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The Sociolinguistics Of Language - Isbn:9780631138259

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  • Book Title: The Sociolinguistics of Language
  • ISBN 13: 9780631138259
  • ISBN 10: 0631138250
  • Author: Ralph W. Fasold
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Category (general): Other
  • Publisher: Blackwell Pub
  • Format & Number of pages: 342 pages, book
  • Synopsis: A companion to the author's Sociolinguistics of Society, this textbook, examines the influence of social interaction in language use and discusses a variety of facts about language from the commonplace to the exotic.

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Crook, Brittani; Pastorek, Angie – Communication Teacher, 2015

Managing one's online identity, with a focus on constructing a "professional" identity, is of paramount importance for college students (Back et al. 2010; Cheney & Ashcraft, 2007; Metzger, Flanagin, & Medders, 2010). This is because employers often search for potential candidates online before they choose to interview them…

Descriptors: Personnel Selection, Social Networks, Computer Mediated Communication, Employment Interviews

Rogers, K. Larry – ProQuest LLC, 2012

The American Sign Language construction commonly known as "role-shift" (referred to afterward as Constructed Action) superficially resembles mimic forms, however unlike mime, Constructed Action is a type of depicting construction in ASL discourse (Roy 1989). The signer may use eye gaze, head shift, facial expression, stylistic variation,…

Descriptors: American Sign Language, Nonverbal Communication, Linguistics, Communication Strategies

Metzger, Margaret – Harvard Educational Review, 2007

In this Voices Inside Schools essay, a veteran teacher shares her reflections on a classroom unit entitled "How Language Reveals Character." The goal of the unit is to help adolescents read and write critically through an exploration of literary characters' language. Beginning by drawing on adolescents' fascination with one another, Metzger first…

Descriptors: Critical Reading, Learning Activities, Class Activities, Literary Criticism

Sert, Olcay; Walsh, Steve – Language and Education, 2013

This paper primarily investigates the interactional unfolding and management of "claims of insufficient knowledge" (Beach and Metzger 1997) in two English language classrooms from a multi-modal, conversation-analytic perspective. The analyses draw on a close, micro-analytic account of sequential organisation of talk as well as on various…

Descriptors: Discourse Analysis, Classroom Communication, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning

Sherman-Morris, Kathleen; Rodgers, John C. III; McNeal, Karen S.; Brown, Michael E.; Dyer, Jamie L. – Science Educator, 2012

Because of the historically low numbers of minorities in geoscience careers and college majors, an area of growing attention is how teacher professional development may be utilized to increase diversity in the geosciences (Pecore et al. 2007; Sedlock & Metzger, 2007). This paper examines teacher preferences for the timing, location and content of…

Descriptors: Teaching Methods, Field Experience Programs, African American Teachers, Professional Development

Urban, Michael J. Ed.; Falvo, David A. Ed. – IGI Global, 2016

The application of technology in classroom settings has equipped educators with innovative tools and techniques for effective teaching practice. Integrating digital technologies at the elementary and secondary levels helps to enrich the students' learning experience and maximize competency in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and…

Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, STEM Education, Outcomes of Education, Technology Integration

Newman, Michelle G.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Borkovec, Thomas D.; Fisher, Aaron J.; Boswell, James F.; Szkodny, Lauren E.; Nordberg, Samuel S. – Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2011

Objective: Recent models suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms may be maintained by emotional processing avoidance and interpersonal problems. Method: This is the first randomized controlled trial to test directly whether cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) could be augmented with the addition of a module targeting interpersonal…

Descriptors: Statistical Analysis, Rating Scales, Effect Size, Cognitive Restructuring

Higgins, Christina – Language Policy, 2010

In the healthcare arena, language policy-related research has thus far been limited to questions about "language access," i.e. whether individuals are supplied with health information in their languages, and whether interpreters for doctor-patient consultations are provided (Martinez 2008; Ngo-Metzger et al. 2003; Partida 2007; Vahabi 2007). This…

Descriptors: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Prevention, Public Health, International Organizations

Passig, David; Schwartz, Gali – International Journal on E-Learning, 2007

Students in higher education, most frequently, use the frontal approach while being asked to collaborate on a writing assignment. However, the difficulty in collaborative writing using conventional technologies such as pen and paper, board or computer is the limited ability to view the work of your peers during the process (Baeker, Glass,…

