel allowances for supervisors to attend important professional meetings outside the state.
The program of state school library supervision
In an effective program of state school library supervision, the supervisor plans and administers the special services of his office, and he works with many individuals, committees, and groups. The areas of activity of the supervisor are listed below. In the performance of these services the school library supervisor has the help of one or more assistant supervisors.
1 Working closely with the chief state school officer, the state school library supervisor designs an over-all plan for the state's participation and assistance in the development of school libraries.
In this plan, objectives and goals are noted with reference to any special measures or timing involved, and arrangements are made so that those services and activities noted in points 2, 3, and 4 below can be conducted efficiently and successfully. In addition, the supervisor plans systematically for the distribution of special services on an equalized basis among the regions of his state. This last-named phase of planning can best be done when the office of supervision has the requisite number of staff members. For example, the state may be divided into regions, with an assistant supervisor serving as the representative of the state supervisory office for each region. In states covering vast areas, headquarters for the assistant supervisor can be located in the region in which he is working and, under some circumstances, may be identified with a materials center for that region. (See Chapter 13.)
2 In relation to staff members in other divisions of the state department of education, the state school library supervisor:
a. Works closely with all divisions of the state department of education, and enlists their aid in the improvement of school libraries throughout the state and in the development of plans to provide library resources and advisory services for schools having fewer than 200 students.
b. Interprets the functions of school library programs in the education of youth, and describes the resources and services needed to make the school library program an educational force.
c. Keeps the department informed about school library developments in the state and about significant matters pertaining to school libraries occurring in other states or on a national scale.
d. Serves continuously as a resource person, providing informational and advisory services about school library programs and about printed and audio-visual materials for children and young people.
If the state department of education has adopted a policy of maintaining a separate division for audio-visual materials and services, the school library supervisor works closely with the supervisor of audio-visual materials and members of his staff.
e. Serves on curriculum committees and otherwise participates in the state planning of curriculum development.
f. Appraises, in co-operation with the staff in charge of examining building plans for new or remodeled schools, the specifications for school library quarters in the blueprints sent to the state department for examination, and makes recommendations for changes as needed.
g. Assists the division in charge of the certification of librarians in evaluating transcripts of applicants and, when necessary, in formulating or revising state certification requirements for school librarians.
h. Serves in an advisory capacity in the interpretation or preparation of any state or federal legislation or regulations pertaining to school library programs and resources.
3 In the schools, the state school library supervisor:
a. Makes visits for many purposes: to observe new library programs and services; to keep informed about school library programs in the state; and to give advisory assistance, as needed.
b. Assists school administrators in making arrangements for starting library programs; in charting expanded library programs; in evaluating school libraries; in planning library quarters in new school buildings; in finding personnel for
the school library; and in other ways, as requested.
c. Confers frequently with city, county, and district supervisors of school libraries and, when requested, gives assistance in the development of their school library programs.
d. As needed, interprets school library functions and standards to parent-teacher groups, school board members, school administrators, school librarians, or others.
4 As part of the over-all program of state school library supervision, the supervisor:
a. Answers, in correspondence or in conference, the requests for information and advice about school libraries and school library resources that come to the state department of education.
b. Exerts leadership in appraising existing state standards for school libraries and in initiating new or revised standards when needed.
c. Prepares and distributes materials on school library services and resources, as needed.
d. Evaluates and recommends materials for school library collections.
e. Interprets and evaluates the statistics about school libraries that are collected from the schools.
f. Prepares annual reports about the work of his office and, on occasion, may prepare special reports, articles, or releases about school libraries in the state.
g. Promotes and directs group meetings and workshops (about school library services and resources) for school administrators, librarians, or teachers, as needed.
h. Keeps informed about the programs in the state for the education of school librarians and, when appropriate, makes recommendations for changes or improvements in these programs.
i. Motivates the inclusion of instruction about school library resources and programs in the preparation of teachers (pages 67-68), by means of conferences with administrators in charge of programs of teacher education and with the members of the state certification agency.
j. Serves in an informal advisory capacity for professional associations of school librarians in the state; encourages these ,associations to have active and constructive programs; en-
lists their support in the promotion of school libraries in the state; and urges school librarians in the state to belong to national and state professional associations for teachers and librarians.
k. Keeps administrators and school librarians informed about important national developments affecting school libraries.
School library supervision for city, county, or multi-district school systems 1
In city school systems, in counties with a unified school system, and in co-operative arrangements involving two or more districts (see page 105), a functional program of school library supervision co-ordinates school library services, facilitates organizational procedures, and helps schools to reach optimum standards for their school libraries. The school library supervisor2 works with administrators, teaching staff, and other supervisors to provide better educational experiences for children and young people. The focus is always on the student: to help the teacher and the librarian to help the student, and to help the librarian to assist the classroom teacher. No matter what form supervisory services may take, whether they be curriculum committees, workshops, observation, or other activities, the focus remains the same.
General principles for the organization and administration of the district or system offices of school library supervision are described in this section (see also pages 108-9), and the services of the program of supervision are listed. In many communities, the supervisor is aided by one or more assistant school library supervisors in carrying out the program of services.
Administration and organization
1 In systems having five to seven or more schools with enrollments of 200 or more students, it is advantageous for the schools to have the services and facilities of school library supervision.
2 Qualified professional and clerical personnel are provided in
1. See also Chapter 13.
2. A librarian serving in two or more schools, called itinerant-librarian, multi-school librarian, or some other term, is not a school library supervisor. A person whose chief responsibility is the administration of a central service activity, such as a materials center or centralized cataloging, is not considered to be a supervisor. However, a supervisor, with adequate staff, may have responsibility for directing these activities.
42 sufficient number for an effective and efficient program of supervision.
The size of the staff will vary, depending upon such factors as the size of the school system, the extent and effectiveness of the existing library program, and the types of centralized services provided (see also pages 104-5, 107-12).
Many city and county school systems need one or more assistant school library supervisors. In large metropolitan areas, an assistant supervisor is needed for each district or for regions within the school system, depending upon the size of the city and other local conditions.
3 The rank and salary of school library supervisors and assistant supervisors are the same as those for other supervisory staff members in the school system of comparable professional education, experience, and responsibility. The salary is at least the equivalent of the highest salary paid to a practicing librarian in the school system.
4 Sufficient space and modern equipment are provided for the office of supervision.
5 Sufficient funds are provided for the operation of the office, and funds are also provided to defray the travel expenses of the supervisor to state and national professional meetings.
1 The school library supervisor serves as a consultant for and works with the chief school administrator in such matters as:
a. The use of school library instruction, services, and resources in implementing and enriching the total educational program.
b. Methods for acquainting teachers with resource materials.
c. Planning and evaluating school library programs.
d. Staffing school libraries.
e. Planning library budgets.
f. Planning for basic collections of materials in the schools.
g. Planning library quarters.
h. Developing central purchasing, processing, and organizational procedures for library materials.
2 The school library supervisor has responsibility for:
a. Exerting leadership in creating an understanding of the role of the school library in curriculum development.
b. Interpreting the functions and needs of the school libraries in the school system.
c. Administering the school library budget as provided by the board of education and superintendent of schools.
d. Coordinating the program of library service and library in struction among the several schools.
e. Providing for the co-operative evaluation and selection of materials by school librarians, teachers, and curriculum specialists.
f. Directing the materials center (see Chapter 13).
g. Directing the central acquisition and processing of materials (see pages 111-12).
3 The school library supervisor works closely with supervisors and staff members in other departments of the central school office, and continuously provides advisory and co-operative services by means of:
a. Developing policies, procedures, and standards for the program of library services in the schools as related to all phases of the educational program.
b. Participating in curriculum study and evaluation, and recommending printed and other materials for resource units.
c. Serving as a consultant whenever needed.
d. Contributing to the in-service training of teachers.
e. Evaluating and recommending printed and audio-visual materials for purchase.
If the school system maintains a separate department for audio-visual materials and services, the school library supervisor works closely with the director of that department and with members of his staff.
f. Providing library statistics, records, reports, and research.
4 The school library supervisor provides guidance and leadership in professional growth for the librarians in the school system by means of:
a. Giving advisory and consultant services, and having conferences with individual librarians about their library programs.
b. Planning in-service education through meetings, workshops, and conferences.
c. Encouraging librarians to participate with teachers, counselors, and others in solving problems of mutual concern.
d. Preparing bulletins, newsletters, and other aids for trans-
44 mitting suggestions for library improvements and for circulating information about library developments.
e. Encouraging individual initiative in experimentation and research.
f. Promoting continuity of practice to assure uniformity of basic library procedures throughout the system, and at the same time encouraging continuous improvements and individual enterprise.
g. Making visits to the libraries in the schools.
h. Giving stimulation, evaluation, and sympathetic understanding to the school librarians.
5 The school library supervisor maintains a continuous program of evaluation by:
a. Analyzing and evaluating techniques and services in the school library programs and in the central office.
b. Measuring growth of the school libraries by local, state, and national standards.
c. Co-operating in national and state surveys.
d. Preparing reports and recommendations.
6 The school library supervisor maintains a program of good public relations by:
a. Co-operating with other libraries in the community in encouraging library use by pupils and adults.
b. Participating in civic projects relating to libraries, books, audio-visual materials, and reading, listening, and viewing.
c. Participating in professional education and library organizations at local, state, and national levels.
d. Contributing to professional journals and publications.
e. Providing professional consultative service to individuals and community groups.
f. Interpreting school library service through an communication media.
Qualifications for school library supervisors3
The school library supervisor's responsibility is many-sided, involving work with teaching and administrative personnel as well as with librarians. The nature of the services and responsibilities of his office makes it necessary for the supervisor to have special competencies, background knowledge, and experience. It is advanta-
3. See also pp. 58-62.
geous for all concerned when the state or system school library supervisor has the qualifications noted in the statements that follow.
1 The school library supervisor, as a minimum, has a master's degree or its equivalent in library education. His basic education and experience follow the same pattern as that recommended for the individual school librarian in the state (pages 59-62). It is highly desirable for the supervisor to continue his formal education beyond the master's degree.
2 He meets the state standards for general courses in education required for other instructional supervisors. The school library supervisor also has courses in curriculum development and educational administration.
3 It is essential for him to have had experience as a school librarian. Classroom teaching experience is also lightly desirable.
4 Personal qualifications include administrative and organizational ability, good judgment, poise, and breadth of vision. Qualities of leadership and the ability to deal effectively with people are primary requisites. The supervisor possesses enthusiasm and a wholehearted belief in the values of education. He has a knowledge of trends of education and library service, and be has interest and faith in professional growth. Good supervision is a scientific and creative process. It demands special skills and aptitudes, genuine belief in people, and an earnest desire to improve the quality of education.
The school library staff
A competent, effective library staff is the keynote to good school library service. No matter how extensive the collections, how large the budget, or how spacious the quarters, a school library cannot function fully as an educational force in the school if the size of the library staff is inadequate or if the librarians are lacking in the special qualifications their work requires.1 New educational trends, new instructional techniques, and the many diversified uses that students independently make of books and other materials offer the creative school librarian almost limitless possibilities in planning and implementing the school library program.
Of the many activities, services, and special competencies of the school library staff that are mentioned throughout this book in their appropriate context, most are not repeated in this chapter and none is restated in detail. This chapter contains six sections: "Activities of School Librarians," "Size of the Library Staff," "Status of School Librarians," "Status of Other Workers in the Library," "General Qualifications of School Librarians," and "The Professional Education of School Librarians."
Activities of school librarians
General areas of activities that the professional library staff participates in as part of the instructional program of the school follow:
1. The quantitative standards presented in this chapter are recommended for schools having 200 or more students; these recommendations can also be used by smaller schools that are able to have a full-time library program for their students. The principles, or qualitative standards, noted in this chapter apply in part or in fun to all individuals doing library work in schools of any size. (See also Chapter 12.)
47 1 The school librarian works closely with classroom teachers, guidance counselors, and other faculty members, and does everything possible to make the school library of optimum service to them (see Chapters 8 and 3).
2 The school librarian stimulates and guides students in their reading and in their use of other communication media. He contributes in many other ways to their social and educational growth (see Chapter 3).
3 The school librarian directs the planning and implementation of the school's program of instruction that teaches students how to use library resources intelligently and effectively (pages 18-20).
4 The school librarian constantly serves the school in his capacity as a specialist in the field of books and other materials: in the evaluation and selection of resources for the collections of the school library; in guiding and assisting students and teachers in the use of these materials; in making materials easily accessible; in being a resource consultant (see points 5 and 6 below and page 66, point 6, and pages 11-12), and in many other ways (see Chapters 8, 9, and 10).
5 A professional library staff member serves on any all-school committees concerned with curriculum development, and is available as a materials resource person for all departmental committees when materials or their use are being discussed (see also page 66, point 6th).
6 A professional library staff member serves on the school committee for textbooks (free or rental).2
The librarian is able to help in the evaluation of the reading lists and bibliographies included in the textbooks under consideration, and can be of assistance in indicating the types of library materials that can be used to supplement the basic texts. Membership on the textbook committee also enables the school librarian to make certain in advance that the school library has all materials needed for use in connection with the textbooks.
2. Responsibility for the distribution, collection, and care of basic textbooks is clerical work which should be done by a clerk under the supervision of a professional staff member of the school. If this professional staff member is the librarian (a plan that has many advantages), the clerk or clerks in charge of textbooks should be in addition to the number of library clerks needed for library work (p. 55).
7 The school librarian participates in the co-curricular activities of the school, but assignments are made with due regard for his primary responsibilities as a librarian and only when the library service in the school wig not be impaired by these extra activities. The librarian should be assigned to those cocurricular activities in which he can make the greatest contribution.
8 In school libraries where the professional staff consists of two or more librarians, one librarian is officially designated as head librarian with administrative responsibility for the school library program as a whole. The head school librarian participates in or directs the activities noted in points 1-7 above and, in addition:
a. Works closely with the school administrator in designing the library program best suited to the purposes of the school, and keeps him informed about the accomplishments and needs of this program. (See also page 36.)
b. Is responsible, in co-operation with other library staff members, for implementing the library program that contributes to the achievement of the objectives of the school.
c. Directs the operation of the organizational and technical machinery necessary for a smoothly running, efficient, and functional library.
d. Is a member of such policy-making bodies as the principal's advisory committee, department head committee, and other appropriate committees that participate in the educational development of the school.
e. Maintains close co-operation, co-ordinates planning, and promotes communication between the school library and the unit for audio-visual materials in schools where an types of materials are not centralized in one agency.
f. Maintains effective relationships with the public library in the community.
1) Both school and public librarians assume responsibility for making contacts with each other and for acquiring knowledge about the resources, services, plans, and programs of the complementary library agency. A program
3. In libraries where there is only one librarian, that librarian also has the responsibilities noted here for head librarians.
49 can thus be established in which each serves the same public with a wise utilization of available resources and without needless duplication of effort.
2) In connection with planning any activities within the school buildings, the public librarian first consults the superintendent of schools who, in co-operation with such staff members as library supervisors and principals, formulates a statement of policy.
3) After a statement of policy has been established, the public librarian approaches any department in the school through the principal, who, in turn, asks the school librarian to participate in any planning or discussions that may ensue. The school librarian is thus aware of all library activities being carried on in the school and is in a better position to integrate his own work with the special projects conducted by the public librarian. He is also able to help the public librarian make new contacts in the school, and when such contacts are needed and desirable.
4) The school librarian and the public librarian keep each other informed about their programs and activities through conferences, visits, and regular and special reports.
It is the school librarian's responsibility to get advance information concerning school assignments to the public librarian and to inform him of changes in the curriculum. It is the public librarian's responsibility to make courses of study, curriculum bulletins, and booklists from the local schools available for use by the public library staff. (See also page 67, point 10.)
5) joint book selection and reviewing conferences on children's and young people's books and other materials are frequently held, in which all professional staff members working with children or young people participate. Cooperative preparation of booklists may be undertaken as needed.
6) The school librarian and the public librarian work together to assure representation of libraries for children and young people in the community's planned program of services to youth.
Size of the library staff
General principles on which the quantitative standards are based
The standards recommended for the size of the school library staff have been based on a number of significant factors, some of which are discussed in the following paragraphs.
In view of the tremendous number of printed and audio-visual materials that have been published and produced in this country and elsewhere and the exceedingly large number that appear each year, the careful evaluation and selection of materials for school libraries has become a process that takes time and highly skilled competencies. Appraising materials for their intrinsic worth, acquiring materials for all aspects of the curriculum, and selecting materials suitable for the wide range of abilities and interests of students are all procedures that require time and thought. In all schools, a considerable portion of a librarian's time can profitably be devoted to the selection of materials. In the schools having only one librarian (those with enrollments of 200-450 students), the librarian has far too little time for this important part of his work. Only for the largest schools (those with 2,000 or more) do the standards perhaps snow for sufficient staff for an expert program of examining, selecting, and evaluating materials.
A truly dynamic library program of service to teachers could easily occupy the full time of an imaginative, resourceful, and helpful school librarian in a school having 200 pupils, and of more librarians in larger schools. No teacher has the time to keep informed about all the materials available for his students for classroom needs or for their many other interests, and he depends upon the librarian, who knows the whole range of materials in the library. The teacher must have adequate, competent professional leadership, guidance, and service in the matter of locating, evaluating, selecting, and using materials and resources for teaching and learning. The standards recommended for the size of library staff do not allow for a rich and vital program of service to teachers, except, possibly, for schools in the largest enrollment brackets.