Descriptors: Writing Skills, Writing Evaluation, Writing Assignments, Graduate Students

Houston, Paul D.; Blankstein, Alan M.; Cole, Robert W. – Corwin, 2008

This fourth volume of "The Soul of Educational Leadership" series offers key strategies for identifying the moral and ethical dimensions of school leadership practice. With thought-provoking contributions from top leadership figures like Terrence E. Deal, Dawna Markova, and Scott Thompson, this enlightening resource combines research with…

Descriptors: Moral Values, Religious Factors, Community, Inquiry

Lucas, Ceil, Ed. – 2001

This collection of papers examines how sign languages are distributed around the world; what occurs when they come in contact with spoken and written languages, and how signers use them in a variety of situations. Each chapter introduces the key issues in a particular area of inquiry and provides a comprehensive review of the literature. The seven…

Descriptors: Bilingualism, Deafness, Discourse Analysis, Language Attitudes

Duckenfield, Marty, Ed.; Swick, Kevin J. Ed. – 2002

This book presents papers by teacher educators who describe how they foster the integration of service learning into their teacher education programs, with the eventual goal of institutionalization. The papers are: "Introduction" (Marty Duckenfield and Kevin J. Swick); "An Experiment in Implementation" (Bill Yost); "Pathways to Partnership:…

Descriptors: Action Research, College School Cooperation, Elementary Secondary Education, Higher Education

Kelly, William E. – College Student Journal, 2004

It is commonly assumed that worry and anxiety are synonymous. However, there is growing evidence that anxiety and worry are separate, yet related, constructs (i.e. Davey, Hampton, Farrell, & Davidson, 1992; Davey, 1993; Gana, Martin, & Canouet, 2001 ). Worry, is generally defined as a stream of negative thoughts (Kelly & Miller, 1999). Anxiety,…

Descriptors: Fatigue (Biology), Anxiety, College Students, Psychological Patterns

Smith, Betty, Ed. – 2002

This document presents a collection of papers published in the "Teaching Teachers" column in the elementary-level journal, "Science and Children." Contents include: (1) "Science is Part of the Big Picture: Teachers Become Science Learners" (Anita Greenwood); (2) "Reaching the Reluctant Science Teacher: Learning How To Teach Inquiry-Based Science"…

Descriptors: Educational Technology, Elementary Education, Evaluation Methods, Higher Education

Sanders, Nicholas M.; Tzeng, Ovid J. L. – Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1973

Study failed to yield evidence that performance in a systematic-concept task can be significantly facilitated, in comparison with rote-task performance, if more time is allowed for the operation of what Metzger has called systematic concept formation. (Authors)

Descriptors: Cognitive Processes, Concept Formation, Data Analysis, Individual Differences




Current Trends in Historical Sociolinguistics

Current Trends in Historical Sociolinguistics Overview

historical sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, language change

Aims and Scope

Historical sociolinguistics has now established itself as a separate independent field of linguistic inquiry, and the impact of its theoretical and empirical advances are reflected in a thriving body of publications of various types. This volume adds to this flourishing array by presenting nine original studies by highly accomplished scholars holding a prominent reputation in the field. The overarching objective of the volume is to call attention to contemporary trends and innovative developments in the discipline and, more generally, to highlight current research on the relationship between sociolinguistics and historical linguistics, social motivations of language variation and change, and corpus-based studies. The overall interdisciplinary nature of the contributions, the variety of languages they examine and the range of themes they address are distinguishing features of the book, which also make it appealing to a wider readership. The general themes covered by the volume include how to define the historical and social dimensions in historical sociolinguistics research, historical second-language use and multilingualism, the role and relevance played by linguistic ideologies and attitudes in language choices, usage, policy (standardization and preservation), and language death. More specific topics addressed are the linguistic strategies employed to convey and defend religious ideology or to heighten the overall persuasiveness of the information provided. Controversial and/or under-researched issues are tackled, such as authorship and gender in the study of private documents, the regularization and standardization of English orthography, and the issue of speakers’ awareness of the dissociation between spoken and written language. In addition, several contributions are methodologically linked by employing data from epistolary correspondence.