The recommended standards provide for only an extremely small amount of time for the librarian to work with individual students during the school day-approximately six minutes a week for each student in schools having 300-900 students and approxi-
51 mately five minutes a week for each student in larger schools, if the school librarian did nothing else but this guidance and teaching of individual students. The recommendation is sometimes advanced that students should use the school library at least three times a week. If a student came to the library three times a week during the school day, and if each library staff member worked with no more than forty students a class period (a maximum load), then the total amount of time available for each student would approximate one and one half or two minutes a period (depending on the size of the school), and would be much less when the periods included library instruction, book talks, storytelling, or other activities designed for the group as a whole. Again, this figure is based on the premise that the librarian would be doing nothing else but working with students-a situation that is actually extremely rare.
Less important, but nonetheless very time-consuming and necessary for facilitating the use of the school library and its resources, is the technical processing of materials.4 Elsewhere in this book (see footnote, page 112), a recommendation has been made for the centralization of technical processing for school libraries. That the standards for size of staff make provision for technical processing to be done within the individual schools in no way negates or minimizes the recommendation for centralized processing. It is recognized, however, that many schools are not ready to participate in centralized processing and that many other schools face a transition period before it can be undertaken completely. For schools now having centralized processing and for schools about to have centralized processing, the standards for size of professional staff and library clerks should not be reduced, the only exception being, possibly, schools in student enrollment brackets of 3,000 and over.
From the preceding comments it can be readily seen that the recommended standards are quite conservative and, with the possible
4. In established libraries, the technical processing of one book, from the time when the invoice is checked to the time when the book is ready for the library shelf, takes, as a minimum, 10 minutes of the librarian's time and 20 minutes of the time of the library clerk. This estimate is based on samples in which purchased printed catalog cards were used and that included the processing of duplicate titles and titles requiring the simplest of cataloging and classification. (Some titles may take 45 minutes or more for the librarian to catalog.) The technical processing of audio-visual items requires a comparable amount of time.
sible exception of the very largest schools, far from being maximal.5 Superior schools having fewer than 2,000 students will want to go beyond the standards.
It should be emphasized, however, that the personnel standards are based on the assumption that the school library meets standards for materials collections, funds, and space;6 and, above all, that the library program is an active one, with the librarians able and willing to assume roles of leadership and creative planning. The standards are recommended with the major purpose of making it possible for the school to have or to work toward a complete library program for students and teachers. As one part of this goal, the standards provide for a clerical staff that is large enough to permit the librarians to concentrate on professional services and activities without the need to devote large segments of their time to clerical and housekeeping duties.
Standards for size of library staff7
The quantitative standards must be interpreted in relation to the commentary presented in the preceding section of this chapter.
1 The following standards are recommended for the size of the library staff in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools (see also point 3, page 55):
5. In this connection it is interesting to note the following recent statement: "The services of an elementary librarian should be available in every elementary school. The elementary librarian is especially trained to help teachers and supervisors in the selection of related reading materials in the curriculum areas. She is also a 'key' teacher in the instructional program. The Division of Elementary Education, New York State Education Department, recommends a full-time librarian for each 350 children enrolled." (The University of the State of New York. The State Education Department, Division of Elementary Education. Bureau of Elementary Education, Letter to Supervisors, Series 12, No. 1 [September, 19581, p. 3.)
6. Limited, inadequate space for school library areas may affect the size of the library staffs in some schools until the time comes when they have new or remodeled library quarters. It should be kept in mind, however, that in these situations librarians and library materials must go more frequently to the classrooms. Library activities carried on in the classroom as well as in the library, intensive work with teachers, and the services of the librarians as materials specialists require a staff that is comparable in size to that recommended for schools with adequate library quarters, and, in some situations, a staff of equal size may be necessary.
7. For personnel recommendations for libraries in new schools, see pp. 96-99, and for library services in schools having fewer than 200 students, see p. 102. Some fine schools having fewer than 200 students now have a complete library program, with a full-time librarian, clerical assistance, and an extensive collection of materials. When schools of this small size can afford to do this, their teachers and students are richly rewarded.
1) For the first 900 students or fraction thereof:8 One librarian for each 300 students or major fraction thereof if the head librarian has no administrative responsibility for audio-visual materials. If the head librarian has partial responsibility for audio-visual materials, the number of librarians should be increased by 25 per cent, and in the case of full responsibility for audio-visual materials and the audio-visual program, by 50 per cent.9
2) For each additional 400 students or major fraction thereof: One librarian, if the head librarian has no administrative responsibility for audio-visual materials. If the head librarian has partial responsibility for audiovisual materials, the number of librarians should be in-
8. The minimum enrollment recommended for a full-time librarian and for a halftime clerk is 200 students.
9. Partial responsibility includes those cases where the school librarian is in charge of handling audio-visual materials for the school and is working closely with the school district coordinator of audio-visual materials, or a representative of his staff. The district coordinator is responsible for planning with the teachers a large part of the program of the use of audio-visual materials in the school, and much of the selection of audio-visual materials is done in the district office. The school librarian is essentially a liaison person between the school and the school district center for audio-visual materials. This category may also include those situations where there is no district coordinator of audio-visual materials and when the librarian exercises leadership in obtaining audio-visual materials for the school.
Full responsibility means the direction of a complete audio-visual program in the school, including: frequent consultation, guidance, and planning with teachers regarding the use of audio-visual materials in classroom instruction; formulating and implementing the integrated program of teaching students bow to use audiovisual materials effectively; the examination, evaluation, and selection of materials; technical processing; preparation of bibliographic and instructional aids; the correlation of books and other printed materials with audio-visual materials; making arrangements for trips and the use of other community resources; the production of audio-visual materials; planning the scbool's use of television and radio programs; directing clerks in the maintenance of materials and equipment; and many other related activities. (This classification does not exclude receiving advisory services and assistance from the district coordinator of audio-visual materials.)
The recommendation that the size of the school library staff be increased by 25 or 50 per cent to perform this part of the library program should not be interpreted as meaning the appointment of additional staff whose work would be confined solely to audio-visual materials and services. The intention is that the work would be distributed among the library staff members and that they would have the competencies needed in relation to audio-visual materials, services, and program planning. The integrated use of books, other printed works, and audio-visual materials is too essential and the need for it too common an occurrence to allow for artificial dichotomies in staff assignments.
creased by 25 per cent, and in the case of full responsibility for audio-visual materials and the audio-visual program, by 50 per cent.9
b. Clerks 10
One clerk for each 600 students or major fraction thereof if the head librarian has no administrative responsibility for audio-visual materials. If the head librarian has partial responsibility for audio-visual materials, the number of clerks should be increased by 25 per cent, and in the case of full responsibility for audio-visual materials and the audio-visual program, by 50 per cent.9
2 In twelve-grade or K-12 schools having 200 or more students, the size of the library staff is never less than that recommended in point I for schools of similar enrollment.12 For excellent library service, the number of professional staff members needs to be increased in order to have a staff with the competencies, the specialized knowledge of books and other materials, and the familiarity with the instructional program that are quite distinct for the elementary school grades and for the secondary school grades. (Larger budgets, see footnote on page 76, may also affect the picture.) For example, in some schools with 200-399 pupils, the best library service will result when two librarians are on the staff, one to work with children and teachers in the elementary grades and the other to work with children and teachers in the secondary grades. In a school with an enrollment of 1,200, four librarians, instead of three, can best meet the wide program range of the K-12 school. (See also point 3.)
3 Libraries in demonstration schools (see pages 69-70 require
10. The term clerks is used to cover clerical and secretarial work and, where applicable, skills for the maintenance and repair of audio-visual materials and equipment. The recommendation for number of clerks does not include clerks needed in the handling of the free or rental textbook collection or of the collection of supplementary printed materials.
11. The minimum enrollment recommended for a full-time librarian and for a halftime clerk is 200 students.
12. Where there is only one librarian for this type of school, the librarian must be qualified to work with pupils of all ages and with their teachers. He knows materials for the entire school curriculum and for recreational reading at au levels. He arranges special activities for elementary children (such as storytelling) and provides appropriate reference assistance, reading guidance, integrated library instruction, and other services for the students in the school.
larger staffs than those noted for schools in points 1 and 2. The increase in number depends upon such factors as the number of practice teachers and practice librarians working in the school, the types of experimentation and research conducted in or with the school library, the number of observers and visitors coming to the library, and the teaching load of the librarian in the education or library service departments of the college or university.
Status of school librarians
Status as a faculty member
1 The status of the school librarian is the same as that of other teachers in the school with comparable professional education, experience, responsibility, and personality.
2 In the secondary school, the head librarian has a status equivalent to that of a department head in the school. (See also pages 49-50.)
Salary, working and vacation schedules
1 The librarian is on a salary, work and vacation schedule equal to that for professional school employees of comparable professional education, experience, and responsibility.
2 The length of working day, length of working year, and amount of "homework" for the school librarian are comparable to those for teachers. For additional service, the librarian receives extra monetary compensation allocated on the same base as his regular salary.
a. For the librarian, "homework" includes the extensive reading necessary to keep abreast with and informed about a wide range of printed materials (ideally, some time should be allowed for this type of reading during the working day, as well as for previewing and listening to audio-visual materials); work connected with school committees and meetings; planning, preparation for class visits, and similar activities that correspond to the classroom teacher's normal load of school responsibilities performed after school hours. It does not include bibliographic services, cataloging, ordering, and details of library organization and administration.
b. Although the library is open before and after school, each librarian's working day is the same as that for other teachers.
In those cases where the library hours exceed this time (see pages 87-88, point 2), a sufficient number of professional staff members is appointed so that staggered scheduling covers the extended program.
c. In those schools where the library is kept open for use during the summer, adequate professional and clerical staff are provided. The staff are paid on a basis comparable to that for the regular school year.
d. It is sometimes necessary for the school librarian to work for a period of one week after the close of the regular school year (unless the library is to be open for the summer) and one week or more before the opening of the regular school year, preceding any pre-school workshop or meetings planned for the faculty as a whole. The librarian is paid for this time on the same salary basis as his work during the school year. Clerical assistance is provided since much of the work done at these times is clerical in nature.
Status of other workers in the library
1 The status of the school library clerk is established by local policies governing classification and pay schedules for clerical and secretarial workers. The position of school library clerk, however, usually entails some specialized skills and types of knowledge in addition to those typically associated with clerical and secretarial competence. This special training is customarily provided by the head school librarian. It is recommended that this specialization be recognized and that provisions be made accordingly in the salary scale for library clerks. Adoption of this policy diminishes some of the frequent turnover now common among this group of workers and relieves the school librarian of continuously having to train new library clerks.
2 In those schools having 200 or more students where the school library program is in the process of being developed, any transitional measure deemed expedient for staffing the library should be strictly interpreted as being temporary in nature. Every effort should be exerted toward providing the needed professional and clerical staff. Volunteer help by parents and other workers, part-time work in the library by teachers or by field librarians, services of retired teachers, and similar arrangements should be considered as being no more than temporary
57 substitutes filling a gap until the time when the professional librarians and clerical workers needed for the school library are employed.
3 The work of unpaid student library assistants cannot be interpreted as being the equivalent of activities conducted by school librarians, or as a justifiable substitute for the services of clerical, secretarial, maintenance, or other salaried staff workers needed in the school library.13 13 Teaching these pupil assistants to perfect library skills and to develop desirable personal qualities constitutes a part of the guidance or co-curricular program of the school and is an additional responsibility for the school librarian. (See also pages 20-21.)
General qualifications of school librarians
The librarian's duties are comprehensive, including at various times activities of the teacher, the specialist, the department head, and the administrator. In order to perform his work successfully and to represent his profession ably, the school librarian:
1 Is adept in human relations and works co-operatively, effectively, and happily with all age groups enrolled in his school and with adults.
2 Has a thorough understanding of the curriculum, including all aspects of the reading program, the instructional methods employed by teachers, and the goals of the school in which he is working.
3 Has an extensive knowledge of books and other printed materials, including those appropriate for the age group with whom he is working; of instructional materials for teachers; and of audio-visual materials suitable for use by students and teachers.14 (See the following section on the professional education of school librarians.)
4 Has an enthusiasm for books and reading and for other media of communication that is reflected in the school library program.
5 Has a broad background knowledge of all phases of librarian-
13. When suitable, and when local policies and legal conditions permit, students may be paid to do some work of this nature.
14. As the size of the library's collections and staff increases, subject areas or classifications of materials can profitably be allocated to each librarian so that be may become an authoritative specialist for all types of materials and their uses in designated fields, in addition to having a general knowledge of the collections as a whole.
58 A statement prepared by the joint AASL-ACRL-DAVI Committee15
The three professional organizations represented on the joint Committee are the American Association of School Librarians and the Association of College and Research Libraries, both divisions of ALA, and the Department of Audio-Visual Instruction of the NEA. These organizations share a basic interest which is the maintenance of high educational standards and continued improvement of instruction in American schools, colleges, and universities.
In recent years, many new types of instructional materials and equipment have been developed, such as educational television programs, specialized training devices, and new projection materials. At the same time, more familiar
15. Approved in 1958 by the executive boards of the participating organizations.
continued on the following page
ship that are germane to a functional school library program.
6 Has administrative ability, if head librarian, so that he has easy control of the administrative details of a smoothly running library, while focusing his major attention on the more important work with students and teachers.
7 Has many cultural, intellectual, and recreational interests.
8 Participates in local, state, and national professional education and library associations, and supports the program and work of these organizations.
The professional education of school librarians 16
Since the subject of professional education for school librarians is quite an extensive and complicated one, this book cannot cover the many details relating to policies, programs, and practices for preparing school librarians. The following major and basic principles have been selected for inclusion and are strongly endorsed:
1 A broad, general education is essential for the school librarian. This basic background is first started in college and continues throughout the lifetime of the school librarian.
2 The type of professional preparation best suited for the school librarian is that described in the official statement on pages 59-62.
3 The professional preparation of the school librarian meets the
16. See also pp. 11-12, 96-100.
59 continued from the preceding page
media such as books, films, and recordings have been made increasingly effective through modern techniques of illustration, improved design, and new production processes. In addition to tangible media, the concept of "instructional materials" includes such community resources as individuals who can make a significant contribution and the use of first hand experiences in the field. All instructional materials now available, and others yet to come, are needed to secure effective and efficient utilization of educational facilities and teaching personnel.
Each type of material has a unique contribution to make to the educational process. Some materials will be more effective in achieving one teaching or learning objective; others will serve another purpose better. There is no basic
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certification requirements of his state, of the regional accrediting agency for his state, and of the school system in which he is working. His professional preparation is obtained in colleges or universities approved by the state or city agency in charge of the certification of school librarians.
4 The basic program of general and professional education recommended for the school librarian is a five-year program. The fifth year may be based on an undergraduate minor in school librarianship in a college or university with an approved program of this type.
5 Although the five-year program is recognized as being desir-able for most school librarians, some situations justify the appointment of a person who has completed four years of college work and some professional preparation in librarianship that may or may not be part of his college training. These situations are typically those that are covered in existing provisional or other certification measures. In addition, these situations might well include some staff positions in those school libraries where the staff consists of three or more school librarians. The experience thus acquired by these staff members would greatly enrich any additional professional education that they might undertake later or concurrently on the job. In the case of large school libraries meeting standards for size of staff, the classification of some professional positions in the lower echelons might not necessarily require further professional preparation.
competition among instructional materials. The point is that in any situation the distinctive characteristics of each medium should be recognized and an appropriate materials should be used.
Because of the broad variety of media now available and the rapid increase of production within each medium, teachers are faced with a vast reservoir of instructional materials from which to choose. This means that teachers require more and more help from specialists to locate, evaluate, select, produce, and use instructional materials to best advantage. In order to provide such help specialists need to have a working knowledge of the entire range of media, the potential contributions each can make to learning, and effective methods of use.
The professional associations named in this statement, together with other professional organizations, such as those concerned with curriculum improvement and with educational television, are vitally concerned with study, development, and application of all types of instructional materials. They also have in common important responsibilities for recruitment, professional education, and certification of school, college and university staff members who now or in the future will serve as specialists in this field. The Committee agrees that certain knowledge and specific skills, as outlined below, are essential in the professional education of librarians, audio-visual specialists, and others who have a primary responsibility for instructional materials.
Prerequisites for attainment of professional status by instructional materials specialists
In light of the significance of instructional materials specialists to the total educational program, it is necessary that there be definition of responsibilities, of required competencies, and of the means by which these competencies can best be developed.
Under consideration here is the professionally competent instructional materials specialist at all levels. By 'instructional materials specialists" is meant those individuals who, on a professional level, are directly responsible for a school, college, or university program of counsel, service, or in-service education for student and teacher use of instructional materials. The distinction between the optimum qualifications of the beginning professional worker and of the director of a system-wide program is essentially one of degree and not of kind.