280 pages DE GRUYTER OPEN Language: English Type of Publication: Monograph Keyword(s): historical sociolinguistics, history of English, discourse analysis, language ideologies, dialect death, standardisation, diaglossia, orthography

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Free PDF Download Books The Sociolinguistics of Language by Ralph W

Download EBOOK The Sociolinguistics of Language PDF for free Description of the book "The Sociolinguistics of Language":

A companion to the author's Sociolinguistics of Society, this textbook, examines the influence of social interaction in language use and discusses a variety of facts about language from the commonplace to the exotic. Questions not normally asked about everyday phenomena are raised and little known facts about language use in social contexts are explored. For example, how does one decide when it is appropriate to address someone by their first name? Why do West Indians in service occupations sometimes seem rude to their customers? Why do men in Western Societies use more local dialect forms and lower status PDF speech forms than do women? Can it be that the often despised languages called pidgin offer important clues to the inborn human capacity for language? There are just a few of the fascinating questions explored in this lively and informative textbook.

Ralph W. Fasold

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Wiki: Prestige (sociolinguistics)

In sociolinguistics. prestige is the level of respect normally accorded to a specific language or dialect within a particular speech community. relative to other languages or dialects. Sociolinguistic prestige is therefore one manifestation of, or analogous to, the more general phenomenon of social stratification – especially social class. In general, a language or dialect associated with an upper class has positive prestige, while a language or dialect associated with a lower class has "negative prestige". Historical examples of prestige languages include the used by royal family elites. At the opposite extreme, members of have often communicated in particular forms of cant.

Prestige languages/dialects are often tied closely to a standard language language/dialect, in that the latter is usually considered more prestigious within a speech community, than a language/dialect that diverges significantly from linguistic norms. However, there are many exceptions to this rule, such as Arabic language. in which Egyptian Arabic is widely used in mass media aimed at international audiences, while Literary Arabic (also known as Standard Arabic) is a more prestigious form. Jenkins, Siona. Egyptian Arabic Phrasebook. Lonely Planet. 2001. p. 205 Haeri, Niloofar (2003). Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. Palgrave Macmillan, passim.

Sociolinguistic prestige is especially visible in situations where two or more distinct languages are in use, and in Multiculturalism. socially stratified . in which there are likely to be speakers of different languages and/or dialects interacting frequently.

The prevailing view among contemporary linguists is that regardless of perceptions that a particular dialect or language is "good/better" or "bad/worse" than its counterparts, when dialects and languages are assessed "on purely linguistics grounds, all languages — and all dialects — have equal merit".

Different languages and dialects are accorded prestige based upon factors which include "rich literary heritage, high degree of language modernization, considerable international standing, or the prestige of its speakers". Having many of these attributes will likely mean the language is viewed as being of high prestige; likewise, a language or dialect with few or none of these attributes will be considered to be of low prestige. The phenomenon is not limited to English-speaking populations. In Western Europe. multiple languages were considered to be of high prestige at some time or another, including " Italian language as the Mediterranean lingua franca and as the language of the Renaissance ; and the 17th-18th century French language of the noble court ".

There is a strong correlation between the prestige of a group of people and the prestige accorded to the language they speak, as "language is intertwined with culture". Linguist Laurie Bauer's description of Latin 's prestige exemplifies this phenomenon:

Walt Wolfram, a professor of linguistics at North Carolina State University, notes that he "can't think of any situations in the United States where low-prestige groups have high-prestige language systems".

Prestige influences whether a language variety is considered a language or a dialect. In discussing definitions of language, Dell Hymes wrote that "sometimes two communities are said to have the same, or different, languages on the grounds of mutual intelligibility, or lack thereof", but alone, this definition is often insufficient.

Different language varieties in an area exist along a dialect continuum. and moving geography often means a change in the local variety.

This continuum means that despite the fact that standard German and standard Dutch are not mutually intelligible, the speech of people living near the border between Germany and the Netherlands will more closely resemble that of their neighbors across the border than the of their respective home countries. Even so, speakers near the border would describe themselves as speaking a variety of their respective standard languages, and the evolution of these dialects tends to mirror that of the standard languages as well.

That they are classified as such reflects the fact that "language differences are not only marks of differential group membership, but also powerful triggers of group attitudes". Such fuzziness has resulted in the aphorism "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy." That is, speakers of some language variety with political and social power are viewed as having a distinct language, while "'dialect' is. a term that suggests lower-class or rural speech".