Those personal characteristics and abilities necessary to be effective in working with people in a leadership role become of major importance when that role is one of improving teaching and teaming. To fulfill this role is the primary responsibility of instructional materials specialists. Their province is the materials of learning and teaching. The challenge is that of developing increasingly effective use of all types of materials by teachers and students. The measure of their success is the quality of teaching and learning which results.
Looking ahead to the future, the joint Committee believes that the knowl-
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61 continued from the preceding page
edge and basic skills required for instructional materials specialists to do professional work in education, and the most likely sources of obtaining basic competencies, are as follows:
1 Successful teaching experience: Instructional materials specialists should first of all be experienced teachers. This experience may be acquired by years of classroom teaching, or, in the case of those who enter the profession without experience, through an organized internship program following the completion of their course work. It is essential that instructional materials specialists secure experience on curriculum committees and that they gain experience in guidance and supervision.
2 Foundation areas: Instructional materials specialists should have course work in (a) educational administration and supervision, (b) principles of Teaming, (c) curriculum development, (d) guidance and counseling, and (e) mass communications. Furthermore they should demonstrate a working knowledge of research methods as applied to instructional materials.
3 Specialized areas: Instructional materials specialists should have course work and in-service experience in the following areas relating directly to the nature and effective use of materials: (a) analysis of instructional materials, their nature and content; (b) methods of selecting and evaluating materials, through study of individual media as well as through crossmedia study by curriculum unit or grade level; (c) utilization of materials; (d) production of appropriate instructional materials, including laboratory work with specific media; and (e) processes for the organization and maintenance of materials and equipment.
The foregoing statement regarding instructional materials specialists and the preparation they require has important implications for many groups, including the students and teachers who are to be served, the professional associations concerned, and especially for those institutions of higher education which have responsibility for recruitment and professional education of teachers, librarians, and audio-visual specialists. Whatever their titles may be, specialists in the materials of instruction, who have a broad view of the field, are needed to provide essential services for a modem program of education.
and school libraries
The wide and diversified use made of books and other materials by students comes largely from creative, stimulating teaching and individualized instruction that go beyond the limited confines of textbooks. Educational leadership on a system-wide scale fosters such teaching and makes its fruition possible. Classroom instruction of this nature depends on teachers who know books and other materials appropriate for the children or young people with whom they are working. This basic background knowledge is started in the teacher's professional education, expanded later through his own endeavors, and supplemented by information and guidance continuously supplied hi-in through the resource consultant services of the school library staff. In this chapter, the activities of curriculum coordinators and teachers in relation to the resources and the programs of school libraries are described, and recommendations are made concerning the kinds of information about books and other materials to be included in the professional education of teachers and school administrators.
Curriculum coordinators and school library programs
In the school system, the chief curriculum coordinator, or his equivalent, serves an important function in the provision and use of services and resources in the libraries in the schools and in the district materials center (Chapter 13). In some systems, the materials center and the school libraries are under the over-all ad-
63 ininistration of the chief curriculum coordinator, and the school library supervisor is a member of his staff. Where some other organizational pattern prevails, informal arrangements are made for the maintenance of communication and co-operative planning between the chief curriculum coordinator and the school library supervisor.
The major activities of the chief curriculum coordinator in relation to school libraries are as follows:
1 Implementing instructional programs in which many types of books, films, and other materials are used by teachers and students.
2 Actively supporting a system-wide plan that provides all schools with library services and resources that meet recognized standards.
3 Making provision for teaching students the use of the library and its resources in a well-planned program of instruction integrated with classroom teaching (pages 18-20 and page 66, point 7).
4 Arranging in-service training programs for teachers that deal with instructional materials and their uses.
5 Participating in the program of the materials center, or, if the system has no center, working toward its establishment (Chapter 13).
6 Appointing the school library supervisor, or a school librarian if there is no supervisor, to any committees or policy-making groups working on curricular and instructional matters for the school system as a whole.
In similar manner, coordinators or supervisors of special subject and service areas for the school system enlist the services of the school library supervisor, or school librarians, whenever library resources and activities in their specialized fields are involved. These co-operative measures make it possible for the school libraries to have all the printed and audio-visual materials needed by students and teachers, for the school librarians to teach and to guide students with direction and purpose, and for the school library program to contribute directly to the achievement of the objectives of the school.
7 Working closely with the school library supervisor (pages 42-45)or, if the school system does not yet have a supervisor, with librarians in the schools.
Classroom and special teachers and school libraries 1
The development and growth of a dynamic library program is possible only when teachers and librarians work together in formulating library policies, in selecting library materials, in stimulating and guiding the reading of students, and in enriching classroom instruction through the effective use of library resources. Probably the most important single factor determining the success of the school library program is the extent to which teachers motivate their students to use the library and its resources.
Details describing the teacher's contribution to and participation in the school library program, classroom activities involving the use of school libraries and library resources, and many types of projects co-operatively planned by teachers and librarians can be found in the references noted in the Selected Bibliography, pages 114-18. Only the broader aspects of teacher-library relationships are presented in this book. (See also pages 47-49 and 14-21.) The term teacher is used to include guidance counselors and other special teachers as well as classroom teachers, since educational, personal, and vocational guidance are all part of the school program which library services and resources can enrich. The general principles governing teacher-library relationships are as follows:
1 The teacher makes the library meaningful and useful to his students through his knowledge of the library's program and resources. It is important for the teacher to know and to keep abreast of instructional materials, particularly those in his own school library. There can be much waste in materials and expense when teachers do not know fully what their library contains. The teacher also makes use of the professional collection in his school and the district materials collection.
2 The teacher motivates his students to make extensive use of library resources for classroom work and for purposes not connected with class assignments.
3 The teacher participates in the formulation of school library policies by serving on or communicating with the faculty library committee.
1. For material relating to teachers in schools having fewer than 200 students, see Chapter 12.
65 4 The teacher utilizes every opportunity to help the library in his school reach standards of excellence.
5 The teacher participates in the selection of materials for the school library and in the evaluation of the library's collection in his specialized field. (See pages 74-75.)
6 The librarian provides teachers with many services related to materials that are helpful to them in connection with their teaching programs. The librarian:
a. Builds systematically the collections of the school library so that materials are readily available for the curricular needs of students (pages 74-82).
b. Provides a variety of professional materials for teachers (pages 85-86).
c. Acquires appropriate materials recommended for the library by teachers, as promptly as possible.
d. Assists teachers in the development of effective techniques for using the resources of the school library and teaching library skills.
e. Keeps teachers informed about new materials that have been added to the library.
f. Helps teachers in the preparation of bibliographies and reading lists.
g. Locates information and performs other reference and searching services for teachers.
h. Serves as a resource consultant for teachers (see also pages 48-49, and footnote 9, page 54).
The librarian serves as a resource consultant on curriculum and other school committees involving library materials. He consults frequently with individual teachers, ascertaining their needs and interests regarding printed and audiovisual materials and bringing new publications and releases to their attention.
i. Provides informal in-service training for teachers about library resources, sources of information for printed and audio-visual materials, the evaluation of materials, and related topics.
7 Using research skills successfully, satisfying curiosities through fact-.finding, developing an interest in and liking for independent reading, and finding enjoyment in books, recordings, and other materials are important elements in the education of chil-
dren and young people. Making certain that students have these experiences is the responsibility of every faculty member, including the library staff. The school librarian works with the teachers in motivating students to use libraries frequently, and in developing the abilities of students to make effective and discriminating use of printed and audio-visual materials. The principal, teachers, and librarian together plan an integrated program of library instruction for all grades. All teachers participate in teaching students the use of the library and its resources. The teaching of these types of knowledge and skills begins with children in kindergarten and continues with more detail and specialization until students are graduated from high school (see pages 18-20).
8 The teacher brings his class groups to the library, sends small groups or individuals from the classroom to the library or its conference rooms to read, to learn library skills, or to do reference or research work, and makes collections of materials from the school library available in his classroom (pages 89-90).
9 The teacher keeps the school librarian informed about curricular changes and gives advance information about class assignments, so that resources are available in the library. Lines of communication are established between teachers and library staff for mutual reporting of pertinent information about interests, needs, abilities, attitudes, achievements, and performance of students.
10 The teacher becomes familiar with other libraries in the community. He acquaints students with the objectives and services of the public library, and he co-operates in the arrangements made by the school to keep the public library staff informed in advance about class assignments (page 50, point 4) and to keep within reasonable limits the use made of public library resources by students in the preparation of their assignments.
School library programs and resources in the professional education of teachers
It is important for the prospective teacher and school administrator to acquire during his professional education:
67 1 A knowledge of printed and audio-visual materials appropriate for the age groups that he will be teaching.
2 Familiarity with the criteria and sources used in the evaluation and selection of materials.
3 An understanding of the contributions that can be made by the library program and staff to the educational program of the school.
4 An awareness of the teacher's functions in the school library program.
In order that the prospective teacher and school administrator may acquire this background knowledge, the directors of the program for the professional education of teachers:
1 Require the prospective teacher to take courses dealing with printed and audio-visual materials for children or young people.
2 Make certain that relevant material about and references to school library services, resources, and facilities are incorporated in courses in school administration, supervision, curriculum, instructional methods, guidance, and other areas.
3 Provide a comprehensive and functional collection of children's books, books for young people, films, filmstrips, recordings, textbooks, and other materials appropriate for youth. (See the section immediately following.)
4 Make arrangements so that the use of the services and resources of an excellent school library is a natural part of the prospective teacher's practice teaching. The functions of the demonstration school library are described in the last part of this chapter.
Resources in the library of the teacher education institution The provision of books and other materials for children and
young people, to be used in connection with education or library science courses, is as much an obligation of the college or university library administration as is the provision of materials for students taking courses in the physical sciences or other areas. Truly functional collections are comprehensive, well-selected, and efficiently organized, and sufficient funds are provided in the library budget. (Asking publishers for free copies of their trade books cannot be justified for these collections any more than for other parts of the library's collections.) A professional library staff, with competencies in library resources for children and young people, is necessary so that intelligent and helpful service and guidance can be
given to undergraduate and graduate students taking education and library science courses, faculty members of the departments of education and library science, and others. Adequate clerical and other subprofessional assistance is essential.
This collection does not take the place of a school library in the demonstration school on the university campus, nor does the library in the demonstration school substitute for this collection.
The demonstration school library
The library in the demonstration school (laboratory school, campus school, or other equivalent term) has the same objectives and program that have been noted for other school libraries (Chapters 2 and 3). In addition, it has some special functions:
1 The library is an area where teachers and librarians in training, in-service teachers and school librarians, and others can observe an excellent school library program in action.
2 Through its resources and services, student teachers and teachers in preparation:
a. Become aware of the importance of the school library in the teaching program at every age level.
b. Are introduced to a broad and organized body of instructional materials.
c. Have the experience of examining and using a wide range of library resources in their practice teaching.
d. Have an opportunity to see children and young people working with many kinds of materials in connection with the curriculum and for other purposes.
3 The library serves as a laboratory for the practice work of the school librarian during his professional training.
4 The professional library staff provides consultant services for faculty members of the schools or departments of education and library science.
5 The library staff contributes to the improvement of schools and school libraries in the region and in the nation:
a. By demonstrating the role of the library in a broad and rich instructional program.
b. By showing visiting administrators and teachers the values of having libraries in schools.
c. By participating in educational and library research.
d. By having the library serve as an experimentation center to
try out and test new ideas in school library programs and services.
Since the demonstration school library is unique in many respects and since its program can make many special contributions to the schools and teachers of the country, it should be a model library in every respect-personnel, program, materials collections, quarters, and equipment. Ample funds are necessary for its maintenance. The library quarters must be large enough to accommodate visitors and observers as well as its regular users; demonstration and research projects will sometimes require special equipment. The size of the staff needs to be larger than for libraries in other schools of comparable size, since the demonstration school librarians work with many groups and individuals in addition to the students and faculty of the school. (See page 55, point 3.) If the librarian of the demonstration school teaches courses or parts of courses in the education or library service departments, adequate provision must be made in staffing the demonstration school library to allow for these additional activities of the school librarian.
Many demonstration schools are "campus" schools under the direct administration of the college or university; others are schools in the local school system that have been designated as demonstration schools for teachers in preparation. In the case of the campus school, the school librarian is under the administration of the principal of the school, and not under the administration of the college or university librarian. It is also desirable that the collection of the campus school library be reserved for the students, faculty, and practice teachers of the school, and not serve as a collection for students in university or college courses requiring the use of school library materials. (See pages 68-69.)
Practice teachers and librarians, and other university students having contacts with demonstration school libraries, are affected by the services and resources of these libraries, and carry their impressions and experiences with them to the schools in which they later teach. The same is true of in-service teachers, administrators, and others who visit the library. These libraries constitute, or should constitute, the vanguard school libraries of the nation, and they are of paramount importance in acquainting prospective teachers with the resources of teaching and learning.
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teaching and learning
The materials collections:
selection and scope
In the preceding pages, many reasons have been noted why teachers and students in good schools depend upon the materials and services of the school library. This chapter and those following deal with the basic principles that govern the selection of materials in the school, the policies and services that make materials readily accessible for teachers and students, and organizational procedures that facilitate the use of the materials collections. Standards are presented for the size of the collections and for the annual appropriations for the purchase of these materials in schools that have been established four years or longer and have 200 or more students (pages 76-86), for libraries in new schools (Chapter 11), and for schools having fewer than 200 students (Chapter 12). The services and collections of the district materials center are described in Chapter 13.
This chapter contains four main sections. The first, "The Selection of Materials," applies to all types of schools. The remaining sections, "School Library Resources in Schools Having 200 or More Students," "The Collection of Supplementary Materials," and "Professional Materials for the Faculty," pertain to schools having 200 or more students. The arrangement of these last-named sections is an arbitrary one, based on the assumption that each type of collection has some unique characteristics that can be described more clearly by separate treatment. It is recognized that the collection of supplementary materials and the collection of professional materials for teachers are administered by the head school librarian; that the collection of professional materials is frequently housed in the school library suite, and that some schools do not have collections of supplementary materials.
The selection of materials
Basic principles that guide the selection of books and other materials for the collections of the school library include the following:
1 Administrators, classroom and special teachers, and the library staff endorse and apply the principles incorporated in the School Library Bill of Rights of the American Association of School Librarians, and in any statements for the selection of library materials that school librarians have helped to formulate for the state or for the local school system. The Bill of Rights is on page 75.
2 The library collections are developed systematically so that they are well-balanced and well-rounded in coverage of subjects, types of materials, and variety of content.
3 Maintaining qualitative standards for the selection of materials is essential. All materials are therefore carefully evaluated before purchase, and only materials of good quality are obtained.
A wealth of excellent material is available for children and young people, and there is no justification for the collections to contain materials that are mediocre in presentation and content. By virtue of their professional preparation and experience, librarians have the special competencies that enable them to evaluate materials critically. (See pages 59-62.) They are familiar with and guided by the established criteria for the evaluation and selection of materials. They consult standard tools and reliable guides for the selection of materials and go beyond the limits of these sources whenever they have the opportunity to examine and to evaluate materials carefully before purchase.
4 Teachers make recommendations to the head librarian for materials to be added to the collections of the school library.
The teacher plays an important part in the selection of materials for the school library. His professional preparation and experience provide him with a knowledge of materials in his field and of the types of materials appropriate for the needs and abilities of his students. A two-way avenue of communication exists between the teacher and librarian, in which each relays to the other information about new materials in the teacher's field. The teacher evaluates materials on the basis of the criteria established for materials in his teaching area, and recommends
School Library Bill of Rights1
School libraries are concerned with generating understanding of American freedoms and with the preservation of these freedoms through the development of informed and responsible citizens. To this end the American Association of School Librarians reaffirms the Library Bill of Rights of the American Library Association and asserts that the responsibility of the school library is:
To provide materials that will enrich and support the curriculum, taking into consideration the varied interests, abilities, and maturity levels of the pupils served
To provide materials that will stimulate growth in factual knowledge, literary appreciation, aesthetic values, and ethical standards
To provide a background of information which 'will enable pupils to make intelligent judgments in their daily life
To provide materials on opposing sides of controversial issues so that young citizens may develop under guidance the practice of critical reading and thinking
To provide materials representative of the many religious, ethnic, and cultural groups and their contributions to our American heritage To place principle above personal opinion and reason above prejudice in the selection of materials of the highest quality in order to assure a comprehensive collection appropriate for the users of the library.
1. Endorsed by the Council of the American Library Association, July, 1955.
only those materials that meet these standards satisfactorily. He is familiar with and uses standard tools and guides for the selection of materials, and be utilizes every opportunity to examine and to evaluate materials in his field.
5 Students are encouraged to make suggestions for materials to be acquired for the school library.
6 The collections are continuously re-evaluated in relation to changing curriculum content, new instructional methods, and current needs of teachers and students. Appropriate materials are obtained for these new developments. This process of reevaluation also leads to the replacement of outmoded materials with those that are up-to-date, the discarding of materials no longer useful, and the replacement of materials in poor repair.
7 In order that good service may be provided for teachers and students, materials are purchased throughout the school year as needed, and their acquisition is not limited to annual or semiannual orders.
75 8 Final authority for materials to be acquired rests with the principal of the school and the head school librarian.