A example of this is the Scandinavian languages, including Danish language. Swedish language. and Norwegian language. where language differences "constitute barriers to but do not wholly block communication", but are considered distinct languages because they are spoken in different country.

While some differences between are in nature, there are also social causes for differences in dialects. Very often, the "public prestige dialect of the elite in a stratified community differs from the dialect(s) of the non-elite strata (working class and other)". In fact, in an article which in part tried to motivate the study of sociolinguistics. Raven McDavid wrote that "the importance of language as a mirror of culture can be demonstrated by dialect differences in American English". Thus the relation between the way speakers use a language and their social status is a long recognized tool in sociolinguistics.

In 1958, one of the earliest studies of the relationship between social differences and dialect differences was published by John Gumperz. who studied the speech patterns in Khalapur. a small, highly stratified village in India. In all, the village has 31 . ranging from and at the top, to and at the bottom, and 90% of the overall population was Hindu. with the remaining 10% Muslim.

Gumperz observed that the different castes were distinguished both phonology and word. with each caste having a vocabulary specific to their subculture. Remarkably, the speech differences between Hindus and Muslims "are of the same order as those between individual touchable castes and certainly much less important than the variation between touchables and untouchables".

Gumperz also observed that the lower prestige groups sought to imitate the higher prestige speech patterns and that over time, it had caused the evolution of the prestige away from the regional standard language. as higher prestige groups sought to differentiate themselves from lower prestige groups.

John Gumperz concluded that in determining speech patterns in this community. "the determining factor seems to be informal friendship contacts" rather than work contacts.

One notable example of the relationship between dialect and social stratification in English is William Labov 's 1966 study of the variable pronunciation of r in New York City. Labov went to three New York City that catered to three clearly delineated socioeconomic groups—Saks (high), Macy's (middle), and S. Klein (low)—and studied how their employees pronounced the phrase "fourth floor". His results demonstrated that the employees at Saks pronounced r most often, Macy's employees pronounced r less often, and at S. Klein, seventy-nine percent of the respondents said no r at all. Another trend Labov noticed was that at all three of the stores, but Macy's in particular, when prompted to say "fourth floor" a second time, employees were much more likely to pronounce the r.

Labov attributed his findings to the perceived prestige of each dialect. He noted that New York City's "dropped 'r' has its origins in posh British speech", but after World War II, "with the loss of Britain's imperial status 'r'-less British speech ceased to be regarded as 'prestige speech'". In 1966, when Labov performed his study, pronouncing words like car and guard with r was then considered an element of prestige speech. This resulted in middle-class employees, once made conscious of having to pronounce "fourth floor", altering their pronunciation in order to match that of the high prestige dialect. The prestige given to r was also evident in the hypercorrection observed in lower-class speech. Knowing that r -pronunciation was a prestigious trait, many of the lower-class speakers in another Labov study—in which speakers were asked to read from word lists—added -r to words that did not have an r at all. The difference between this study and the "fourth floor" study was the fact that speakers were closely monitoring their speech, not speaking spontaneously, and were thus careful to add r in an attempt to mimic a higher social class.

Non-standard dialects are usually considered low-prestige, but in some situations dialects "stigmatized by the education system still enjoy a covert prestige among working-class men for the very reason that they are considered incorrect". These situations occur when the speaker wants to gain recognition, acceptance, or Social solidarity with a specific—and non-prestigious—group of people, or to signal to other speakers their identification with that group. The idea of covert prestige was first introduced by William Labov. who noticed that even speakers who used non-standard dialects often believed that their own dialect was "bad" or "inferior". Labov realized that there must be some underlying reason for their use of the dialect, which he identified as a signal of group identity. One example is a 1998 study on the use of word-final -ing versus -in among college fraternity men in the United States. The fraternity men used "-in" rather than "-ing," from which the author concluded that the men used -in to demonstrate what they saw as working-class behavioral traits, such as 'hard-working' and 'casual,' thus creating a specific identity for themselves.

Likewise, in studies of the speech patterns in British English. Peter Trudgill observed that more working class women spoke the standard dialect than men. Farida Abu-Haidar performed a similar study in Baghdad of prestige in the Arabic language. after which she concluded that in Baghdadi Arabic, women are more conscious of prestige than are men. Other areas in which this has been observed include New Zealand and Guangdong in China. As explanation, Trudgill suggests that for men, there is covert prestige associated with speaking the working class dialect. In fact, he observed men claiming to speak a less prestigious dialect than that which they actually spoke. According to this interpretation then, "women's use of prestige features simply conforms to the ordinary sociolinguistic order, while men deviate from what is expected." Elizabeth Gordon, in her study of New Zealand, suggested instead that women used higher prestige forms because of the association of sexual immorality with lower-class woman. Whatever the cause, women across many cultures seem more likely than men to modify their speech towards the prestige dialect.

Though women use prestige dialects more frequently than do men, the same gender preference for prestige languages does not seem to exist. A study of diglossia societies by John Angle and Sharlene Hesse-Biber showed that the men were more likely to speak the prestige language than were women. One explanation put forth for this is that men are more likely to have the means of acquiring a second language than are women.

The notion of a "standard" language in a speech community is related to the prestige of the languages spoken in the community. In general, "greater prestige tends to be attached to the notion of the standard, since it can function in higher domains, and has a written form." While there are some counterexamples, such as Arabic language. "prestigious and standard varieties coincide to the extent that the two terms can be used interchangeably." This has a consequence that in countries like the United States. where speak many different languages and come from a variety of nationality and . there is a " folk linguistics " belief that most prestigious dialect is the single standard dialect of English language that all people should speak. Linguist Rosina Lippi-Green believes that this belief in a standard language justifies and rationalizes the preservation of the social order. since it equates "nonstandard" or "substandard" language with "nonstandard or substandard human beings." Linguists believe that no language, or variety of language, is inherently better than any other language, for every language serves its purpose of allowing its users to communicate.

One example of the interplay between standard languages and prestige is Singapore. Racial harmony is a stated policy of the Singaporean government, and a racial harmony day is even celebrated. One element of policy designed to promote racial harmony is the usage of four official language. Standard Mandarin Chinese, Malay language. Tamil language. and English language. is also officially promoted in accordance with the belief that the ethnic language is the "carrier of culture" while English is the "language of commerce", a choice motivated by the fact that English had historically been the language of the colonial administration, while being the native language of few at the time of the policy's implementation. With English as the lingua franca. no one ethnicity is favored, but the cultures are preserved. The idea behind this policy is that treating all languages as standard and thus equally prestigious will result in the speakers of each language being treated equally.

While the Singaporean government promotes "Standard English" as a lingua franca. it heavily discourages the usage of Singlish. a Chinese- and Malay-influenced, English-based creole language, widely spoken by Singaporeans, but virtually unintelligible to foreign speakers of English. Singapore's current prime minister, Lee Hsien Loong, and both its former prime ministers, Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, have each campaigned against the usage of Singlish, Deterding, David (2007) Singapore English. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 90-91. declaring it an obstacle to communication with the rest of the English-speaking world, and a substandard, "broken English", Singapore to launch Speak-good-English campaign – Agence France Presse in Singapore, 30 August 1999. Retrieved 18 November 2010 that ought not be part of Singapore's identity. Annually, the government launches a Speak Good English campaign, "to encourage Singaporeans to speak grammatically correct English that is universally understood", Speak Good English Movement – What We Do Retrieved 18 November 2010 while urging citizens to purge Singlish from their speech. In line with government policy, schools emphasize standard English, and try to minimize the usage of Singlish in the classroom, holding that Singlish hinders the learning of "proper" English. Foley, Joseph (2001) "Is English a first or second language in Singapore?", in Vincent B. Y. Ooi (ed.), Evolving Identities: The English Language in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic Press, pp. 12-32. Deterding, David (1998) 'Approaches to Diglossia in the Classroom: The Middle Way. REACT, 2, 18-23.' (on-line version) The Media Development Authority, a statutory board of the government, urges Singaporean mass media to use as little Singlish as possible, declaring it appropriate only for "interviews, where the interviewee speaks only Singlish". http://www.mda.gov.sg/wms.file/mobj/mobj.612.fta_tv_prog_code.pdf Despite these policies, however, the usage of Singlish outside formal, institutional contexts remains widespread.