School library resources in schools having 200 or more students 2
Size of the collections
The good teacher, eager and able to make Teaming an exciting adventure for his students, is continually frustrated in his endeavors when the library resources in his school are meager and limited. Students become discouraged when they cannot obtain materials easily for their classroom needs or in their independent seeking for knowledge and for aesthetic experiences. The standards for the size of the library's collections recommend materials in sufficient quantity so that three aspects of a functional library program may be realized: good service to teachers and students, the easy accessibility of materials, and the availability of materials on a wide range of subjects and in many forms of expression.
Books are the most important of all library resources. No well selected book collection is ever too large for children and young people. To provide books on all topics included in the curriculum
2. The twelve-grade or K-12 schools having 200 or more students present some special problems in relation to quantitative standards for the collections of materials. If the school is large enough or otherwise can afford to have separate libraries for elementary and secondary school students, each library can be considered as being comparable to a library in any other school having a similar enrollment and grade coverage. However, in schools having 200@00 students in the elementary grades and a comparable number in the secondary grades, it is not realistic to state that the library in every case must meet quantitative standards on a dual basis; that is, that it meets standards for materials for its secondary school group in equal extent as a separate secondary school of the same size, and, in addition, meets standards for materials for its elementary school group in equal extent as a separate elementary school of the same size. Precise standards for the K-12 group cannot be formulated because of the many variables that exist in relation to the grade distribution of the student population, available funds, and other factors. It may be stated, however, that total resources and total expenditures should never be less than that indicated for other schools of the same enrollment, and that, for good service, the size of the book and audio-visual collections should be substantially larger, with the annual budget for materials proportionately increased.
The objectives and program of the library in the twelve-grade school are the same as those in any other school, and each student in the school should have the opportunity to use the library and its resources.
and for all purposes of the instructional program requires a book collection of no mean size. The scope of the collection, however, is not limited to the curricular needs of the students. Since the interests of children and young people, in the aggregate, are almost limitless and since their purposes in reading are innumerable, the book collection in their library must be rich and extensive in imaginative writings, in non-fiction, and in reference resources to meet their many wants. The book collection provides a constant invitation to students to read and is a contributing factor in making reading a pleasurable and satisfying occupation.
1 Recommendations for the minimum size3 of the book collections in libraries in very good schools follow:
In schools having 200-999 students. 6,000-10,000 books.
(This range for the size of the book collection is of qualitative nature and is not to be interpreted as being proportionate in relation to size of enrollment. For example, schools having 200 pupils can make effective use of collections containing 10,000 books.)
In schools having 1,000 or more students. 10 books per student.
2 With collections that are large enough, books can be made easily accessible for students and teachers. At all times there is a sufficient number of books available for use in the school library, for classroom collections, and for withdrawals for home use. (See Chapter 10.) Libraries in excellent schools, particularly those having 200-2,000 students, will far exceed the minimum recommendations for size of book collections.
3 The standards for the size of the school library book collection allow for the acquisition of duplicate copies of titles to meet the needs of students and teachers. It is evident from reports received from school librarians that efficient service requires two or more copies of many titles, so that books in heavy demand are available for students at the times when they are most needed. Duplicate purchases are essential to meet reasonable requests for books that are used intensively by many students in connection with their class projects or assignments. Some titles are duplicated so that they can be made available for use in classroom collections as well as in the school library. Obtaining duplicate copies of titles that are popular with students in
3. Exclusive of the number of books in the collection of supplementary materials (pp. 84-85) and the collection of professional materials for the faculty (pp. 85-86).
77 their noncurricular reading pursuits is highly desirable. The provision of good library service shapes the policies to be followed for the acquisition of duplicate copies of books. Duplication of titles, however, is not done at the expense of building a well-rounded, basic collection of books for the library.
4 Library collections in schools having specialized curriculums in agriculture, in vocational or technical subjects, or in similar areas meet the needs of teachers and students for materials in these special fields. These parts of the collection are larger and more highly developed than in libraries in schools Dot having the specialized curriculums. The special materials are provided in addition to the basic, well-rounded collection.
Magazines form an important part of the school library collections. They contain material not found elsewhere and are a primary source of information about current events. For some students, magazines constitute their major reading fare, and this fact is treated constructively in the reading guidance done by school librarians. Students read magazines for many purposes, school related and otherwise, and it is important for students to become familiar with a wide range of good magazines. The collection of magazines is therefore large enough to permit representation of many subject and special interest areas as well as popular reading fare.
The school library collection of magazines also includes professional journals in the fields of librarianship and instructional materials. These magazines contain information that is helpful in the selection of printed and audio-visual materials and that keep the library staff informed about professional developments. They are frequently useful, too, for students. 1 Recommendations follow for the minimum number of current magazine subscriptions for the collection in the school library:
In elementary schools
(Grades K-6. 25 titles
In elementary schools
(Grades K-8). 50 titles
In junior high schools. 70 titles
In senior high schools. 120 titles
In all schools: plus at least 5 titles of professional magazines in the areas of librarianship and instructional materials4
4. For recommendations for other professional magazines, see p. 86, point 2.
In the case of the elementary school library, the number of titles recommended is not restricted to magazines designed solely for the child audience, but includes some titles in the adult field that have interest and usefulness for children in the upper middle grades.
2 Schools having a special program in technical, vocational, or other areas need larger periodical collections so that magazines in the special fields are included.
3 The number of titles in the magazine collection is not affected by the number of students in the school. Size of enrollment does affect duplication of titles. Decisions concerning the number of magazine titles to be duplicated in the school library are made by the head school librarian and the teachers on the basis of need and use.
4 Back issues of periodicals needed for reference work and for other purposes are retained in the school library for a time span covering at least five years. In an increasing number of school libraries these magazine files are kept on microfilm.
5 The school library collection includes a general periodical index. Large schools need more than one copy. Libraries in vocational, technical, or other special schools require a periodical index covering the contents of magazines in special fields.
The number of newspapers for the school library collection is determined primarily by the needs of teachers and students. A minimum newspaper collection consists of three to six titles, with coverage of the news reported on local, state, national, and international levels. In some junior and senior high school libraries, a newspaper index is essential.
Quantitative standards for size of pamphlet collections cannot be formulated precisely. For many subjects, information can be found only in pamphlets. For some readers, needs can be met more effectively with pamphlets than with books. The collection should therefore be fairly extensive, consisting of up-to-date and useful materials on a wide range of subjects. The school librarian builds the pamphlet collection systematically and does not leave its development to chance.
79 Films and filmstrips
Films and filmstrips are without peer for conveying many types of information and creative expressions. Although a school may rent or borrow many films, it will still need to own some films. This principle of ownership applies to filmstrips in even greater degree, since the costs involved are not so high. Effective use of these materials is made in the classroom and also in the library or audiovisual center, where individual students have the opportunity to make independent use of films and filmstrips in the preparation of their assignments or for other worthwhile purposes. The collections of films and filmstrips are therefore large enough to meet classroom needs and to provide a wide coverage of subject matter for use by individual students. Good teaching is handicapped when the instructor has to make plans to rent or borrow films or filmstrips a long time ahead of anticipated use, and also when these materials are not quickly available to meet those needs that occur spontaneously in the classroom. In like manner, the curiosity or interest of the individual child or young person making independent use of these materials may not be sustained over the period of time that it takes for the material to arrive.
Many variables affect the size of the collections of and filmstrips owned by schools, and hence quantitative standards cannot be formulated that cover every situation. Schools obtain audiovisual materials from school system centers or regional depositories and borrow or rent expensive materials infrequently used from other sources.5 The following general recommendations can be made, however:
1 A film used six or more times a year is purchased by the school. In most instances, when rental charges for a film during the year equal from one-fifth to one-seventh of the purchase price of the film, it becomes feasible to purchase.
2 It is desirable that filmstrips and recordings on many subjects and covering a wide range of interests be easily available in the school for use by class groups, small groups of students, and individual students. To meet these needs, it is advantageous for the school to have its own collection of filmstrips and recordings that will be used more than once during the school year.
5. These comments apply also to recordings, pictures, slides, and realia.
Disc and tape recordings
For many decades, disc recordings have formed a valuable and extensively used part of the school library collections. Recordings are available for use in almost every area of the curriculum, and they are an important resource for many noncurricular purposes of students. To meet these varied needs, the collection in the library has great breadth, including recordings of music, drama, poetry, historic events, language instruction, and many other types. The collection is extensive enough so that disc and tape recordings are available for use in the school library, for the classroom on long- or short-term loans, and for withdrawal for home use.
Pictures and slides
The library has an extensive collection of pictures and slides available for use by students and teachers in the library, in the classroom, and in the home. In addition to their value as supplementary and enrichment resources, these collections furnish the only material available on many topics and details. They form an important reference tool in the library. Pictures are also used for displays and exhibits in the library and throughout the school. Some libraries have a collection of good reproductions of paintings that students may take home on long-term loans.
The term realia is used in this book to cover such materials as three-dimensional objects, museum materials, dioramas, models, and samples. Realia represent a unique and vital source of information and appreciation for students, and they are frequently primary sources for teaching and learning. The school borrows realia from individuals in the community, museums, district materials centers, and other agencies, and teachers and students make pieces in connection with their class projects. In addition, it is important that some realia be purchased for the materials collections in the school building. Almost every classroom needs realia in its permanent collection of materials, and some pieces are sent to a sufficient number of classrooms on short-term loans to warrant their purchase. In the school library, realia are used by students for school work and also in connection with their many hobbies and special interests. They are frequently so important for the last-named purposes that it is
81 highly desirable that students be snowed to withdraw them from the library for home use whenever possible.
Other materials (see also pages 84-86)
The school library has a good collection of maps of various types (in addition to those in atlases); at least one globe is always available for use in the library. Inflatable globes are provided that may be borrowed for home use. Where needed, classrooms are equipped with a globe and any maps necessary for classroom instruction.
The school library contains indexes of community resources, trip and lecturer files, materials on local history, and other special materials useful for students and teachers.
In junior and senior high school libraries, collections of college catalogs and vocational information services are provided. These materials are needed in the school library even though similar or identical collections are maintained in the guidance department of the school.
1 The standards for annual appropriations recommend amounts that are necessary for the maintenance of functional materials collections and, therewith, an effective program of library services for teachers and students. They also allow for duplicate purchases of materials in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of students.
2 The amounts recommended for the annual expenditures for materials pertain only to those school libraries where the collections of materials meet the standards for the size and quality of the collections that have been noted in the preceding pages. Where this is not the case, the annual appropriations will need to be larger during the period of time required to develop the basic collections.
3 It is assumed that certain factors tend to operate to keep sufficient balance between materials acquired and those discarded, so that the materials collections, particularly in very large
6. See also footnote, p. 76.
82 schools, do not become disproportionately large. (See page 75, point 6.)
4 The figures cited apply to conditions existing in the year of 1960. Any changes beyond this date in the purchasing value of the dollar must be kept in mind and allowances made accordingly.
5 It is recommended that arrangements be made so that the head librarian has a petty cash or contingent fund readily available for the purchase of inexpensive materials and supplies.
1 Recommendations for the annual budget for printed materials in the school library collections follow:
a. Funds for books in the school library (see also point 1b immediately following):
In schools having 200-249
students. at least $1,000.00-$I,500.00
In schools having 250 or
more students. at least $4.00-$6.00 per student
It should be noted that the expenditure of the bare minimum of $4.00 per student means that approximately only one book per student can be added to the school library each year. The current cost of books (allowing for discounts) averages $3.00 per book for the elementary school library, $3.50 for the junior high school library, and $4.00 for the senior high school library. Production costs of books have been rising steadily during the last decade, and there is every indication that these costs will continue to mount.
b. Additional funds,7 as required, for:
Encyclopedias and unabridged dictionaries. (Encyclopedias to be replaced at least every five years.)
Magazines, newspapers, and pamphlets (see pages 78-79).
Supplies (see page 84).
7. In some small communities where public library service is as yet unavailable, schools may assume the responsibility for providing adult books to the adult members of the community. These should be paid for over and above the allowance made for books for children and young people in the school and should not be counted as part of the school library collection. They should be considered a temporary arrangement or transition step to adequate public library service for adults.
83 Professional materials for the faculty (see pages 85-86).
Collection of supplementary materials (see pages 84-85).
2 Libraries in vocational, technical, and other schools having specialized curriculums of this nature may need an annual budget larger than that noted in point I above. Over and beyond the acquisitions for the general collections in the school library, special technical and scientific materials must be purchased. Books in these areas are usually more expensive than fiction or general non-fiction, and tend to become outmoded more quickly and must be replaced more frequently. Magazines in the special fields must also be obtained as well as any special periodical indexes that are needed.
The annual budget for the acquisition of audio-visual materials, exclusive of equipment, should not be less than I per cent of the total per pupil instructional cost. This ranges at the present time from $2.00 to $6.00 per student, varying in general with the quality of the instructional program.
Funds for supplies are provided in sufficient amount for the needs of the school library program. These cover items to be used in connection with the acquisition, cataloging, and other technical processing, circulation, organization, repair, maintenance, promotion, and use of printed and audio-visual materials.
Funds are provided as required for the acquisition and repair of equipment needed for the effective and efficient organization and utilization of materials (see Appendix).
The collection of supplementary materials
The term supplementary materials collection, as defined here, refers to those books, magazines, and other printed materials that are purchased with school funds but are not shelved with the main school library collections: sets of supplementary textbooks, dictionaries and encyclopedias for classrooms, magazines and newspapers for classroom use, and similar materials. Use of these materials should not replace or reduce the use of the school library
and of the classroom collections on loan from the library.
General principles for the effective administration of these materials follow:
1 The head school librarian has administrative responsibility for the acquisition and care of these materials, and all requests for materials to be added to the collection are to be cleared through his office. Recommendations for purchase of these materials come primarily from classroom and special teachers. The librarian's role is essentially advisory in nature, and he is serving as the coordinator of materials in the school. With this centralization of administrative responsibility, effective selection and optimum use of these materials throughout the school can be achieved, and unnecessary duplication in the purchase of supplementary materials is avoided. Materials do not become misplaced or forgotten within the school building.
2 All titles in the supplementary collection meet recognized criteria for the evaluation and selection of books.
3 Funds for these materials do not come out of the budget for the school library collection (see page 83), but are in addition to those amounts and are allocated on the basis of need.
4 Adequate clerical assistance is made available to take care of the routines involved in handling and accounting for these materials.
5 It is usually desirable that a storage or depository room be provided for the sets of supplementary textbooks so that use of these sets by more than one class group may be facilitated. These books may be housed with the free or rental textbook collections or in the stack area of the school library (see page 122).
6 The materials are uncataloged and unclassified. Simplified records of author and title entries, copy numbers, and location of copies are sufficient.
Professional materials for the faculty
Even when a school system has a centrally located and extensive collection of professional books, magazines, and instructional materials for administrators and teachers, it is desirable that some professional materials be acquired for each school building. These materials are used for reference as well as for general professional reading. In some schools, parents also make use of the collection.
(Materials are not acquired for the sole purpose of providing textbooks for school personnel enrolled in college and university courses.) Recommendations for the school-owned collection of professional materials in schools having 200 or more students or in smaller schools having libraries follow:
1 A basic book collection consists of 200-1,000 titles, the number depending on the needs and size of the faculty and the availability of other collections of professional materials for teachers in the community.
In large schools, duplication of some titles will be necessary to provide for faculty needs and discussion groups.
2 The collection includes at least 25-50 professional magazine titles.
This core collection of magazines consists of general periodicals in the education field and a selection of other titles to represent the subject areas covered in the curriculum of the school. Many schools will want more professional magazines, and if there is no district collection of professional materials for administrators and teachers, a larger number of titles is imperative. (For professional magazines dealing with instructional resources, see page 78, point 1.)
3 The professional collection includes pamphlets, filmstrips, curriculum guides, resource units, and other special instructional materials as needed by the faculty members.
4 Minimum annual expenditures for the professional collection range from $200.00 to $800.00, depending upon the needs and size of the faculty and the availability of other professional materials in the community. Funds for these materials are in addition to those allocated for school library materials (page 83).
5 The professional collection is administered by the head school librarian.
6 Administrators, teachers, and librarians participate in the selection of the materials.
7 All materials in the collection meet standard criteria for evaluation and selection in the special fields represented. The collection is kept up-to-date and functional.
8 The collection is housed best in a special room for teachers in the school library suite, or in some part of the school easily accessible to teachers, if separate space is not available in the library. The materials can be withdrawn for home use.
easily accessible in the school
Optimum use of school library materials and good library service for students and teachers depend in large measure on having the resources of the school library easily accessible within the school. The basic principles that govern accessibility are presented in the three sections of this chapter and are grouped under "School Library Policies and Services That Make Materials Easily Accessible," "Organization of Materials," and "School Library Quarters."1
School library policies and services that make materials easily accessible
Policies and procedures that make materials easily accessible to students and teachers and that provide for optimum use of materials include the following:
1 The school library is available for use by individual students and by class groups throughout the school day. Flexible scheduling enables the teacher to bring his class to the library at the times best suited for the purposes of classroom instruction. Simplified attendance procedures make it possible for the student to have quick and easy access to the library from the classroom or from the study hall.