Similar to its policies regarding the English language, the Singaporean government also promotes a single, standardized form of Chinese, discouraging the usage of dialects. While the Chinese community of Singapore historically spoke several different, mostly mutually unintelligible varieties of Chinese, 'A Critical Evaluation of Singapore's Language Policy and its Implications for English Teaching by Manfred Wu Man-Fat, Hong Kong.' Retrieved on 4 November 2010 Bokhorst-Heng, W.D. (1998). Unpacking the Nation. In Allison D. et al (Ed.), Text in Education and Society (pp. 202–204). Singapore: Singapore University Press. such as Cantonese. Teochew Chinese. and Hokkien. the government has promoted Standard Mandarin. both as a means of unifying Chinese Singaporeans under a common language, and to facilitate communication with Chinese people from outside Singapore. Since 1979, the Speak Mandarin Campaign has promoted use of Mandarin Chinese. spurred of then- Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's promotion of Mandarin as more suited communication than non-Mandarin dialects are, as it is spoken by a larger number of people worldwide.

When different languages or language varieties come in contact with one another, a variety of relationships can form between the two, all typically influenced by prestige. When the two contact languages have equal power or prestige, they form adstratum, as exemplified by Old English and Old Norse. which shared elements with each other more or less equally.

Far more common is for the two languages to have an unequal power relationship, as is the case of many colonial language contact situations. Languages that have a higher status in relation to a certain group often manifest themselves in loanword. One example is in English, which features a large number of words borrowed from French language. as a result of the historical prestige of French. Another potential result of such contact relationships includes the creation of a pidgin or eventually creole language through nativization. In the case of pidgins and creoles, it is usually noted that the low prestige language provides the phonology while the high prestige language provides the lexicon and grammar.

In addition to forming of a new language, known as a creole, language contact can result in changes to the languages in contact, such as language convergence, language shift or language death. Language convergence is when two languages have been exposed for a long period of time and they begin to have more properties in common. Language shift is when a speaker shifts from speaking a lower prestige dialect to a higher prestige dialect. Language death is when speakers of a language die off, and there are no new generations learning to speak this language. The intensity of the contact between the two languages and their relative prestige levels influence the degree to which a language experiences loanword and changes to the morphology, phonology. syntax. and overall structure of the language.

When two languages with an asymmetrical power relationship come into contact, such as through colony or in a refugee situation, the creole language that results is typically largely based on the prestige language; as noted above, linguists have observed that the low-prestige language usually provides the phonology while the high-prestige language provides the lexicon and grammar. Over time, continued contact between the creole and the prestige language may result in decreolization. in which the creole begins to more closely resemble the prestige language. Decreolization thus creates a creole continuum, ranging from an acrolect (a version of the creole that is very similar to the prestige language), to (decreasingly similar versions), to the basilect (the most “conservative" creole). An example of decreolization described by Hock and Joseph is African American Vernacular English (AAVE), in which older, more conservative versions preserve features such as the perfective aspect done while newer, less conservative versions do not.

Some instances of contact between languages with different prestige levels have resulted in diglossia. a phenomenon in which a community uses a high prestige language or dialect in certain situations, usually for . in literature. on campus. for religious ceremonies, and on television and the radio. but uses a low prestige language or dialect for other situations, often in conversation in the home or in letters, . and in popular culture. Linguist Charles A. Ferguson's 1959 article "Diglossia" listed the following examples of diglossic societies: in Switzerland, Swiss Standard German and Swiss German ; in the Middle East and North Africa, Standard Arabic and ; in Haiti, Standard French and Haitian Creole ; in Greece, Katharevousa and Dhimotiki ; and in Norway, Bokmål and Nynorsk.

In diglossic societies, the prestigious language tends to be very conservative and resist change over time while the low-prestige language, the local vernacular, undergoes normal language change. For instance, Latin, the high prestige language of Europe for many centuries, underwent minimal change while the everyday low prestige languages which were spoken evolved significantly. If, however, the two languages are spoken freely, the prestige language may undergo and begin to incorporate vernacular features. An example is Sanskrit. an ancient prestige language that has incorporated the vernacular pronunciations of and for word-initial y- and v-.

The prestige language may also change under the influence of specific regional dialects in a process known as regionalisation. For example, in medieval times, Ecclesiastical Latin developed different forms in various countries where it was used, including Italy. France. Spain. Portugal and other catholic countries, notably in pronunciation – see Latin regional pronunciation. Some of these differences were minor, such as c before i and e being pronounced in Italy but in France, but after English underwent the Great Vowel Shift between 1200 and 1600, the vowel system in England became nearly unrecognisable to its European ecclesiastic counterparts.