2 The school library is open before and after school for use by students and by teachers.
1. Some of the administrative and organizational procedures outlined in this chapter pertain only to schools with libraries. Many general policies, however, and the underlying philosophy of making materials easily accessible apply also to those schools of fewer than 200 students that do not have school libraries.
Unless local conditions dictate otherwise (for example, in schools where all students arrive and depart by bus immediately before and after school), the school library is open at least one-half hour before classes begin and at least one hour after classes end.
For good service. particularly in junior and senior high schools, the library remains open until at least five o'clock. (See pages 56-57, point 2b.) This policy permits more extensive use of the library's collections of materials, and makes the library more accessible to students and teachers. It lessens the pressure of demand for materials and services made by students in public libraries. If the community has no public library, added reasons exist for keeping the school library open for this longer period of time.
Reports from the field indicate that there is a growing approval of those policies that recommend that during the school year, school libraries should be open for use on Saturdays and that high school libraries should be open at night.2
The future will undoubtedly see increased demonstration and experimentation in extending the hours of the library schedule if conditions are favorable regarding geographical setting of the school, location of the library in the school building (page 92, point If), availability of professional staff and clerical personnel, and funds.3
3 All materials are made easily available for use in the library by students and teachers.
Good library service provides the library patron with the con-
2. In some schools the library remains open in the evenings for the adult education program carried on in the evening high school. Special funds are allocated for personnel and for materials in these cases. 3. The policy of permitting students to borrow books from the school library for use during all vacation periods, including summer, applies to all school libraries.
If the school has a summer session, school library resources and services are provided for the students. (See also p. 57, point c.)
In communities where good public library facilities are either not available or not easily accessible for children and young people, it is desirable that the school library remain open during the summer, regardless of whether the school has a summer session. Many schools have successfully put this plan into operation. These summer programs depend upon the existence of the same favorable conditions noted in the last paragraph of point 2 above.
In very small communities with limited pubic library facilities and where it is not possible to keep the school library open, books may be sent from the school library to the public library for student use during their summer vacation.
88 convenience of being able to examine and to use in one location all types of materials that he needs for his particular purposes; and a good program of guidance in the school library entails referral to and use of all forms of communication.
In those schools where the audio-visual center is a separate unit apart from the school library, arrangements are put into effect that permit quick delivery of materials to the library from the audio-visual center within the school, since the school librarian needs to make extensive use of filmstrips, recordings, pictures, and realia in working with teachers and students in the school library.
Other factors that facilitate the use of materials in the library and that are described elsewhere in this book include the services of a competent staff, the functional arrangement of the library quarters, the efficient organization of materials, and the provision of materials in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of students and teachers.
4 Collections of materials from the school library are continuously sent to the classrooms for short-term loans, ranging in length from one class period to several weeks.4
These collections, while they remain in the classroom, serve as branches of the main school library. They are placed in the classrooms so that teachers and students can have readily accessible those materials needed in conjunction with classroom instruction. The use of these collections supplements, and does not replace, the use of the school library. The teacher participates in the selection of materials to be sent to his classroom and motivates students to make good use of these books and other items.
5 Materials are sent to some classrooms for long-term or permanent loans.
For such subjects as homemaking and shop work, long-term or permanent classroom collections consist of reference books,
4. Classroom collections never constitute a substitute for a library in the school having 200 or more students. No classroom collection can contain enough materials to meet the wide range of interests and abilities represented in any class. Having classroom collections instead of a library is not an economical measure if any effort is made to meet the many needs of teachers and students. When they do not have a school library, students are deprived of a wide range of resources, of many special services and experiences important to them, and of the opportunities to learn how to use a library and its resources effectively.
instruction guides, handbooks, manuals, filmstrips, models, and other tools used by students as they work on their projects in class. These collections are supplemented by changing classroom collections of the kind described in point 4 above. Titles in the permanent classroom collections are duplicated in the main library collection if there is a demand for these materials.
6 The resources of the school library are easily available for home use.
The policies of the library for the circulation of materials are liberal and flexible, geared always to provide the best service possible for teachers and students. With the exception of some very expensive or unique reference works, all printed materials in the school library may be withdrawn for home use by teachers and students. (Reports from the field indicate that a large number of librarians have put into practice the policy of buying circulating copies of many reference tools used extensively by students. )
Arrangements are made so that books and other printed materials can be withdrawn for home use from the collections on short-term loan in the classrooms.
Disc and tape recordings, pictures, slides, inflatable globes, and some items of realia are circulated for home use from the school library and from the collections on short-term loan in the classrooms. In the foreseeable future, as resources, funds, and technical developments permit, filmstrips and films may also be made available for home use.
Organization of materials
Basic policies for the organization of the materials collections are as follows:
1 The collections of materials are organized to permit the most efficient service to students and teachers in the library and in classrooms. (See pages 91-94 and Appendix.)
2 The book collection of the school library is cataloged and classified according to standard procedures recommended for elementary and secondary school libraries.
3 Audio-visual materials are cataloged and arranged according to standard procedures recommended for processing these materials. In schools where audio-visual materials are not part of the library area, the card catalog in the school library contains entries for audio-visual items owned by the school.
90 Lists or indexes of pertinent materials obtainable from the central audio-visual depository are made available in the school library.
4 Magazines, pamphlets, and ephemeral materials are organized and arranged for quick and effective use.
5 Records for the acquisition and the circulation of materials are maintained in the library as required for the sake of efficiency and for official reports. These records are kept as simple as possible.
6 Centralized facilities are provided whenever the number of schools in a system warrants the establishment of central ordering and processing facilities and staff. (See footnote, page 112.)
School library quarters
A library program that stimulates teaming, encourages creative teaching, and provides for individual and group guidance requires a physical environment that is functional in design and arrangement. Ample space, harmonious arrangements, good lighting, blendings and contrasts in colors, functional furnishings, and proper control of sound create an atmosphere in which students and faculty enjoy working and in which learning takes place. The liking that children and young people have for the library, their feelings of ease and pleasure in its surroundings, and their satisfactions in using its materials derive from many sources. Among these influences are the attractive appearance and the convenient arrangement of the school library.
In this section, general principles are presented for the planning and design of school library quarters. The Appendix contains details and specifications for space allotments, the functional use of library areas, and equipment.
1 Planning a new school library (see also page 95, point 2), or remodeling existing quarters, begins with a study of the educational philosophy, objectives, and curriculum of the school and with a review of the library's current and potential contributions to the total educational program.
2 The breadth of the library's program, the scope of its resources, and the making of its services and materials easily accessible
to teachers and students determine the amount of space, the number of areas, and the kinds of equipment to be included in its quarters.
3 The library quarters are planned co-operatively by the school administrator, the architect, the school librarian, and the local or state school library supervisor.
Design for good service
In order that good service may be provided, the library quarters must be easily accessible, large enough to take care of the needs of the entire student and faculty groups, and planned for the comfort and convenience of its users. Location, space, and functional arrangements are basic elements in the design for library quarters.
1 The school library is located for maximum accessibility.
a. In the school housed in one building, the library is conveniently situated in relation to study centers, the center of classroom traffic, and the various divisions of the school.
b. In campus plan schools or school-within-a-school plants, the library is centrally located to serve clusters of classrooms.
c. The library is located some distance from sources of distracting noises, such as the gymnasium, cafeteria, playground, shops, or bus-loading areas.
d. The location of the library is in an area that does not limit its proportions to conventional classroom dimensions or restrict space for future expansion.
e. Where the head librarian does not have administrative responsibility for the collections of audio-visual materials or textbooks, good planning provides that these collections all be centrally located and in proximity to the school library.
f. Any extended library program, with service continuing during summer months, evening hours, or other times, requires a location for the library that permits restricting the use of the school building to the library quarters and that allows for separate custodial maintenance and supervision at these times.
2 The space requirements5 of the school library are determined
5. Demonstration school libraries require extra space in order to accommodate visitors and observers. Twelve-grade schools may need larger space to provide separate areas in the library for elementary and secondary school students and may, in some instances, have separate libraries for the elementary and secondary school groups.
by the program of the school, the size of the enrollment of the school, the number and types of materials to be housed, and the elements of functional arrangement that afford efficient and effective service.
a. If all students and teachers are to receive library service, the library area or areas must be large enough to accommodate them. This means that the reading room has a seating capacity for 10 per cent of the enrollment in schools with more than 550 students and a minimum seating capacity for 45-55 students in schools having 200-550 students.
b. The number of reading rooms depends upon the size of enrollment and the organization of the school. In terms of supervision and good service, no more than 100, and preferably no more than 80, students should be seated in one reading room. In larger schools, multiple reading rooms or special library areas are therefore needed.
One of the most important advances in school library service has come from the relatively recent appearance of multiple library areas in school architecture, and the immediate future holds great promise for further developments of this kind. One example is the "little school" or school-within-school plants where, in addition to a large central library that serves the total school enrollment, there are special library areas for the students in the component schools. Another example is the multiple library arrangement for high schools where the school has two, four, or more library rooms and the arrangement is based on a subject or departmental division of materials, e.g. one library for social science materials, or on some other plan. Some form of multiple library arrangement (probably by grade levels) is functional also for larger elementary and twelve-grade schools.
c. The library quarters are large enough to house the collections of materials required for the needs of the students and faculty and to provide for the effective and convenient use of these materials. Adequate space is planned for the reading, viewing, and listening pursuits of students and faculty, for the arrangement and housing of materials and equipment, for the acquisition and preparation of materials, and for the management of the library. The library suite also contains classroom and conference room space to meet the
special needs of students, teachers, and librarians in the use of library materials and in teaching students how to use the library and its resources. (For details concerning space requirements and equipment for the school library, see the Appendix.)
3 Library quarters have the characteristic of flexibility as well as amplitude. Flexibility in libraries can be achieved in many ways: a minimal use of load-bearing walls and elimination of structural columns; modular planning; exchangeable equipment and, wherever feasible, portable furniture and mobile equipment; the use of outdoor spaces adjacent to the library; and the design and arrangement of levels and areas so that they may become extensions of other areas. New developments in educational programs, instructional methods, and class groupings, and the uses of library resources that accompany them, make it essential for the library quarters to have this element of flexibility.
4 Any newly developed equipment that increases the efficiency of the school library's organization and that expands the breadth of its services is acquired. The uses of closed circuit television for reference services and for library instruction between the library and the classrooms in the school are examples. The newer electronic devices and machines provide imaginative librarians with many possibilities for exploration and experimentation.
5 Design and arrangement make the library attractive, comfortable, and convenient. Proper control of light, acoustics, ventilation, and temperature are essential. The color design and other decorative arrangements of the library reflect beauty and are harmonious, pleasant, and inviting in their total effect. As a result, using the library becomes a pleasurable as well as a profitable experience for children and young people.
in the new school
Since the library is an integral part of the school program, it must be ready to function the day that classes start in the new school. From the beginning of the school year teachers and pupils will want to use library materials and to have access to library services, and the instructional program in the new school will be severely limited and handicapped if the library is not available at this time. To have the library equipped for action when the new school opens requires careful preparation in advance. This chapter presents general principles to be followed in planning the library in the new school and includes recommendations for its staff, materials collections, and funds.1
1 The objectives of the library program in the new school are the same as those for established schools (see Chapters 2 and 3), and advance planning is directed toward the goal of having the school library program in full operation as quickly as possible after the new school opens. Implementation of the library program requires qualified staff, an adequate initial collection of materials, and functional library quarters.
2 In the planning and equipping of the library quarters in the new school:
1.The quantitative standards in this chapter apply to libraries in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools anticipating enrollments of 200 or more students. They can be adapted for smaller schools planning a full library program. For new twelve-grade or K-12 schools the recommendations may need to be increased, depending upon local conditions or circumstances. (See p. 55, point 2, and the footnote on p. 76.)
95 a. The superintendent of schools and the school architect consult one or more of the school librarians listed in point 3.
b. The space designated for the school library allows for any anticipated increase in the school's enrollment.
c. Provision is made for functional quarters and standard equipment as described in Chapter 10, in the Appendix, and in the literature on the architecture of school libraries and audio-visual centers.
3 Making plans and determining policies for the library in the new school are the responsibility of the superintendent of schools. He will find it advantageous to enlist the aid of one or more of the following individuals available for consultation: the supervisor of school libraries in the school system, the state supervisor of school libraries, an experienced school librarian in the school system, and the librarian for the new school.
4 Since the acquisition of the materials collections and the preparation for the school library program cannot be accomplished in a few months, the school superintendent initiates his program for the school library while the school building is still under construction. He employs a librarian for the school and sufficient clerical help, decides upon expenditures, and makes arrangements for temporary headquarters for the librarian and for materials until the new school building is completed.
Staff needed before the new school opens
For schools with an anticipated enrollment of fewer than 1,000 students, a school librarian is employed a full academic year before the opening of the school.
a. For schools where centralized technical processing is available, the above recommendation assures very good planning for the collections and for the program of the library in the new school. (See page 98, point 5.)
b. In the case of schools anticipating 500-999 students in systems where centralized processing is not available, the above recommendation barely provides for the professional staff needed for the selection and processing of a minimum initial collection of materials. (See pages 99-100.)
2 For schools with anticipated enrollments of 1,000 or more stu-
dents, it is desirable to employ more than one school librarian a full academic year before the opening of the school. The number to be employed depends upon the size of the initial collections of materials, the availability of centralized technical processing, and other factors noted in point 4 below. If more than one librarian is employed, one should be appointed head librarian.
3 Sufficient clerical help is provided for the school librarian during this preparatory period before the opening of the new school. Even if centralized technical processing is available, the librarian still needs clerical assistance for the typing of orders, for checking in materials, and for the performance of many other tasks. Where materials must be processed, the time spent by the library clerk in this type of work averages twenty minutes per book. (See footnote, page 52.) Additional time is needed for the processing of audio-visual resources and printed materials other than books.
4 In determining the number of professional staff members to be employed during the academic year before the new school opens, the administrative officers must make decisions about the following factors:
a. The size of the initial collections (pages 99-100).
b. The time allowance for over-all planning of the collections and careful selection of materials (page 98, point 5).
The selection of the first 2,000-3,000 titles in a collection may be done in a relatively short time (a month approximately ).2 Beyond this number more time is required, and a month's quota would probably average 1,000 titles. Additional time must be allowed for the selection of audio-visual materials and printed materials other than books.
c. The time allowance for orders to be filled.
At least one month or six weeks should be allowed for each book order. This time period could also cover orders for other printed materials and audio-visual materials.
d. The time allowance for any technical processing to be done by the librarian-at least ten minutes per book plus the time needed for audio-visual materials (see footnote, page 52).
2. Modifications may need to be made in the case of schools in systems where initial purchase lists for new school libraries have already been compiled in the office of the school library supervisor.
e. The time allowance for the performance of the professional activities noted in point 5.
5 During the academic year preceding the opening of the school, the school librarian:
a. Becomes acquainted with the curriculum planned for the school, the characteristics of the student group to be enrolled, and the community environment.
b. Selects the printed and audio-visual materials to be ordered for the school library.
Careful selection of materials cannot be done hurriedly. Good selection results when there is ample time for studying the curriculum, for planning the collections as a whole, for examining books and other materials in nearby libraries or other agencies, and for the critical appraisal of materials. Curricular needs must be determined, and this procedure involves consultation with administrators, curriculum coordinators, and teachers.
c. Has charge of the technical processing and organization of the materials acquired for the school in school systems where centralized technical processing is not available.
d. Plans aspects of the school library program, such as the program of instruction for teaching students how to use the library and its resources.
e. Prepares special materials, such as a leaflet for teachers describing the services and collections of the library.
f. Charts policies and procedures for the efficient administration and organization of the library.
g. Completes details relating to decorating and equipping the library, including the ordering of supplies.
Staff needed after the new school opens
1 Standards for the number and qualifications of librarians and library clerks for the new school, from the day it opens, are never less than those for established schools (see Chapter 7).
2 If the acquisition of the total basic collection is continued into the these few years that the school is open (see the section following on the materials collection), additional professional and clerical assistance will be needed during this time. This may mean the employment of extra personnel or the remuneration
98 for over-time work for personnel already employed. (See also point 3 immediately following.)
3 In the case of schools where the projected enrollment will not be reached for two, three, or four years, the number of professional and clerical library staff members appointed for the first year that the school is open is the same as the number needed for the full anticipated enrollment. In addition to the work of the regular library program, this staff completes the selection, acquisition, and organization of the materials collections.
The materials collections
The following recommendations are made for the scope and nature of the materials collections in the new school:
1 The size of the initial collection of books in the school library, ready for use when the new school opens, is as follows -
For schools having 200-499 students. at least 3,000 books For schools having 500-1,499 students. at least 5,000 books For schools having 1,500 or more students. at least one third of the number recommended for book collections in established school libraries (page 77).
2 This initial collection of books is systematically expanded so that it reaches the recommended size (page 77) no later than four years (preferably three years or less) after the new school is opened.
3 Audio-visual materials are purchased in sufficient number to meet the needs of the school when it opens. The collection of audio-visual materials is developed as quickly as possible, in line with recommended principles (pages 80-82).
4 Provision is made for the acquisition of pamphlets for the initial collection in sufficient quantity to meet the immediate needs of the curriculum. This collection is expanded systematically after the new school is opened.
5 The number of magazines and newspapers available for use in the library when the new school opens is the same as that for all schools (pages 78-79). Since these resources do not require cataloging or classifying, the full complement of magazines can be ordered immediately.
6 Those supplementary textbooks or other supplementary printed materials are obtained that are needed by teachers when the new school opens. Details as to policies, plans, and purchases
99 for these kinds of instructional materials are formulated by the librarian during the first year that the school is in session, at which time the school librarian works closely with the teaching staff and obtains their recommendations (pages 84-85). These materials are not counted as part of the basic collections of the school library.
7 Plans are made to include curriculum and professional materials for teachers in the initial materials collections. The nature and number of these materials is determined on the basis of the needs of the school and in relation to the availability in the community of other collections of professional materials for teachers. The collection meets the recommended standards (page 86) no later than three years after the new school is opened.
8 The selection of the materials in the initial collections follows the same general principles outlined for all school libraries (Chapter 9).
The budget for materials and supplies in the new school library meets the following requirements:
1 The budget necessary for the initial collection of library books can be estimated on the basis of $3.00 per book for the elementary school library, $3.50 for the junior high school library, and $4.00 for the senior high school library. Processing supplies average 23-25 cents per book (less 10 cents for each duplicate copy). This estimate includes printed catalog cards, plastic covers, book cards, printed book pockets, date due slips, transfer paper, paste, and shellac.
2 Additional funds will be required for encyclopedias, unabridged dictionaries, audio-visual materials, magazines, newspapers, pamphlets, professional materials for teachers, supplementary printed materials (page 85), and for various supplies needed when the school opens.
3 After the school is opened, the budget for materials for the school library has to be larger than that for established school libraries, until that time when (no later than four years) the collections of materials have reached the standards recommended for the size of the basic collections (Chapter 9).
Library resources and
services in schools having
fewer than 200 students 1
The provision of a functional program of school library service, directed by professionally qualified personnel, is as important for the small school as for the large one. No one would deny this principle, but any realistic appraisal of the facilities required for such service must recognize that for most small schools it can come only as the result of a well-planned, co-operative arrangement between several schools and a central agency established or equipped to provide such service. "Small" schools are defined in this book to mean those with an enrollment of fewer than 200 pupils. They may be ungraded schools, independent school districts, or small schools which are part of a larger school district, with or without a secondary school. They may have as many as seven or eight teachers, or they may be one-, two-, or three-teacher schools containing grades K-8, 1-5, 7-9, 9-12, or any combination of grades.
This chapter contains recommendations for the personnel, materials, and quarters for library service in small schools and describes the organizational patterns and functions of the central agencies established for library activities in these schools.
The library program
A good school library program for students and teachers in the small school has the same educational objectives as the program
1. As noted elsewhere, some excellent schools with fewer than 200 students have library programs with a full-time librarian and an extensive collection of materials.
outlined for larger schools (see Chapters 2 and 3), and its development in any school requires the provision of professionally qualified library personnel, an organized collection of several types of materials, and adequate space for the materials.
Guiding principles for the personnel for the library program in the very small school follow:
1 The library program within the small school may be in the charge of a classroom teacher or it may be the responsibility of a field librarian who spends part-time in more than one school.
2 The smallest one-teacher school should have the services of a school librarian at least once a week, to be spent in group work with the students and in advisory work with the teacher.
3 As the enrollment of the school increases, the amount of time provided for the librarian to be in the school should also increase. The development of a library program in schools with an enrollment of 75 will require the services of a librarian at least one day a week, and in those schools with enrollments of 150, the services of at least a half-time librarian.
The above provisions represent minimal conditions. It should be kept in mind that the standards recommend a full-time librarian and a half-time clerk for libraries in very good schools having 200 students, and that some superior schools having fewer than 200 students now have library programs with a full time librarian and clerical assistance.
4 The number of schools to be served by one librarian working on the staff of the central agency will depend not only on the enrollment of the schools, but also on the amount of driving time required to reach them and the degree of responsibility that the librarian has for the processing of materials and other duties in the central agency.
5 Advisory services for and consultant work with teachers about books, other materials, and their uses are probably the most important parts of the field librarian's work, since the classroom teacher in the very small school has practically the entire responsibility and opportunity to make books and other materials important elements in the daily experiences of each individual student.
1 Each school building needs its own up-to-date and appropriate collection of materials, centrally located and easily accessible to all teachers and pupils. This collection must be supplemented throughout the school year by materials on short- or long-term loan, quickly available from the central agency.
2 The nucleus of the materials collection to be retained within the school follows:
a. A carefully selected basic collection of those books that need to be accessible to teachers and pupils for all or most of the school year. The number of books to be included may vary considerably, depending in part on enrollment, needs, and economic ability, but most of all on the availability of additional books from the central agency. In view of the fact that schools with 200 students need at least 6,000 books in their school libraries, smaller schools, where circumstances permit, can use collections of proportionate size.
b. A magazine collection with at least ten to fifteen titles for meeting the curricular purposes and general interests of students and teachers.
c. An up-to-date reference collection that includes, as a minimum in the very smallest school, a variety of dictionaries, one encyclopedia, a world atlas, and an almanac.
d. A selection of pamphlets, pictures, and other vertical file materials.
e. Those filmstrips and recordings that will be used several times during the school year.
3 Provision is made for keeping the basic, school-housed collection up-to-date with current materials, in good physical condition, and appropriate for the interests and abilities of the student group.
4 All materials used in the school meet the basic criteria for selecting and evaluating materials (pages 74-75).
1 In schools with several teachers it is desirable to have a central library room that is large enough to seat one class group and to house the materials in the basic collection and on loan from the central agency. It should be equipped with functional shelving,
103 tables and chairs of appropriate heights, a card catalog case, a vertical file, a book truck, and a desk. If space for a library room is not available, another area in the school can be adapted for shelving the materials in a central, accessible location: a corridor, vestibule, cloakroom, book storage room, or multi-purpose area.
2 In two-teacher schools serving different grade groups (1-3 and 4-6, for example), each room is best served by having its own collection.
The central agency for library services and resources in small schools
Various factors affect the number and kinds of library services and resources that can be provided through co-operative arrangements, but whatever they may be, the co-operative plan requires the establishment of a central service agency, center, or department. This central agency may be part of a district materials center (Chapter 13) or a less fully developed unit. Essentials in a minimum program include the following provisions, for which funds must be made available on the basis of local needs and conditions:
1 Quarters that have sufficient office, workroom, and storage space, the amount needed depending in part on the services to be performed, the number of schools being served, and the extent of the materials collections. (It is also desirable for the center to include a conference room where teachers can gather to examine and to discuss the selection and use of books and other materials.)
2 The services of professional librarians, library clerks, and maintenance workers. The staff may consist of a school library supervisor for the co-operating districts, a librarian in charge of processing and organizing materials, one or more field librarians to provide service within the schools, or professional staff personnel serving in some combination of these capacities. In addition, sufficient secretarial and clerical assistance is provided, as well as personnel to handle the maintenance and delivery of materials.
3 The centralization of the machinery for the clerical and technical processing of materials.
4 The maintenance of a centralized pool of printed and audiovisual materials of many types which the schools may draw upon to supplement their own school-housed collections, plus a collection of professional books and magazines and a variety of curriculum and instructional materials for teachers.
The types of co-operative organization that may be used for the central agency include the following:
1 Contractual arrangements between small school districts and a legally established intermediate unit, staffed and equipped to provide a central materials agency and school library service unit.
A soundly organized and stable intermediate unit that serves a number of separate districts in the area represents the best form of organization for most very small schools. Desirable intermediate units have a minimum pupil population base of approximately 10,000. The intermediate unit is a structure that functions between the basic school districts and the state education department but within the same organizational framework typically responsible for education.
2 Contractual arrangements between small school districts and larger school districts in a position to supply any or all of the required services.
3 Contractual arrangements between small school districts and institutions of higher learning for services, materials, personnel, or any combination of these.
4 Contractual arrangements between small school districts and public, county, or regional library agencies for services, materials, or personnel, or any combination of these.
for school libraries
The forms of co-operative planning for school libraries most commonly found today are the school district or system-wide arrangements for sharing certain collections of printed and audiovisual materials the centralization of facilities for the acquisition and processing of materials, the provision of library resources and services for very small schools, and the program of school library supervision. Some systems have all of these services; others have only one or some combination of two or three of the arrangements. As district co-operative planning grows to include all these functions and their many other related activities, the district materials center emerges as the most useful form of organization. Consequently, aspects of district co-operative planning are brought together in this chapter within the framework of the district materials center.1 A brief commentary on regional planning for school libraries concludes the chapter.
The district materials center
Although the district materials center is a relatively recent development and not many have been established, its usefulness has been demonstrated in many ways and gives promise of a rapid increase in the number of centers in the immediate future. Indeed, a district materials center is essential if a full program of instructional materials and services is to be provided for students, librarians, and teachers in the schools.
1. Other names are also currently used to refer to centers of this: The instructional resource centers, curriculum materials centers, and similar terms.
It must be stated emphatically, however, that the collections and services of district materials centers are not a substitute for the library program, personnel, and resources recommended in this book for schools having 200 or more students.
Organization and administration
The location of a center and the number of schools to be served depend upon local conditions.2 A typical pattern would be one center for the city, town, or county school system.-' In a large metropolis, however, each district or region within the school system may have its own center, with some services and materials concentrated in a main center serving all schools. In the case of very small school systems, two or more school districts may establish a center on a co-operative basis, either as part of the structure of an intermediate unit (see page 105) or as a multi-district arrangement entered upon for the purpose of creating a center. (The latter type of multi-district co-operative arrangement is permissive under certain statutory and other local conditions, and the governing board would be composed of the chief administrative officers, or their delegated representatives, of the participating school systems. This type of co-operative planning remains essentially in an exploratory stage, but interest in its possibilities has been evidenced, particularly in connection with densely populated regions having many independent, small school systems-not necessarily schools of small enrollment.)
In the fifty states, innumerable variations can be found in the administrative organization, geographical coverage, size of student enrollment, and economic support of school districts or school systems. To formulate quantitative standards for materials centers
2. The full-scale operation of a materials center probably functions best when the student population that it serves falls within the range of 10,000-25,000. Some types of co-operative planning, however, may profitably be undertaken for student populations of smaller size, with some modification of the services offered in the central office-e.g. supervision of school libraries (see p. 42, point 1) and the centralization of technical processing (see footnote, p. 112). 3. The content of this section is presented primarily in terms of public school systems, but similar co-operative arrangements can be made among schools in parochial school systems.
In some communities, it would be desirable for the public librarians working with children and young people and for librarians in independent schools to have access to some of the services and activities of the center. These cases might involve some contractual financial arrangements on a pro-rated service basis.
107 that would fit all these many variations in every detail is neither possible nor desirable at this time, and hence most of the material in this section is presented in the form of general policies and procedures, with the specifics of organization and administration left for adaptation according to local conditions, which are extremely variable.
Some general principles for the administration and organization of the center follow:
1 The most desirable location for the center is in the building where the offices of the curriculum coordinators (supervisors, directors, or equivalent terms) are located. (This may not always be possible for multi-district co-operative arrangements for materials centers.)
The curriculum coordinators and specialists are thus easily available for many advisory services in connection with the center's program and also for the coordinated planning of the work of the center that is essential for the most effective results.
2 The school library supervisor4 serves as the director of the collections in the center and of the services relating to materials that are carried on within and from the center.5 The office of school library supervision may be part of the department of the chief curriculum coordinator.
The staff members under the direction of the school library supervisor (and preferably with headquarters at the center) comprise three distinct units: the staff engaged in the program of school library supervision (see Chapter 6), librarians serving two or more small schools (see Chapter 12), and the staff for the work of the center itself (see point 3 below). Although members of the first two units contribute advisory services for the center, share in the planning of its program, and participate in many of its activities, each group has unique primary responsibilities.
3 Sufficient funds and staff are provided for the center.
4. Other titles are sometimes used for the supervisor who directs a materials center -coordinator of curriculum materials, supervisor of Instructional materials, and similar terms.
5. If the organization of the school system follows the pattern of having audio-visual materials administered separately, then close co-operation, communication, and coordinated planning are maintained between the school library supervisor and the coordinator of audio-visual materials.
For the work of the center itself, professional6 and clerical staff is needed to handle, process, and prepare the various collections of materials, to provide the special bibliographic services, to advise and work with the teachers and librarians using the center, and to co-ordinate the many parts of the center's program. Personnel for the delivery and maintenance of materials and equipment is also essential.
Funds are required for the acquisition of printed and audiovisual materials, for supplies, for equipment, for the maintenance and delivery of materials, and related needs.
The number of staff members and the size of the budget depend upon the scope of the center's program, the number and enrollment of the participating schools, and the state of development of the library programs and collections of materials in the schools. The size and geographical characteristics of the area served by the center must also be considered.
4 The quarters of the center are functional in design and arrangement, with sufficient space and equipment so that the services and activities within the center can be carried on efficiently and effectively. The use of closed circuit television for many reference, instructional, and advisory services to the schools is almost limitless in its possibilities.
It is essential that the materials center be easily accessible to the schools that it serves, not just to expedite the delivery of materials but primarily for the convenience of teachers coming to the center to make use of its services or to participate in its activities.
The materials collections
The materials center operating on a full-scale program contains the following collections of materials:
1 A professional library for teachers and librarians.
This collection of professional books and other materials for teachers and school librarians in the district is much more extensive than that owned by the individual schools. Some of the materials can be sent to the schools on long- or short-term loans.
2 Model collections of books and other materials that teachers and school librarians may examine for the purpose of keeping
6. Professional staff members of the center need a highly specialized knowledge of materials and their uses.
109 informed about materials and for guidance in the selection of materials to be purchased or borrowed by their schools.
3 A "Warehouse" or storage collection of books and other materials no longer needed by one or more schools but still not obsolescent, and available for other schools as loans or permanent acquisitions.
4 Depositories of materials to be sent to the schools in the district (or districts) on short- and long-term loans. These collections include any or all of the following types of materials:
a. Books and other printed materials for the school library collections:
1) Some very expensive or little-used materials that the individual school cannot afford to buy.
2) All types of materials for schools of less than 200 students. (See Chapter 12.)
b. Audio-visual materials and equipment; e.g. sound motion picture films, museum and exhibit materials, dioramas and models, projection and recording equipment, television and radio receivers, cameras, phonographs, and workshop and graphics facilities.
c. Professional and curriculum materials for teachers and librarians.
d. Community resources.
e. Supplementary textbooks.
f. Basic textbooks (free or rental).
5 A core collection of general reference works.
The program of the center
The program of the district, or multi-district, materials center embraces many services and activities:
1 The school library supervisor serves as a consultant for the chief curriculum coordinator and other administrators in the school system. (See pages 42-44. ) In those matters dealing with materials and their uses, he is assisted by the professional members of the center's staff.
2 Specialized advisory and consultant services about printed and audio-visual materials are provided for the teachers and school librarians.
7. This type of collection is useful for libraries in large school systems, regardless of whether they maintain a district materials center.
The curriculum specialists participate, as needed, in this part of the center's program.
3 Some of the activities of the center are sponsored and planned by the curriculum coordinators, supervisors, or specialists, and some are arranged by groups or committees of teachers or librarians. The staff of the materials center assists in these enterprises, and, on frequent occasions, initiates them. Examples of these activities follow:
a. Demonstrations of all types that show how materials can be used effectively in the classrooms, in the school library, and elsewhere in the school.
b. Experimentation and research in the use of materials in classroom instruction, in individual guidance of students, in teaching the use of the library and its resources, and in other areas.
c. In-service workshops or conferences dealing with materials and their uses.
4 The center serves as a clearing house for ideas about materials and their uses and about special projects carried on successfully within the district.
5 Teachers and librarians make extensive use of the center's collections for the examination of materials, for professional reading, and for many other purposes.
6 The center serves as the medium for the inter-school loan of exhibits or materials that have been constructed by students and teachers.
7 The center is a place where teachers and librarians may meet for informal group discussions about the selection, evaluation, and uses of books and other materials.
8 Special exhibits and displays of materials are arranged in the center.
9 The staff of the center furnishes some special bibliographic and reference services that cannot be provided in the individual school.
10 Materials are sent from the center to the schools, as needed. (See page 110, points 3 and 4.)
11 Special materials are produced or planned in the center, among them the production of films, filmstrips, and radio and television programs.
12 The center provides the quarters and staff for the centralized
acquisition and technical processing of materials purchased for the libraries and other collections in the schools in the system.8 (These staff members also process the materials acquired for the collections of the materials center.)
As already noted, state planning for school libraries can be developed along multi-county or other regional areas within the state, with the possibility of materials centers located in the regional headquarters (see page 39, point 1).
Future plans may well include the development of a network of regional materials centers on a nation-wide plan, each center serving a cluster of states. These centers, much larger in the scope of their collections and services than the district materials centers, would provide special research and bibliographic services for the district centers. By using many of the technical, electronic, and machine devices that have been developed in connection with bibliographic control and the retrieval of knowledge processes for the analysis of books and other materials, for the reproduction of materials, and for many other purposes, the regional centers would be of great service to the district centers and schools within their areas. Closed circuit television and other forms of quick communication would accelerate reference and information services between regional and district centers. Experience may show that technical
8. Centralized technical processing constitutes a form of co-operative planning for school libraries that may take place before the establishment of a materials center. When school systems have three or more schools, centralized processing should be introduced. (See also footnote, p. 52.)