Sociolinguistics and Language History

Sociolinguistics and Language History Table of contents

PART I: FRAMEWORK. Terttu NEVALAINEN: Introduction. Helena RAUMOLIN-BRUNBERG: Historical sociolinguistics. Terttu NEVALAINEN & Helena RAUMOLIN-BRUNBERG: The Corpus of Early English Correspondence. PART II: TESTING THE MODELS: SOCIAL VARIABLES. Terttu Nevalainen: Social stratification. Terttu NEVALAINEN: Gender difference. Helena RAUMOLIN-BRUNBERG: Apparent time. Kirsi HEIKKONEN: Regional variation in standardization: A case study of Henry V's Signet Office. PART III: INDIVIDUAL CHANGES IN SOCIAL FOCUS. Minna PALANDER-COLLIN: The rise and fall of METHINKS. Arja NURMI: Periphrastic DO and BE + ING: Interconnected developments? Helena RAUMOLIN-BRUNBERG: Forms of address in early English correspondence. Appendix. References. Index.

María José López-Couso, University of Santiago de Compostela. Belén Méndez-Naya, University of Santiago de Compostela. Paloma Núñez-Pertejo, University of Santiago de Compostela and Ignacio M. Palacios-Martínez, University of Santiago de Compostela

Corpus linguistics on the move: Exploring and understanding English through corpora comprises fourteen contributions covering key issues in English corpus linguistics, including corpus compilation and annotation, original perspectives from specialized corpora, and insightful discussions of.



Materials for the Sociolinguistic Description and Corpus-Based Study o by Robert Vann


This book reflects on the Spanish of Catalonia and furnishes documentary resources for studying colloquial Spanish spoken in naturally occurring social groups in Barcelona. Part I addresses many complex issues necessary to appropriately contextualize Spanish language usage in Barcelona and linguistic analysis of such usage, with discussions of language contact, ethnolinguistic identities, language ideologies, ways of speaking, corpus-based research, fieldwork methodology, and speaker profiles. Part II presents the first known publication of orthographically transcribed spoken language corpus data from colloquial Spanish conversations in naturally occurring social groups in Catalonia. The volume thus contributes to scholarship in Spanish sociolinguistics and dialectology, documentary linguistics, anthropological linguistics, and the sociology of language. This work will appeal to academics worldwide in these and related fields (e.g. contact linguistics, discourse analysis, Hispanic studies, and Catalan studies), to Spanish teachers, and to the community studied.

Call number in WMU's library

PC3897.B3 V36 2009 (Waldo Library, WMU Authors Collection, First Floor)

ISBN Publication Date Publisher

Edwin Mellen Press

City Keywords

Spanish language, Catalan language, Spain, Barcelona


Modern Languages | Spanish Linguistics

Citation for published book

Vann, Robert E. (2009). Materials for the sociolinguistic description and corpus-based study of Spanish in Barcelona: Toward a documentation of colloquial Spanish in naturally occurring groups. Lewiston, NY: Mellen.

Recommended Citation

Vann, Robert, "Materials for the Sociolinguistic Description and Corpus-Based Study of Spanish in Barcelona: Toward a Documentation of Colloquial Spanish in Naturally Occurring Groups" (2009). All Books and Monographs by WMU Authors. Book 131.




Sociolinguistics research in India

Sociolinguistics research in India

Sociolinguistics research in India

Sociolinguistic research in India is the study of how the India n society affects and is impacted by the languages of the country .

India is a highly multilingual nation, where many languages are spoken and also studied, both as part of linguistics and with the aim of aiding community development. Though theoretical and comparative linguistics have a long history in the country (dating back to perhaps the first millennium BCE), few researchers have concentrated on the sociolinguistic situation of India.

India is a particularly challenging and rewarding country in which to conduct sociolinguistic research due to the large number of languages spoken in the country (415 are listed in the SIL Ethnologue ).

History of sociolinguistic research

Variation between Indian languages has been noted for millennia: by Yaska in his "Nirutka" (500 BCE); Patanjali (200 BCE); Bharata in his "Natyasastra" (500 CE); and Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak in his " Ain-e-Akbari " (C16th CE). cite book
last = McConnell
first = Grant D.
title = A Macro-Sociolinguistic Analysis of Language Vitality: Geolinguistic Profiles and Scenarios of Language Contact in India
publisher = Les Presses de l'Université Laval
date = 1991
location = Sainte-Foy
pages = 13
isbn = 9782763772844

The classification of languages, particularly with regard to regional differences and to so-called 'hybrid' languages, continued to progress during the 19th century. From 1881, language information was explicitly sought in the census, which found a total of 162 languages in the country (116 Indian languages and 46 foreign languages). Questions about language continued to be included in the 10-yearly census in the following years, and in 1896 George Abraham Grierson began his "Language Survey of India", in which he tried to classify Indian languages based on the distribution of morpho-phonemic differences.

Jules Bloch published a study on caste dialects in 1910, however this was not followed up for some decades. cite book
last = Shapiro
first = Michel C.
coauthors = Harold F.
title = Language and Society in South Asia
publisher = Motilal Banarsidass
date = 1981
location = Delhi

Early Indian research into sociolinguistics can be said to have begun in the early 1960s. Charles A. Ferguson published "Diglossia" (1959) on variation as a developmental and functional phenomenon of language, while John J. Gumperz published on the linguistic aspects of caste differentiation in 1960. Both topics were quickly picked up by Indian linguists. In the mid-1960s, William Labov added an interest in variation within the speech of a caste. Citation
last = Annamalai
first = E.
editor-last = Paulston
editor-first = Christina Bratt
editor2-last = Tucker
editor2-first = G. Richard
contribution = Development of Sociolinguistics in India
title = The Early Days of Sociolinguistics: Memories and Reflections
year = 1997
pages = 35-41
publisher = Summer Institute of Linguistics
isbn = 1-55671-022-4

A seminar on "Language and Society in India" was held in 1967, and in 1969 the Central Institute of Indian Languages was founded, which had a particular success into drawing young linguists into applied studies. In 1972 the University of Delhi introduced the first sociolinguistics course.

Almost a hundred years after Grierson's survey, the International Centre for Research on Bilingualism completed its sociolinguistic "Survey of India" (1983-86), covering 50 major and minor languages in the country. Originally it had been intended to cover all the written languages except Sanskrit and English, but not enough data were collected for the other 47 languages reviewed.

Fields of research

Following Bloch's 1910 work on caste dialects, further studies were carried out in the 1960s by (among others) William McCormack. in an attempt to discover the origin and method of transmission of caste dialects, and by A. K. Ramanujan. comparing the kinds of language innovation between Brahmin and non-Brahmin dialects of Tamil. Researchers have studied both the degree of association between caste distinctions and linguistic differences, and the methods and reasons for maintaining these differences.

Diglossia and Code switching

Ferguson (1959) first used the term " diglossia ", whereby languages exhibit two or more distinct styles of speech in different contexts, and a number of studies looked into the phenomenon in more depth. Much of this research was focused on Tamil, but diglossia in Sinhalese and in Telugu was also studied.

Shanmugam Pillai attempted to analyse code switching among Kanyakumari fishermen (1968) with regard to the hierarchy of the caste structure. Other research into code switching has studied it in the context of minority-majority interactions, urban and tribal transactions, and other special settings.

With help from the Central Institute of Indian Languages, language planning became a subject in Indian linguistic courses. Institutes in Language Planning were held in 1977, 1980 and 1987, and the "New Language Planning Newsletter" began in 1985.

Other social variables have also been studied, such as urbanness and education; informal friendship contacts; and occupation and residence.

Besides those already mentioned, the following researchers have been instrumental in the development of Indian sociolinguistics:
* William Bright who, along with A. K. Ramanujan, wrote early work on phonetic and phonemic innovation in Brahman and non-Brahman dialects. Bright also wrote on semantic structural differences among speakers.
* Murray Barnson Emeneau. who had written the classic paper " India as a Linguistic Area ", also wrote on ritual language and ritual culture.
* Prabodh Bechardas Pandit focused on sociolinguistic aspects of convergence and language shift.

Contribution of sociolinguistics to Indian society

Sociolinguistic research has contributed to language in education, administration, and codification efforts of language standardisation.

* Dravidian studies
* Languages of India
* Caste

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