Centralization of one or more of the processes of organization (ordering, receiving, equipping for circulation, classifying, and cataloging) insures economy of time and effort and also provides uniformity within the school system. It permits the librarian in the school to devote most of his time and professional skills to pupils and teachers. In school systems or in co-operating schools where there is not a librarian in each school, centralized processing makes possible a well-organized and functioning library collection.
Under some circumstances, the public library may do the processing of materials for the school that does not have access to this type of service in the school system. It is not inconceivable that materials centers might assume this service for small community public libraries that are not part of a library system. Local conditions, practicality, and economy determine when these types of co-operative arrangements are feasible and desirable. If agreed upon, arrangements are made that are equitable for both agencies and that provide for joint planning. If the public library assumes responsibility for processing materials for the school library, the board of education pays for this service, and vice versa.
processing can be most efficiently handled when centralized in the regional centers.
The regional centers would have extensive collections of instructional materials f or teachers and definitive collections of books and other materials for children and young people that could be examined by teachers, librarians, and all adults working with or interested in these materials.9 Such collections and the expert critical and advisory services that the staff of specialists would be able to provide are sorely needed in this country.
9. The closest approach to this type of collection is that of the Center for Children's Books of the University of Chicago.
This bibliography contains suggestions for background readings in two areas: (I ) writings that present recent educational trends, developments, and philosophy that are wielding considerable influence in shaping the content of education for children and young people today, and thus have many guides and implications for planning effective school library programs; and (2) basic references that deal with the scope and nature of school library programs, the organization and administration of school libraries, and current issues and developments in the field. The third section of the bibliography consists of a list of basic tools useful in the selection of books and other materials for school libraries. No part of this bibliography is definitive in nature.
Recent trends in education
Chase, Francis S. and Anderson, Harold A. eds. High School in a New Era. (Univ. of Chicago. Conference on the American High School.) Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr. 1958. 465p.
Conant, James B. The American High School Today. New York: McGrawHill, 1959. 140p.
Cooperative Study of Secondary-School Standards. Evaluative Criteria. Washington, D.C. The Study, 1950. (Revision to be published in 1960.)
National Education Association. The Identification and Education of the Academically Talented Student in the American Secondary School. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1958. 160p.
--American Association of School Administrators. The High Schoolin aChanging World: 36th Yearbook. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1958. 383p.
--Department of Elementary School Principals. Elementary School Buildings. Design for Learning. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1959. 198p.
--Department of Rural Education. The Community School and the Intermediate Unit: Yearbook 1954; ed. by R. M. Isenberg. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1954. 259p.
--Educational Policies Commission. An Essay on Quality in Publication. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1959. 31p.
--National Association of Secondary-School Principals. "Advanced Placement Programs in Secondary Schools," Bulletin, 42:1-262 (December, 1958).
-----Images of the Future; ed. by J. Lloyd Trump, Director, Commission on the Experimental Study of the Utilization of the Staff in the Secondary School. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1959. 46p.
The Pursuit of Excellence: Education and the Future of America. ("America at Mid-Century Series," Special Studies Project Report V, Rockefeller Brothers Fund.) Garden City, N.Y. Doubleday, 1958. 49p.
Shane, Harold G. and McSwain, E. T. Evaluation and the Elementary Cur riculum. Rev. ed. New York: Holt, 1958. 436p.
Stoddard, Alexander J. Schools for Tomorrow: an Educator's Blueprint. New York: Fund for the Advancement of Education, 1957. 61p.
Related library references
American Library Association. Committee on Post-War Planning. School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow; Functions and Standards. Chicago: A.L.A. 1945. 54p. O.P.
--Coordinating Committee on Revision of Public Library Standards. Public LibraryService; A Guide to Evaluation, with Minimum Standards. Chicago: A.L.A. 1956. 74p.
Bemer, Elsa R. Integrating Library Instruction with Classroom Teaching at Plainview Junior High School. Chicago: A.L.A. 1958. 120p.
Beust, Nora E. School Library Standards, 1954. ("Bulletin 1954," No. 15.) Washington, D.C. Govt. Print. Off. 1954. 43p.
Cleary, Florence D. Blue Prints for Better Reading: School Programs for Promoting Skill and Interest in Reading. New York: Wilson, 1957. 216p.
Douglas, Mary P. The Pupil Assistant in the School Library. Chicago: A.L.A. 1957. 68p.
--The Teacher-Librarian's Handbook. 2nd ed. Chicago: A.L.A. 1949. 176p.
Fargo, Lucile F. The Library in the School. 4th ed. Chicago: A.L.A. 1947.
Gardiner, ewel. Administering Library Service in the Elementary School. 2Nd ed. Chicago: A.L.A. 1954. 176p.
Gaver, Mary V. Every Child Needs a School Library. Chicago: A.L.A. 1958.16p.
Henne, Frances; Brooks, Alice; and Ersted, Ruth, eds. Youth, Communication and Libraries. ("Univ. of Chicago Studies in Library Science," Univ. Graduate Library School.) Chicago: A.L.A. 1949. 246p.
--Ersted, Ruth, and Lohrer, Alice. A Planning Guide for the High School Library Program. Chicago: A.L.A. 1951. 154p.
Illinois Library Association. Subcommittee of the Planning Board. Planning School Library Quarters. Chicago: A.L.A. 1950. 64p.
Lancour, Harold, ed. The School Library Supervisor. (Univ. of Illinois Library School Institute.) Chicago: A.L.A. 1956. 104p.
Lohrer, Alice, ed. "Current Trends in School Libraries," Library Trends, 1:259-422 (January, 1953).
Mahar, Mary Helen. Certification of School Librarians: A Compilation of State Requirements. ("Bulletin 1958," No. 12.) Washington, D.C. U.S.
Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, 1958. 73p. "The Modern Reading Program and the School Library." (Reprint from the ALA Bulletin, February, 1957.) Chicago: American Association of School Librarians, A.L.A. 1957. 24p.
National Citizens Council for Better Schools. How Good Are Our Teaching Materials? A Guide to Understanding and Improvement. Rev. ed. New York: The Council, 1958. 92p.
National Education Association. American Association of School Administrators. Choosing Free Materials for Use in the Schools. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1955. 24p.
--Department of Audio-Visual Instruction. The AV Instructional Materials Center. ("Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials," No. 3.) Washington, D.C. The Association, 1954. 80p.
-- The School Administrator and His Audio-Visual Program: 1954 Yearbook. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1954. 368p.
and Department of Rural Education. The Cooperative Approach to Audio-Visual Programs. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1959. 80p. -Department of Elementary School Principals. Elementary-School Libraries Today: 30th Yearbook. Washington, D.C. The Association, 1951. 312p.
--Research Division. The Secondary-School Teacher and Library Services. (Research Monograph 1958-MI.) Washington, D.C. The Association, 1958. 37p.
Rossoff, Martin. The Library in High School Teaching. New York: Wilson, 1955. 124p.
--Using Your High School Library. New York: Wilson, 1952. 75p. Rufsvold, Margaret I. Audio-Visual School Library Service. Chicago: A.L.A. 1949. 126p.
"School and Public Library Relationships." (Reprint from the ALA Bulletin, February, 1959.) Chicago: American Association of School Librarians, A.L.A. 1959. 36p.
"The School Library: A Materials Center." (Reprint from the ALA Bulletin, February, 1956.) Chicago: American Association of School Librarians, A.L.A. 1956. 20p. O.P.
"The School Library and the Gifted Child." (Reprint from the ALA Bulletin, February, 1958.) Chicago: American Association of School Librarians, A.L.A. 1958. 24p.
School Library Supervision; Proceedings of the Second Library Institute. Elenora Alexander, Director. (Summarized in Junior Libraries, December, 1958.) Los Angeles: Immaculate Heart College, 1958. 112p. O.P. Stewart, L. Jane; Heller, Frieda M.; and Alberty, Elsie J. Improving Reading in the Junior High School; a Librarian and a Core Teacher Work Together. New York: Appleton, 1957. 67p.
U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Office of Education. "Statistics of Public-School Libraries, 1953-54," Biennial Survey of Education in the U.S. 1952-54, Chapter 6. Washington, D.C. Govt. Print. Off. 1957. 73p.
Films and filmstrips
Carpet under Every Classroom. (17 minutes, sound, black and white.) Great Neck, N.Y. Marion Hoch (30 Grace Ave.), 1957.
Planning a School Library. (23 minutes, sound, color.) New York: Remington Rand, 1957.
Use Your Library; for Better Grades and Fun Too! by E. Ben Evans. 2nd ed(81 frames, black and white.) Chicago: A.L.A. 1959.
Basic aids in the selection of materials
Ahlers, Eleanor E. Books and Related Materials for Children and Young People; Selected Bibliographies and Guides. ("Curriculum Bulletin," Vol XII, No. 167.) Eugene, Ore. Univ. of Oregon, School of Education, 1956. 12p.
Aids in Selection of Materials for Children and Young People: Books, Films, Records. Compiled by the joint Committee of the National Education Association and the American Library Association. Chicago: A.L.A. 1957. 8p. (New edition in process.)
American Library Association. A Basic Book Collection for High Schools. 6th ed. Compiled by a Subcommittee of the American Library Association Editorial Committee, Mariana Kennedy McAllister, Chairman. Chicago:
A.L.A. 1957. 196p.
The Booklist and Subscription Books Bulletin; A Guide to Cu"ent Books. 23 issues per year; twice monthly except monthly in August. Chicago: A.L.A.
Children's Catalog. 9th ed. Annual supplements. New York: Wilson, 1956. 852p.
Educational Film Guide. llth ed. New York: Wilson, 1953. 1037p. -1954-1958. New York: Wilson, 1958. 448p.
Filmstrip Guide. 3rd ed. New York: Wilson, 1954. 410p.
-1955-1958. Revised supplement. New York: Wilson, 1958. 242p.
Mahar, Mary Helen, and Fisher, Gerald B. "School Library Materials in Science, Mathematics, Modem Languages, and Guidance. and How To Use Them." (Reprint from School Life, January-February, 1959.) Washington, D.C. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education, 1959. 12p.
Mathes, Miriam Snow, ed. A Basic Book Collection for Elementary Grades. 7th ed. Chicago: A.L.A. 1959. 136p.
Purchase Guide for Programs in Science, Mathematics, Modern Foreign Languages. Prepared by the Council of Chief State School Officers with the assistance of Educational Facilities Laboratories, Inc. and others. Boston: Ginn, 1959. 336p.
Spengler, Margaret, ed. A Basic Book Collection for Junior High Schools. 3Rd ed. Chicago: A.L.A. 1959. 136p.
Standard Catalog for High School Libraries. 7th ed. Annual and cumulated. New York: Wilson, 1957. 948p.
Vertical File Index: A Subject and Title Index to Selected Pamphlet Material. Issued monthly except August, with annual cumulations. New York: Wilson.
Policies and specifications for library quarters and equipment 1
for schools having 200 or more students 2
Reading room area
1 The reading room accommodates at least 10 per cent of the enrollment in schools having 551 or more students, and 45-55 students in schools having 200-550 students. No more than 100 students, and preferably no more than 80, are seated in one reading room (seepage 93).3
2 The reading room has dimensions based on an allowance of 30-35 square feet per reader. This standard allows for the following requirements of functional library design:
a. Sufficient space for tables and chairs for the users of the library.
b. Sufficient space for heavy traffic areas (around the circulation desk and elsewhere) and for the comfort and convenience of the library users (5 feet of space between adjacent tables and 5 feet between tables and shelving).
c. Sufficient adjustable wall shelving of standard dimensions to house, along with the shelving noted in point 2d following, at
1. See also pp. 91-94.
2. The typical small school having 200-350 students will probably have to make many modifications in the recommendations noted for space and equipment in this Appendix.
3. For the sake of brevity, the material in this Appendix is presented primarily in terms of the typical school that has one main library area. Adaptations can easily be made for schools having two or more main library areas or suites.
119 least three fourths of the book collection in the reading room.4 (See also section on stack areas, page 122.)
d. Several sections of special shelving of various dimensions for reference books, picture books, and magazines.
e. Several recessed tack board or peg board areas in the shelving sections, located away from the corridor door.
f. Sufficient space for the circulation desk unit, the card catalog case, vertical files, mobile record players, and other freestanding or mobile equipment. (It is preferable that this equipment not occupy wall space.)
Listening and viewing area
1 Even though the library may not be the center for audio-visual materials in the school, space and equipment must be provided in the library for the listening and viewing activities of the students and the teachers, since they constitute a natural part of library use (see page 89). Conference rooms may be used for this purpose, and special equipment makes it possible for listening and viewing to be done in the reading room area, two-mobile pbono-carts, table record players with ear-phone adjustments, viewing cubicles, table projectors for filmstrips, and similar arrangements.
2 Where the library is the center for audio-visual materials for the school, the library quarters include sufficient space for the storage, distribution, and repair of audio-visual materials and equipment, and for the utilization and production of materials by individuals or by small groups of teachers or pupils. The exact amount and kind of space needed for these purposes depend on such factors as the type of school, the size of the enrollment, the inclusiveness of the instructional materials program, and the availability of a district center of audio-visual materials.
a. In schools with enrollments up to 500, one workroom-storage area may serve for both printed and audio-visual materials and equipment, allowing about 400 square feet. Additional space is desirable for listening and viewing, although the same arrangements as those noted in point 1 can be used in the smaller schools.
4. Modifications in the treatment of window walls, without sacrificing adequate natural light, are frequently necessary if the wan space is to be best used for functional purposes.
b. In schools with enrollments above 500, more space is needed. For example, the following recommendation for audio-visual centers in schools with enrollments of 600-1,200 students can be adapted for school library suites:
For audio-visual equipment. 300-400 square feet
For audio-visual materials. 300-400 square feet
For viewing and auditioning. 800-1,000 square feet
For administration of audio-visual materials. 150-200 square feet5
c. It is preferable to have an audio-room separate from the viewing room. Use of some audio-visual materials can also be made in reading room and conference room areas (see point I above).
d. Good library service in relation to audio-visual materials means an easy accessibility to these materials on the part of their users, and housing facilities should expedite their use just as much as they do for printed materials.
Conference room area
1 The number of conference rooms depends upon the requirements of the individual school. All libraries in schools having fewer than 1,000 students need at least one conference room, and libraries in larger schools need two or more conference rooms.
2 Requirements for conference room areas include the following:
a. Location adjacent to and connected with the main reading room.
b. A minimum of 120 square feet of space in each room.
c. Glass partitions in the walls between the reading room and conference rooms.
d. Acoustically treated walls and ceiling and other provisions for making the area sound-proof.
e. Equipment for each room consisting of a table, chairs, and shelving for books, and, if desired, listening and viewing machines, a small bulletin board, a chalk board, and shelving for recordings.
5. National Education Association, Department of Audio-Visual Instruction, The AV Instructional Materials Center ("Planning Schools for Use of Audio-Visual Materials," No. 3 [Washington, D.C. The Association, 1954]), p. 61.
121 Classroom area
The classroom is an essential part of the school library and provides space for some of the most important aspects of the instructional program of the library and of the school. This area is used by librarians and teachers in connection with teaching class groups the various types of library resources available for term projects and other assignments, and by small groups or committees of students working with selected collections of materials. Discussions of books and other materials, demonstrations, displays, and many other activities involving the use of library materials take place in this area. The library classroom adjoins the reading room and has an entrance from both the library and the corridor. In addition to tables and chairs, it is furnished with standard shelving, a chalk board, and audio-visual and other equipment.
1 The space for stack areas is determined by the number of books in the regular library collection that cannot be shelved in the main reading room area, the extent of the collection of back issues of periodicals (see page 79, point 4), and the extent of the collections of audio-visual materials and supplementary printed materials to be housed in this location.
2 Stack space (which is usually needed only for large collections and, frequently, stores only little-used materials or duplicate copies) is an extension of the library, and the materials contained therein should be quickly available for students and teachers. Whether the stacks are closed or open depends upon the policy favored by the school. Planning for stack space areas provides for the following:
a. A location adjoining but not part of the library reading room, with convenient entrance-way for staff and users of the materials.
b. Adequate lighting and ventilation.
c. If the stacks are open for student use: an area that can be easily supervised by the library staff and sufficient space between the stack sections so that traffic congestion can be avoided.
d. Allowance for the anticipated expansion of the collection to be housed in the area.
Work and office area
Library quarters must include efficient work space for the technical processing and repair of materials, for conducting business routines, and for storing supplies and equipment.
1 In schools with enrollments up to 500:
a. One workroom-storage area may be provided for printed materials, audio-visual materials, and equipment. It may also serve as an office area. (See page 120, point 2.)
b. When separate workroom-storage areas are provided for printed and for audio-visual materials, about 200 square feet will be needed for each room.
c. The workroom-storage area should always open into the main library room, and it is desirable for it to open also into the corridor. If the workroom must also serve as an office, glass vision panels between the workroom and the library will make supervision easier.
2 In larger schools where additional materials and staff necessitate more space for processing activities, storage purposes, and general administration, one room will not serve all purposes. Various combinations are possible, but as the enrollment increases, so does the need for several separate rooms. A separate office for the librarian is essential.
3 All workrooms include adequate work space, with a carefully planned counter (18 to 24 inches deep) with vinyl or formica top and work-type sink, with various sizes of storage drawers and cupboards, plus knee-hole spaces below the counter and open shelves above. A counter of two heights is desirable, especially where workroom and office are combined. The lower counter may also serve as a desk, if provided with a drawer for correspondence and a shelf for a typewriter. Standard facilities f or ventilation, heat, and lighting are essential for these areas.
Other areas in the library suite
Other areas contribute to the functionalism of the school library and to the convenience of its users. The following areas are highly desirable in all school libraries and are recommended for all schools having 500 or more students:
1 A room or separate space, appropriately furnished and equipped, for the collection of materials for teachers-profes-
123 sional books and magazines, printed resource units, curriculum guides, and other instructional resources.
2 A magazine room for current periodicals, for back issues of periodicals (covering at least the previous five years), and for microfilm equipment.
3 An informal reading area that may be created in the reading room by an arrangement of furniture, or may be an addition to the reading room, especially designed for this purpose.
Lighting, acoustics, ventilation, and decoration
1 The library areas have natural and artificial light, heat, air conditioning, and ventilation in sufficient degrees to meet the most recent standards of engineering societies or states.
2 The electrical service provides for:
a. Duplex outlets in the baseboard of the shelving on each wall of the reading room, and in the classroom and audio-visual areas; above the work counter in the workroom; in the office area; and in the conference rooms.
b. A telephone outlet in the office area and in other areas if needed.
c. An intercommunication outlet in the office area and elsewhere if needed.
3 Light switches, electrical outlets, thermostats, telephone, and fire extinguishers are located where they do not use space needed for shelving.
4 The floor covering is made of a noise-reducing material, such as rubber, vinyl, tile, cork, or linoleum. Floor covering material must meet acceptable light reflectivity standards. Plain or marbleized coverings are preferable unless patterns are selected which do not create a "busy" look or make the room look "crowded.."
5 The ceiling is acoustically treated to control sound.
6 Draperies and (or) blinds for the windows are selected in terms of lighting requirements and artistic decoration.
1 Shelving meets standards for dimensions (see 6 and 7 below), is adjustable, is made of hard wood, and does not have doors.
124 2 Shelving obtained from manufacturers of standard library equipment is preferable for most areas in the library suite (reading room, conference room, office, and classroom).
3 If shelving with backing is obtained, the books do not have to be removed during the redecoration of the library.
4 Shelving under low windows is desirable only for magazines placed on slanting shelves, for picture books, and for cupboards.
5 Units of double-faced, counter height, movable shelving are desirable as supplemental shelving, particularly for encyclopedias and other reference books.
6 Specifications for regular shelving:
Width of section on centers. 3 feet
Depth of shelves
Standard. 8-10 inches
Oversize. 10-12 inches
Thickness of shelves. 13/16 inch
Height of section
Cornice, where used. 2 inches
Total height of standard section:
Elementary school. 5-6 feet
Junior high school. 6 feet
Senior high school. 6-7 feet
Total height of counter section. 30-42 inches
Space (in the clear) between shelves. 10-10' 2' inches (Adjustable feature takes care of oversize books)
No trim on uprights or cornices.
7 Specifications for special shelving:
For current periodicals
Depth of slanting shelves. 16"
Depth of shelves, straight across. 12"
For back issues of periodicals
Depth of shelves. 12-15 inches
For picture books for elementary schools
Depth of shelves. 12 inches
Space (in the clear) between shelves. 14-16 inches
1/4 inch upright partitions approx. 7-8 inches apart in each section.
For phonograph records
Depth of shelves. 16 inches
125 Space (in the clear) between shelves for average size records. 14 inches
Space (in the clear) between shelves for oversize records and transcriptions18 inches
1/4 inch upright removable partitions approx. 2 1/2 inches apart in each section.
All other measurements to correspond to regular shelving.
8 Capacity estimates:
Number of books per three-foot shelf when full:
Books of average size. 30
Reference books. 18
Picture books (with dividers). 60
Total capacity depends on the size of the collections plus anticipated expansion.
Tables and chairs
1 Tables and chairs of proper height for the group to be served are attractively designed and sturdily constructed. Apronless tables are the most functional. Chairs with saddle seats and curved backs are the most comfortable. A minimum of 30 inches per reader is allowed in table lengths. The size of the tables will vary with the dimensions of the room, but 3 x 5 feet tables allow for more mobility and informality than larger ones. Round tables, individual tables, one-way tables, and informal furniture for the story-hour or the browsing area add to the appearance and atmosphere of the library.
2 Specifications for tables and chairs:
Height Width Length Diameter Height
Elementary school 25"-28" 3' 5-6' 4' 14'-17"
junior high school 27-30" 3, 5,-6' 4' 16'-18"
Senior high school 29"-30" 3' 5-6' 4' 18"
Audio-visual equipment 6
1 Special cabinets and storage equipment are needed for the different types of audio-visual materials.
6. See also point 4, p. 94; pp. 120-21; and point 7, pp. 125-26.
2 Minimum requirements7 for equipment include the following:
16 mm. sound projector. 1 per 300 students, At least I per building
Filmstrip and 2 x 2 projector. 1 per 200 students, At least I per building
Opaque projector. 1 per building
Record player (3 or 4 speed). 1 per kindergarten, 1 per 5 other classrooms, At least 2 per building, At least 1 equipped with earphones
Tape recorder. 1 per 300 students, At least 1 per building
Projection screen (square, at least 60" x 60"). 1 per 2 classrooms
Overhead projector (7" x 7" or larger). At least 1 per building
Radio (AM-FM) receiver. 1 per 5 classrooms, At least 2 per building where programs are available
Television all-channel receiver 1 per 5 classrooms, At least 2 per building where programs are available
Other equipment 8
1 The circulation or charging desk should be simple and functional in design, with space provided for filing trays for book cards and shelves for returned books. Rectangular, L-shaped, or U-shaped desks are recommended for large schools. The desk may be counter height or sitting height, the latter being necessary in an elementary school library.
7. These recommendations, now in process of revision, were made by the National Education Association through the Audio-Visual Commission on Public Information. For school buildings having more than one floor, it is desirable to substitute I per floor for 1 per building in the above list.
8. Types of equipment mentioned in pp. 120-24 are not repeated here.
127 2 The card catalog cabinet must be standard unit equipment purchased from firms specializing in library furniture. Sectional cases allow for later expansion. Estimates are based on one tray section per 1,000 cards.
3 Other essential pieces of equipment include book trucks, legal size filing cabinets, dictionary stands, atlas stands, large picture files, typewriters, office desks, and posture chairs. Other types of equipment that have been used successfully in some school libraries are mechanical copying machines, electrical time stamps, and microreaders. (See also point 4, page 94.)
4 A wall glass exhibit case placed in the corridor outside the library is a desirable means of advertising the library. Cases should be well lighted and equipped with glass shelves, bulletin board backing, and glass doors with lock.
5 Window seats, informal furniture, exhibits, pictures, plants, and art objects make the library a pleasant and inviting part of the school.
(Note: "n" following a number indicates footnote on page)
Accelerated Teaming program, 16
Administrators, see Principals; School administrators; State school officer, chief; Superintendent of schools
Adult education program, 88n
American Association of School Librarians, 10, 11, 59, 75
Architect, 92, 96
Association of College and Research Libraries, 59
Audio-visual materials: accessibility of, 12, 89; administration of, 10, 12; cataloging of, 90-91; circulation of, 17, 90; in district materials center, 110; expanded use of, 10; films and filmstrips, 11, 17, 80; funds for, 25, 84; for home use, 17, 90; as instructional materials, 1112; location of, 92; movies, 11; in new school library, 97, 99; organization of, 10, 90; pictures, 81; and quantitative standards, 24-25; radio, 17; recordings, 11, 17, 81, 91; slides, 81; in the small school, 103; space for, 120-21; and staff, 5455; and state supervision, 40; and teacher preparation, 68; television, 17, 94, 112
Board of education, see School board
Book collections: circulation of, 90; described, 77; in district materials center, 109-10; duplicate copies in, 77-78; funds fox, 25, 83; in new school libraries, 97, 99; organization of, 90; professional, 85-86; quantitative standards on, 24-25; selection of, 74-76; size of, 76-78; in the small school, 103; and specialized curriculum, 78
Budgets, see Expenditures
Cataloging, 90-91, 96, 112n
Central service agencies, 104-5. See also District materials center
Centralized technical processing, 91, 96, 112n
Certification, 31, 40, 59-60
Chief state school officer, see State school officer, chief
Circulation policies, 90
Citizens, 5, 6, 7
Classroom collections, 5-6, 24-25, 89-90
Clerks: in new school library, 97; number of, 25, 55; in the small school, 102; status of, 57
Co-curricular activities, 49, 58
College catalogs, 82
College libraries, 68-69
Community: and libraries, 4-5, 7, 9, 15; resources of, 82
Conference rooms, 93, 121. See also Quarters
Counselors, 21, 22, 48, 65. See also Guidance program of the school library
Curriculum: development of, 48; and library funds, 84; and materials selection, 75; and the new school library, 100; specialized, 78, 84
Curriculum coordinator: activities of, 63-64; and district materials center, 108; and school library supervisor, 64
Curriculum materials center, see District materials center
Demonstration school library: described, 70; functions of, 69; importance of, 70; quarters of, 92n; staff of, 55-56
Department of Audio-Visual Instruction, NEA, 59
Dictionaries, 83, 100, 103 Dioramas, 81
Disc recordings, 81. See also Audiovisual materials
District materials center: described, 106-7; funds for, 108-9; materials collection of, 109; organization and administration of, 107-9; program of, 110-12; quarters for, 109; staff of, 108-9. See also Materials centers
Duplication of material, 77, 79, 90
Education, changes in, 3, 10
Elementary schools, 5-6, 8, 19, 53n, 55
Encyclopedias, 83, 100, 103
Equipment, 25, 84, 94, 124-28
Expenditures: allocation of funds, 35; for audio-visual materials, 84; for district materials center, 108-9; for equipment, 84; and federal support, 5; general principles for, 8283; for the new school library, 100; for printed materials, 83-84; for professional materials, 86; and quantitative standards, 25; and state aid, 33; for state supervision, 39; for supplementary materials, 85; for supplies, 84
Federal support, 5
Films and filmstrips, 11, 17, 80, 103. See also Audio-visual materials
Funds, see Expenditures
Guidance program of the school library, 9, 14-21, 48, 52; and listening and viewing, 17; personal and social guidance, 20; and reference and research, 18; and student assistants, 58; and use of the library, 18-19; vocational guidance, 20, 82. See also Reading guidance
Home use of materials, 90
Independent schools, 6, 8, 29
Indexes to periodicals and newspapers, 79
Instruction, library, 18-19, 48, 51-52, 67
Instructional materials: concept of, 60; defined, 11; function of, 12; specialists in, 61-62
Instructional materials centers, 6, 11-13, 63. See also District materials center
Instructional resource center, see District materials center
Intermediate unit, 105, 107
Junior high schools, 6
Kindergarten, 14, 15
Legislation, 5, 33
Librarian, see School librarians
Library, see School libraries
Library in teacher education institution, 68-69
Library instruction, 18-19, 48, 51-52, 67
Listening and viewing: area, 120-21; guidance in, 17
"Little school," 93
Magazines: duplication of, 79; in the new school library ' y, 99; number of, 78-79; professional, 78, 86; and quantitative standards, 25; in the small school, 103; and specialized curriculum, 79; use of, 78-79 Maps, 82
Materials: accessibility of, 4, 76, 87-90; acquisition of, 5; in the district materials center, 109-10; and federal support, 5; in the new school, 99-100; organization of collections, 90-91; professional, 24-25, 73, 78, 85-86, 100, 109; selection of, 51, 74-76; in the small school, 103; supplementary, 24-25, 73, 84-85; technical processing of, 52, 91, 96, 112n. See also Audio-visual materials; Book collections; Classroom collections; Instructional materials; Magazines; Newspapers; Pamphlets; Reference collection Materials centers, 6, 11-13, 63, 11213. See also District materials center
Motion pictures, 11. See also Audiovisual materials
Multiple library areas, 93. See also Quarters
Museum materials, 81
Newspapers, 25, 79, 99
Objectives of school libraries: general, 8-10, 14-15; in the new school, 95; in the small school, 101; with regard to students, 22; with regard to teachers and counselors, 22-23
Pamphlets, 25, 79, 99, 103
Parents, 4-5, 9, 85
Parochial schools, 6, 8, 29
Periodicals, 78-79. See also Magazines; Newspapers
Personnel, see Clerks; School librarians; Staff
Practice teachers, 69-70 Principals, 18, 36, 76 Private schools, 6, 8
Professional materials for librarians, 25, 78
Professional materials for teachers: accessibility of, 86; collection of, 85-86; in the district materials center, 109; in the new school, 100; quantitative standards on, 24-25
Public libraries, 9, 83n; demand on, 88; and library instruction, 19; and processing of materials, 112n; and school librarians, 49-50; and teachers, 67
Public relations, 45
Public schools, 6, 8
Quarters, 24, 53n; and accessibility, 92; for a central service agency, 104; described, 91; design of, 9294; for district materials center, 109; and multiple library areas, 93; for the new school, 95-96; planning of, 91-92; in the small school, 103-4; and space requirements, 92-94; specifications for, 119-24; and state supervisor, 40
Radio, 17. See also Audio-visual materials
Reading: and interests, 15-16; and recreation, 16
Reading guidance, 9, 11, 15-17
Reading rooms, 93, 119-20. See also Quarters
Recordings, 11, 17, 81, 91, 103. See also Audio-visual materials
Reference collection, 18, 25, 83, 103
Regional materials centers, 112-13. See also District materials center; Materials centers
Research, 5, 18
Rural schools, 8
Salaries, of school librarians, 56-57
Scheduling, of hours, 87-88
Scholarships, and federal support, 5
School administrators, 4, 5, 6, 29, 67-68. See also Principals; State school officer, chief; Superintendent of schools
School board, 4, 5, 6, 29; responsibilities on local level, 33-34; responsibilities on state level, 30
School librarians, 6; activities of, 4751, 66; and audio-visual materials, 10; certification of, 31; defined, 13; head, 24-25, 49, 73, 76; hours of, 56-57; itinerant, 42n; and library instruction, 18-19; and the new school, 96-99; professional education of, 59-62, 69-70; qualifications of, 11-12, 58-59; quantitative standards on, 25; salaries of, 56-57; and selection of materials, 51, 76; in the small school, 102; status of, 56; and the teacher, 51; vacation schedules for, 56-57 School libraries: average and good (definition), 7; definition of, 13; guidance program of, 14-21; hours of, 87-88; as instructional materials centers, 11-12; objectives of, 8-9; resources of,
School Libraries for Today and Tomorrow, 8
School Library Bill of Rights, 32, 75 School library supervisors: on the city or multi-district level, 42-45; and district materials center, 108; qualifications of, 45-46; on the state level, 31, 39-42
Schools: changes in, 3, 10; colleges and universities, 68-69; demonstration, 55-56, 69, 70, 92n; elementary, 5-6, 6, 8, 19, 53n, 55; independent, 6, 8; junior high, 6; and library resources and services in 1953-54, 5-6; parochial, 6, 8; public, 8; rural, 8; secondary, 6, 8, 55; size of, 4, 6, 51-56; twelve grade and K-12, 6, 55, 76n, 92n Secondary schools, 6, 8, 55 materials
Slides, 81. See also Audio-visual materials
"Small" schools, defined, 101
Space requirements, see Quarters
Staff: for a central service agency, 104; for a new school, 96-99; size of, 51-56; in the small school, 102; of supervisory offices, 38, 43. See also Clerks; School librarians; Student assistants
Standards: qualitative, 6, 47n; quantitative, 6, 7, 23-26; regional, 31;
State aid, 33
State educational agency, 6
State school officer, chief, 30-33
Student assistants, 20-21, 58
Students, 9; focus on, 42; and materials selection, 75; motivation of, 65, 67; and objectives of library, 22
Summer programs, 88, 92
Superintendent of schools: and new libraries, 96; responsibilities of, 34-35
Supervision: in cities, 42; in counties, 42; meaning of, 37; in multi-districtschool systems, 42; state, 30-33, 37-42
Supplementary materials, 24-25, 73, 84-85,99-100
Supplies, funds for, 25, 84, 100
Tape recordings, 81. See also Audio-visual materials
Teachers, 6, 9; certification of, 31; classroom, 65-67; and district materials center, 110-11; education of, 67-68; and the library, 48, 51, 65-67; and library instruction, 18, 19; and library objectives, 22; and material selection, 74-75; and the small school library, 102; special, 65-67, 96, 112n
Technical processing, 52, 52n, 90-91, 96, 112n
Television, 17, 94, 109, 112. See also Audio-visual materials
Textbooks, 48-49, 85, 110
United States Office of Education, statistics on school libraries, 5
University libraries, 68-69
Vacation schedules, 56-57, 88n
This page was last revised Aug. 7, 1998
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